6. The diagram below shows two different kinds of substances, A and B, entering a cell.

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1 Name 1. The cell theory states that A) all cells have nuclei that contain genetic information B) living organisms are composed of cells that arise from preexisting cells C) all cells regenerate and contain the same basic structures D) organisms that lack certain organelles reproduce by binary fission 2. Which cell structure is correctly paired with its primary function? A) ribosome protein synthesis B) mitochondrion movement C) vacuole cell division D) nucleus storage of nutrients 3. Muscle cells in athletes often have more mitochondria than muscle cells in nonathletes. Based on this observation, it can be inferred that the muscle cells in athletes A) have a smaller demand for cell proteins than the muscle cells of nonathletes B) reproduce less frequently than the muscle cells of nonathletes C) have nuclei containing more DNA than nuclei in the muscle cells of nonathletes D) have a greater demand for energy than the muscle cells of nonathletes 4. One difference between plant and animal cells is that animal cells do not have A) a nucleus B) chloroplasts C) a cell membrane D) centrioles 5. What cellular structure must oxygen cross to get from the outside to the inside of an animal cell? A) The nucleus B) The cytoplasm C) The cell membrane D) The cell wall

2 6. The diagram below shows two different kinds of substances, A and B, entering a cell. ATP is most likely being used for A) substance A to enter the cell B) substance B to enter the cell C) both substances to enter the cell D) neither substance to enter the cell 7. Base your answer to the following question on The diagram below represents a plant cell in tap water as seen with a compound light microscope. Which diagram best represents the appearance of the cell after it has been placed in a 15% salt solution for two minutes? A) B) C) D) 8. Plant cells can synthesize energy-rich organic molecules, and later break them down to extract that energy for performing life processes. These activities require direct interaction between the A) chloroplasts and vacuoles B) cell walls and ribosomes C) chloroplasts and mitochondria D) ribosomes and mitochondria 9. Leaves of green plants contain openings known as stomates, which are opened and closed by specialized cells allowing for gas exchange between the leaf and the outside environment. Which phrase best represents the net flow of gases involved in photosynthesis into and out of the leaf through these openings on a sunny day? A) carbon dioxide moves in; oxygen moves out B) carbon dioxide and oxygen move in; ozone moves out C) oxygen moves in; nitrogen moves out D) water and ozone move in; carbon dioxide moves out 10. What does the process of photosynthesis produce? A) starch, which is metabolized into less complex molecules by dehydration synthesis B) protein, which is metabolized into less complex molecules by dehydration synthesis C) glycerol, which is metabolized into more complex carbohydrates by dehydration synthesis D) glucose, which is metabolized into more complex carbohydrates by dehydration synthesis

3 11. Base your answer to the following question on The diagram below represents events associated with a biochemical process that occurs in some organisms. 13. The diagram below represents changes in the sizes of openings present in leaves as a result of the actions of cells X and Y. Which statement concerning this process is correct? A) The process represented is respiration and the primary source of energy for the process is the Sun. B) The process represented is photosynthesis and the primary source of energy for the process is the Sun. C) This process converts energy in organic compounds into solar energy which is released into the atmosphere. D) This process uses solar energy to convert oxygen into carbon dioxide. 12. By which process are CO2 and H2O converted to carbohydrates? A) transpiration B) respiration C) fermentation D) photosynthesis The actions of cells X and Y help the plant to A) maintain homeostasis by controlling water loss B) store excess heat during the day and remove the heat at night C) absorb light energy necessary for cellular respiration D) detect changes in the biotic factors present in the environmen 14. Which organelle is the site of cellular respiration? A) endoplasmic reticulum B) mitochondria C) ribosomes D) chloroplast function 15. Which structures in the diagram below enable the observer to identify it as a plant cell? A) A and B B) B and C C) A and C D) B and D

4 16. Base your answer to the following question on The diagram below represents a series of reactions that can occur in an organism. This diagram best illustrates the relationship between A) enzymes and synthesis B) amino acids and glucose C) antigens and immunity D) ribosomes and sugars

