The Excretory and Digestive Systems

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1 The Excretory and Digestive Systems 38.2 The Process of Digestion Organs of the Digestive System The digestive system includes the: Mouth Pharynx Esophagus Stomach Small and large intestine. Other structures add secretions to the digestive system, and aid in digestion. Salivary glands Pancreas Liver Digestive Sys Functions The function of the digestive system is to help convert foods into simpler molecules that can be absorbed and used by the cells of the body. 1

2 Digestion Chewing begins mechanical digestion, which is the physical breakdown of large pieces of food into smaller pieces. Saliva helps ease the passage of food through the digestive system and also begins the process of chemical digestion. Saliva contains amylase, an enzyme that breaks the chemical bonds in starches and releases sugars. The Esophagus From the throat, the chewed food passes through the esophagus, or food tube, into the stomach. Food is moved along by contractions of smooth muscle, known as peristalsis, through the esophagus into the stomach. The Stomach Food from the esophagus empties into the stomach. Mechanical Digestion The stomach contracts to churn fluids and food, gradually producing a mixture known as chyme. Chemical Digestion Mucus lubricates and protects the stomach wall. Hydrochloric acid makes the stomach contents very acidic. Pepsin digests protein. 2

3 Digestive Enzymes of the Body The duodenum is the first of three parts of the small intestine, and is where most digestive enzymes enter the intestine. Most chemical digestion and absorption of food occurs in the small intestine. Accessory Structures of Digestion The Pancreas produces enzymes break down carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. sodium bicarbonate neutralizes stomach acid so that these enzymes can work The Liver, which produces bile which dissolves and disperses droplets of fat in fatty foods to promote digestion Absorption in the Small Intestine The small intestine is adapted for the absorption of nutrients. The folded surfaces of the small intestine are covered with fingerlike projections called villi and microvilli 3

4 Absorption in the Small Intestine Most products of carbohydrate and protein digestion are absorbed into the capillaries in the villi. Molecules of undigested fat are absorbed by lymph vessels. The Large Intestine The large intestine removes water from the chyme. Water is absorbed quickly, leaving undigested materials behind. Concentrated waste material passes through the rectum and is eliminated from the body. Digestive System Disorders Stomach acids sometimes damage the organ s own lining, producing a hole in the stomach wall known as a peptic ulcer. Most peptic ulcers are caused by the bacterium H. pylori. Other digestive disorders include diarrhea and constipation. 4

5 Section 38.2 Assessment 1. List the organs of the digestive system and give the function of each. 2. Explain the role of the digestive system. 3. How do mechanical and chemical digestion work together to break down foods? 4. How does bile help in the digestion of fats? 5

2) Digestion the breakdown of. There are two types of digestion: Mechanical and Chemical. 3) Absorption when the nutrients enter into the blood.

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