Functions of Blood. Collects O 2 from lungs, nutrients from digestive tract, and waste products from tissues Helps maintain homeostasis

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1 Blood

2 Objectives Describe the functions of blood Describe blood plasma Explain the functions of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets Summarize the process of blood clotting

3 What is Blood? Blood is a type of connective tissue containing dissolved substances and specialized cells Human body contains 4-6 liters of blood (about 8% total body mass)

4 Functions of Blood Collects O 2 from lungs, nutrients from digestive tract, and waste products from tissues Helps maintain homeostasis Ex: body temperature Helps fight infections Forms clots to repair damaged blood vessels

5 Plasma straw-colored fluid that makes up 55% of blood other 45% is cells Plasma is 90% water Other 10% is Dissolved gases Salts Nutrients Enzymes Hormones Waste products Proteins called plasma proteins Blood Plasma

6 Three Groups: Albumins Blood Plasma Proteins Transport fatty acids, hormones, vitamins Regulate osmotic pressure and blood volume Globulins Transport fatty acids, hormones, vitamins Some fight viral and bacterial infections Fibrinogen Responsible for the ability of blood to clot

7 Blood Cells Three Types of Blood Cells: Red Blood Cells White Blood Cells Platelets

8 Red Blood Cells Most numerous cells in the blood Mature red blood cells have no nuclei Also called erythrocytes Red blood cells transport oxygen Get their color from hemoglobin Hemoglobin is an iron-containing protein that binds to oxygen in the lungs and transports it to tissues throughout the body where the oxygen is released Red blood cells last about 120 days Old red blood cells are destroyed by the liver and spleen

9 White Blood Cells Also called leukocytes Do not contain hemoglobin Have nuclei White blood cells guard against infection, fight parasites, and attack bacteria Phagocytes are a type of WBC that engulfs and digests bacteria and other microorganisms Lymphocytes are a type of WBC that produce antibodies to fight viral infection and produce immunity to many diseases Antibody is a protein that destroys pathogens (disease-causing agents)

10 Platelets and Blood Clotting Blood clotting is made possible by plasma proteins and cell fragments called platelets Platelets are cell fragments released by bone marrow that help in blood clotting A platelet is fragment of cytoplasm enclosed in a piece of cell membrane

11 Platelets and Blood Clotting When platelets come into contact with the edges of a broken blood vessel, their surfaces become sticky They then release proteins called clotting factors The platelets are then converted into fibrin filaments, which produce a blood clot

12 Human blood type is classified by the antigens on the surface of red blood cells Type A Type B Type AB Type O Type A blood cells also have Type B antibodies If a Type A person receives Type B blood, the body will reject it Blood Types

13 Notes Review What are the functions of blood? Collects O2 from lungs, nutrients from digestive tract, and waste products from tissues Helps maintain homeostasis Helps fight infections Forms clots to repair damaged blood vessels

14 Notes Review Describe blood plasma. Plasma is straw-colored fluid that makes up 55% of blood Plasma is 90% water and 10% dissolved substances

15 Notes Review Explain the functions of each type of blood cell. Red blood cell: transports oxygen White blood cell: guards against infection, fights parasites, and attacks bacteria Platelets: help in blood clotting

16 Notes Review Summarize the process of blood clotting. When platelets come into contact with the edges of a broken blood vessel, their surfaces become sticky They then release proteins called clotting factors The platelets are then converted into fibrin filaments, which produce a blood clot

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