5 17. Base your answer to the following question on the information and graph below and on your knowledge of biology. The ph of the internal environment of lysosomes (organelles that contain digestive enzymes) is approximately 4.5, while the ph of the surrounding cytoplasm is approximately 7. The average ph of the human stomach during digestion is approximately 2.5, while the average ph of the small intestine during digestion is about 8. The graph below shows how ph affects the enzyme activity of four different enzymes, A, B, C, and D. Which enzyme functions best in a ph environment most similar to that of human stomach enzymes? A) A B) B C) C D) D 18. The enzyme amylase will affect the breakdown of carbohydrates, but it will not affect the breakdown of proteins. The ability of an enzyme molecule to interact with specific molecules is most directly determined by the A) shapes of the molecules involved B) number of molecules involved C) sequence of bases present in ATP D) amount of glucose present in the cell 19. The energy used to obtain, transfer, and transport materials within an organism comes directly from A) ATP B) DNA C) sunlight D) starch 20. A student prepared a test tube containing yeast, glucose, and water. After 24 hours, the test tube was analyzed for the presence of several substances. What substance would the student expect to find if respiration occurred in the test tube? A) a hormone B) starch C) nitrogen D) carbon dioxide

6 21. Which part of a molecule provides energy for life processes? A) carbon atoms B) oxygen atoms C) chemical bonds D) inorganic nitrogen 22. Which process is directly responsible for the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate molecules? A) digestion B) excretion C) respiration D) circulation 23. What are possible products of certain types of anaerobic respiration? A) water and oxygen B) pyruvic acid and glycerol C) nitrogen gas and ammonia D) alcohol and carbon dioxide 24. Which term best defines a bacteria that can survive without oxygen? A) aerobic B) anaerobic C) heterotrophic D) saprophytic 25. Which process allows a mammal to continue to grow in size? A) mitosis of sex cells B) mitosis of body cells C) meiosis of sex cells D) meiosis of body cells 26. Base your answer to the following question on The diagram below can be used to illustrate a process directly involved in 27. Base your answer to the following question on A photomicrograph of cells involved in various stages of nuclear division is shown below. Which title is most appropriate for this photomicrograph? A) Mitosis in an Onion Root Tip B) Cell Division in Human Blood Cells C) Meiosis in Male Gametes D) Gametogenesis in Yeast Cells 28. Base your answer to the following question on The diagrams below represent a cell process. A) tissue repair B) meiosis C) recombination D) sexual reproduction If the cell in diagram 1 contains 4 chromosomes, what is the total number of chromosomes in each cell in diagram 3? A) 8 B) 2 C) 16 D) Melanoma is a type of cancer in which abnormal skin cells divide uncontrollably. Some chemotherapy drugs, which stop the growth of the cancer, directly interfere with the process of A) meiosis B) coordination C) mitosis D) recombination

7 30. DNA electrophoresis is used to study evolutionary relationships of species. The diagram below shows the results of DNA electrophoresis for four different animal species. Which species has the most DNA in common with species A? A) X and Y, only B) Y, only C) Z, only D) X, Y, and Z

8 31. Base your answer to the following question on the chart below and on your knowledge of biology. Which evolutionary tree best represents the information in the chart? A) B) C) D)

9 32. Base your answer to the following question on the information and diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. Finches on the Galapagos Islands are thought to have originated from South America and to have evolved into new species over the last 10,000 years. Some of this evolution is represented in the diagram below. The seed-eating finch was most likely the A) largest finch B) common ancestor C) parent of the other finches D) most successful

10 33. Base your answer to the following question on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. Farmers on a few of the Galapagos Islands have orchards of oranges, apples, grapes, and pears. Which species of finch would consume these foods? A) woodpecker finch B) small ground finch C) sharp-beaked ground finch D) vegetarian tree finch 34. Which factor most likely contributed to the evolution of Galapagos Islands finches with different beak shapes? A) similar climates on the different islands B) competition between the finches for food C) cloning experiments carried out by native people on the islands D) increased rate of asexual reproduction

