Biology 20 Cellular Respiration Review NG Know the process of Cellular Respiration (use this picture if it helps):

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1 Biology 20 Cellular Respiration Review NG Know the process of Cellular Respiration (use this picture if it helps): 1) How many ATP molecules are produced for each glucose molecule used in fermentation? How many ATP molecules are produced for each glucose molecule used in aerobic respiration? -In fermentation from one glucose molecule two ATP molecules are produced. In aerobic respiration, a much more productive process, from one glucose molecule 36 ATP molecules are made. 2) When do cells do anaerobic cellular respiration instead of aerobic?

2 Under intense use muscles demand too much energy (ATP) and consume much more oxygen to produce that energy. High consumption leads to oxygen scarcity and the muscle cells begin to make lactic acid through anaerobic respiration trying to satisfy their energetic needs. In this situation muscle pain, cramps and fatigue are due to the lactic acid released by fermentation. 3. Overview: What are the main stages of cellular respiration? Where does each occur in the cell? What are the main products/ role of each stage? 1. Glycolysis, Cytoplasm, Pyruvate -2 ATP -2 NADH 2. Citric Acid Cycle/ Krebs Cycle, Mitochondria, Co 2 - NADH FADH 2 2ATP 3. Electron Transport Chain, Mitochondria, H 2 O 32 ATP 4. Glycolysis, which is the first series of reactions in cellular respiration, occurs in the A. nucleus B. cytoplasm C. chloroplasts D. mitochondria 5. Which of the following pathways is common to both aerobic and anaerobic cellular respiration? A. the electron transport system B. the Krebs cycle C. fermentation D. glycolysis 6. Glycolysis is: A. aerobic B. anaerobic

3 7. True of False before pyruvate enters the Krebs cycle, it must undergo an intermediate reaction 8. The compound that enters the mitochondria and undergoes preparation to enter the Krebs cycle is A. acetyl coa B. pyruvate C. NADH D. ATP 9. In the Krebs cycle, the oxidation of energy-rich compounds produces the reducing power of A. NADH and FADH 2 B. NAD + and FADH 2 C. FADH 2 and ATP D. ATP and NADH 10. During cellular respiration, most ATP production is driven by energy released from A. glycolysis B. Krebs cycle C. fermentation D. electron transport 11. Fermentation - a form of anaerobic cellular respiration - two types: 1. lactate fermentation (lactic acid) 2. alcohol (ethanol) fermentation lactate fermentation alcohol (ethanol) (lactic acid) fermentation occurs where in the cell? cytoplasm cytoplasm summary of reactions: Glucose- ATP + Pyruvate (is converted into Lactic Acid) Glucose- ATP + Pyruvate (is converted into Ethanol and CO 2 ) major products: Lactic Acid, ATP Ethanol, ATP, CO 2 aerobic or anaerobic? ANAEROBIC ANAEROBIC

4 occurs in which organisms? Plants and Animals Bacteria, Yeast 12. Pyruvate is converted into different end products, depending upon whether fermentation occurs in yeast or in animal cells. The row that correctly identifies the end product of each process is Row Yeast Cells Animal Cells A. ethanol lactate B. lactate ethanol C. ethanol acetyl coa D. lactate acetyl coa Numerical Response 1. Assuming that a net of 36 ATP are produced in cellular respiration, the number of ATP produced in glycolysis is, in Krebs cycle is and in the ETC is. Answer: (Place your 4-digit answer in the numerical response section of your answer sheet.) 13. Understand the following: Metabolic Toxins - examples include: hydrogen sulfide, cyanide, arsenic - these are blockers of various metabolic pathways of cellular respiration - know one example of a metabolic toxin, the metabolic pathway it blocks, how dangerous it is, and how the toxin works (i.e., its effect on metabolism)

5 14) Know the process of Photosynthesis (use this picture if it helps): Light dependent: H 2 0(supplies electrons) + Light +NADP+ADP -> NADPH +ATP Light independent/ Dark reactions 1) CO 2 +RuBP->Carbon Structure 2) Carbon Structure +ATP+NADPH->Glucose 15. Write the overall equation for photosynthesis using words. Carbon dioxide +Water +LIGHT -> Oxygen + GLUCOSE 16. Write the overall equation for photosynthesis using chemical formulas. CO2 +H20 +LIGHT -> O2 + C6H12O6 17. What does photosynthesis require in addition to water and carbon dioxide? Light energy

6 18. Plants gather the sun s energy with light-absorbing molecules called Photosystems. 19. What is the principal pigment of plants? chlorophyll 20. Circle the letter of the region(s) of the visible spectrum in which chlorophyll absorbs light very well. a. blue region b. green region c. red region d. yellow region 21. Chloroplasts contain saclike photosynthetic membranes called Thylakoid. 22. The region outside the thylakoid membranes in the chloroplasts is called the stroma. 23. What are the two stages of photosynthesis called? a. Light dependent reactions b. Calvin Cycle (light independent reactions) 24. Circle the letter of the carrier molecule involved in photosynthesis. a. H 2 O c. CO 2 b. NADP + d. O How does NADP + become NADPH? By accepting electrons from the photosystems. 26. Review the following pictures:

7 27. Circle the letter of each sentence that is true about the light-dependent reactions. a. They convert ADP into ATP. b. They produce oxygen gas.

8 c. They convert oxygen into carbon dioxide. d. They convert NADP + into NADPH. 28. Where do the light-dependent reactions take place? Thylakoids in the Chloroplast 29. What are the products of the light-dependent reactions? NADPH +ATP 30. The light energy from the sun is converted to what type of energy and stored where? Chemical in the bonds of ATP, NADPH Light-Independent Reactions/ Calvin Cycle 31. Where does the Calvin cycle take place? Stroma in the chloroplast 32. Before the Calvin cycle begins, where is the energy stored? NADPH +ATP 33. What happens to CO 2 in the Calvin cycle? Fixed into glucose 34. What are the inputs to the Calvin cycle? Where do they come from? NADPH +ATP, the light dependent reactions. 35. Why are the reactions of the Calvin cycle also called the light-independent reactions? Can occur without light 36. Circle the letter of each statement that is true about the Calvin cycle. Correct the false statements.

9 a. The main products of the Calvin cycle are six carbon dioxide molecules. b. Carbon dioxide molecules enter the Calvin cycle from the atmosphere. c. Energy from ATP and high-energy electrons from NADPH are used to convert 3- carbon molecules into similar 3-carbon molecules. d. The Calvin cycle uses six molecules of carbon dioxide to produce a single 6- carbon sugar molecule. 37. What are the products of the Calvin cycle? sucrose

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