All the organ systems have to work together in order to maintain.

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1 Unit 11 Test Review Chapter 28 a. List and describe the systems of the body and their functions (Respiratory, circulatory, digestive, immune, reproductive, excretory, nervous, integumentary, muscular, skeletal, lymphatic) System Major Tissues and Organs Primary Function Circulatory Digestive Endocrine Excretory Immune Integumentary Muscular Nervous Reproductive Respiratory Skeletal b. Describe how the various systems interact as a cohesive unit All the organ systems have to work together in order to maintain. c. Describe the levels of biological organization (cells, tissues, organs, organ system, organism) How is an organism made up? (Use the levels or organization and explain their relationship to each other.) d. Explain the role of feedback mechanisms in maintaining homeostasis. What is feedback? Describe the parts of a feedback loop (sensor, control center, communication system, target). What is negative feedback? What is positive feedback? Does negative or positive feedback maintain homeostasis?

2 What happens if homeostasis is not maintained (short-term and long-term disruption)? e. Compare and provide examples of positive and negative feedback What is an example of positive feedback? What is an example of negative feedback? How are negative and positive feedback similar and how are they different? Chapter 30 f. Describe the role of capillaries for absorption and exchange between cells and their surroundings What gasses are exchanged between the alveoli and capillaries? What process allows gasses to be exchanged between alveoli and capillaries? What is hemoglobin and why is it important? What is the function of the capillaries in the rest of the body? g. Describe the flow of blood through the two pathways (pulmonary and systemic) Describe how a heart functions. (How it pumps, where it pumps to) Compare and contrast the pulmonary and systemic pathways. (What organ do they have in common? Where do they go?) h. Describe the three types of blood vessels (arteries, veins, capillary) Artery- Vein- Capillary- Which have valves? Which go away from the heart, usually bringing oxygen? Which are the most plentiful?

3 i. Describe the composition of blood (plasma, platelets, red blood cells, white blood cells) Plasma- Platelets- Red blood cells- White blood cells- What is the function of bone marrow? Chapter 32 j. Describe the six types of nutrients needed to maintain homeostasis (water, carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals) Water- Carbohydrates- Proteins- Fats- Vitamins- Minerals- k. Identify the role of teeth, tongue, esophagus, stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, small intestine, villi, microvilli, large intestine, rectum and anus) Teeth- Tongue- Stomach- Liver- Gallbladder- Pancreas- Small intestine- Villi-

4 Microvilli- Large intestine- Rectum/anus- l. Give examples of how enzymes aid in digestion What does amylase do? What organ produces enzymes to digest fat? m. Explain how food/nutrients go from their original form to one that can enter the blood stream Describe the process of digestion. Where are nutrients absorbed? (3 areas of intestine) n. Describe how the muscular system aids in digestion (peristalsis) What is peristalsis? Which type of muscle is responsible for peristalsis? o. Examine and describe the three muscle types (smooth, skeletal, cardiac) and tell whether they are voluntary or not Smooth- Skeletal- Cardiac- p. Describe how the excretory system uses filtration, reabsorption, and excretion to remove waste and maintain homeostasis What are the main organs involved in waste removal through urine? How else is waste removed from the body by the excretory system? Where does filtration occur? Why are materials reabsorbed? What is excretion?

5 q. Identify and label a nephron (glomerulus, Bowman s capsule, loop of Henle) Label glomerulus, Bowman s capsule, loop of Henle, and the collecting duct. What is the job of the -glomerulus -Bowman s capsule -loop of Henle -collecting duct Chapter 29 r. Identify the roles of brain, nerves, and neurons What is the roll of the brain? What is the roll of nerves? What is neuron and how does it communicate? s. Draw and label the structure of a neuron (cell body, axon, dendrites, myelin sheath, axon terminals) Label this neuron and describe how it passes information. t. Describe the differences between central and peripheral nervous systems (reflex arc- p. 851) What is the central nervous system? What is the peripheral nervous system? Describe the rolls of the sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons as related to the reflex arc.

6 u. Identify the role of hypothalamus, pituitary, pancreas, thyroid, parathyroid Hypothalamus- Pituitary Gland- Pancreas- Thyroid- Parathyroid- Chapter 31 and 30.6 v. Identify the roles of blood, lymph, antibodies, T-cells, B-cells in the immune system What is the job of a T cell? What is the job of a B cell? What are phagocytes? What are lymphocytes? What is an antibody and what does it do? How is blood involved in the immune system? What is the role of lymph? What is tissue rejection? w. Describe nonspecific immunity (inflammation, fever) What is nonspecific immunity? x. Describe specific immunity (antigens, memory cells) What is specific immunity? What is an antigen? What are memory cells and how are they created? y. Identify the structures of thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, lymph vessels in the lymphatic system What is lymph? What is the function of the lymph nodes? What is the basic function of the spleen? What is the basic function of the thymus?

7 Chapter 34 z. Compare and contrast gametogenesis in females and males Describe gametogenesis in females (how many eggs are produced?) Describe gametogenesis in males (how many sperm are produced?) aa. Give examples of how hormones play a role in female and male reproductive systems What hormones are involved in the menstrual cycle? What hormone is more abundant in males?

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