11 35. Base your answer to the following question on the diagram below and on your knowledge of biology. Which two finches would compete the least for food? A) small ground finch and large ground finch B) large ground finch and sharp-billed ground finch C) small tree finch and medium ground finch D) vegetarian finch and small ground finch 36. In order for a species to evolve, it must be able to A) consume a large quantity of food B) reproduce successfully C) maintain a constant body temperature D) be domesticated 37. The diversity of organisms present on Earth is the result of A) ecosystem stability B) homeostasis C) natural selection D) direct harvesting 38. Which statement is most closely related to the modern theory of evolution? A) Characteristics that are acquired during life are passed to offspring by sexual reproduction. B) Evolution is the result of mutations and recombination, only. C) Organisms best adapted to a changed environment are more likely to reproduce and pass their genes to offspring. D) Asexual reproduction increases the survival of species.

12 39. Which statement represents the major concept of the biological theory of evolution? A) A new species moves into a habitat when another species becomes extinct. B) Every period of time in Earth's history has its own group of organisms. C) Present-day organisms on Earth developed from earlier, distinctly different organisms. D) Every location on Earth's surface has its own unique group of organisms. 40. The term "evolution" is best described as A) a process of change in a population through time B) a process by which organisms become extinct C) the reproductive isolation of members of certain species D) the replacement of one community by another 41. In a group of mushrooms exposed to a poisonous chemical, only a few of the mushrooms survived. The best explanation for the resistance of the surviving mushrooms is that the resistance A) was transmitted to the mushrooms from the poisonous chemical B) resulted from the presence of mutations in the mushrooms C) was transferred through the food web to the mushrooms D) developed in response to the poisonous chemical 42. The fossil record of ancient life forms provides scientific evidence of A) direct harvesting B) selective breeding C) gene manipulation D) evolutionary changes 43. Base your answer to the following question on The diagram below illustrates possible evolutionary pathways of some species. Which statement is a valid inference based on the information in the diagram? A) Species A is the common ancestor of all life on Earth. B) Species D is more closely related to species E than to species F. C) Species B is the ancestor of species F. D) Species C is the ancestor of species that exist at the present time. 44. The evolutionary pathways of seven living species are shown in the diagram below. Which two species are likely to have the most similar DNA base sequences? A) B and G B) E and G C) B and C D) C and D

13 45. Base your answer to the following question on the diagram below. 48. The photograph below shows two penguins of the same species displaying different feather color patterns. What do the similarities of the bones labeled A provide evidence for? A) the organisms may have evolved from a common ancestor B) all species have one kind of bone structure C) the cells of the bones contain the same type of mutations D) all structural characteristics are the same in animals 46. Which observation could best be used to indicate an evolutionary relationship between two species? A) They have similar base sequences. B) They have similar fur color. C) They inhabit the same geographic regions. D) They occupy the same niche. 47. Base your answer to the following question on What is the complementary messenger-rna sequence for the DNA sequence shown below? The newly discovered all-black penguin had only black feathers since emerging from the egg. The sudden appearance of this characteristic was most likely due to A) a change in environmental conditions B) deposition of oil on the feathers due to pollution C) a random change in the sequences of bases in DNA D) a change in the diet of the penguin chick 49. In the past, humans developed varieties of dogs, such as the German shepherd and the bearded collie, using A) selective breeding for particular traits B) recombination of genes during mitosis C) mutations present only in body cells D) natural selection of favorable traits A) C-A-A-G-G-U B) G-T-T-C-C-A C) G-U-U-C-C-A D) C-A-A-G-G-T

14 50. The diagram below represents a technique used in some molecular biology laboratories. 51. What prevents scientists from cloning humans despite the fact that other mammals such as sheep have been cloned? A) the technology to clone humans has not been explored B) human reproduction is very different from that of other mammals C) there are many ethical problems involved in cloning humans D) cloning humans would take too long What is this technique an example of? A) chromatography B) gel electrophoresis C) direct harvesting D) genetic engineering

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