ECO-1.1: I can describe the processes that move carbon and nitrogen through ecosystems.

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1 Cycles of Matter ECO-1.1: I can describe the processes that move carbon and nitrogen through ecosystems. ECO-1.2: I can explain how carbon and nitrogen are stored in ecosystems. ECO-1.3: I can describe the abiotic and biotic portions of the carbon and nitrogen cycles. ECO-1.4: I can write the equations for cellular respiration and photosynthesis. Food Chains & Food Webs ECO-2.1: I can describe source and transmission of energy through a food chain, explaining the amounts of energy available to different levels. ECO-2.2: I can produce a model of a food chain and a food web, as well as describe how they are related. ECO-2.3: I can diagram an energy pyramid with four trophic levels, each level labeled. ECO-2.4: I can explain the amount of energy that is lost and passed on at each trophic level. ECO-2.5: I can contrast autotroph and heterotroph and give examples of both. Population Growth Patterns ECO-3.1: I can graph the growth of an exponentially-growing or logistically- growing population and describe what is happening to the population in each section. ECO-3.2: I can give examples of what types of environments/situations are likely to produce exponential population growth and explain why. ECO-3.3: I can define carrying capacity explain why a population might have a carrying capacity. ECO-3.4: I can compare and contrast density-dependent & density-independent effects on populations, giving examples of each. ECO-3.5: I can describe how humans impact ecosystems.

2 Biochemistry CELL-1.1: I can name the primary elements that make up all cells and relate the elements to different biological molecules. CELL-1.2: I can describe a monomer and a polymer and explain how they are related. CELL-1.3: I can compare and contrast the four macromolecules in terms of structure and function. Cell Structure CELL-2.1: I can compare and contrast prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells according to structure and function. CELL-2.2: I can explain the function of the following cell parts: mitochondria, chloroplast, nucleus, ribosome, nuclear membrane, cell membrane, and cell wall. CELL-2.3: I can categorize cell parts into animal, plant, or both. CELL-2.4: I can describe the structure and function of the cell membrane and the importance of the fluid mosaic model. Cellular Transport CELL-3.1: I can distinguish between passive and active transport in terms of energy use and concentration gradient. CELL-3.2: I can compare and contrast diffusion, facilitated diffusion, and osmosis. CELL-3.3: I can predict the movement of water in hypertonic, hypotonic, and isotonic cells based upon solute concentrations. CELL-3.4: I can compare and contrast endocytosis and exocytosis. Cell Processes CELL-4.1: I can describe the different components of an enzymatic reaction, including substrate, active site, activation energy, and products.

3 CELL-4.2: I can give examples how changes in ph and temperature may affect enzyme structure and function. CELL-4.3: I can sequence the events in mitosis, describing what happens to the various parts of the eukaryotic cell. CELL-4.4: I can explain how mitosis is related to cancer and what environmental factors increase the risk of cancer. CELL-4.5: I can define antigen and antibody and explain how they are related to vaccines, allergies, and autoimmune responses. DNA & RNA Structure DNA-1.1: I can describe the three parts of a nucleotide and relate a nucleotide to a nucleic acid. DNA-1.2: I can name the letters for the four bases in DNA. I know which base is only found in RNA. DNA-1.3: I can contrast the bonds found on the "sides" of the DNA molecule with those found on the "rungs." DNA-1.4: I can describe how the arrangement of sugar and phosphate molecules in DNA are related to its function. DNA-1.5: I can explain why the adjectives "antiparallel" and "double helix" describe the DNA molecule. DNA Replication DNA-2.1: I can describe the role of helicase, polymerase, and ligase in DNA replication. DNA-2.2: I can compare and contrast the replication of the leading strand and lagging strand. DNA-2.3: I can explain why DNA replication is considered "semi-conservative."

4 Transcription DNA-3.1: I can describe the process and product of transcription using the following terms: DNA template, RNA polymerase, mrna, splicing, introns. DNA-3.2: I can compare and contrast DNA and RNA. Translation DNA-4.1: I can describe the process and product of translation using the following terms: ribosome, start codon, anti-codon, mrna, trna, amino acid, protein. DNA-4.2: I can describe the location of DNA replication, transcription, and translation. DNA-4.3: I can explain the roles of each of the three types of RNA and their fates after each role is completed. Mutations DNA-5.1: I can define and apply each of the mutations discussed in class. DNA-5.2: I can describe the three ways a mutation in DNA might affect a protein. Meiosis GEN-1.1: I can describe the process of Meiosis I and Meiosis II using the words homologous pair, chromosome, and sister chromatids. GEN-1.2: I can describe the starting and resulting cells (gametes) of meiosis by number of cells and number of chromosomes. GEN-1.3: I can explain the advantages and disadvantages of asexual and sexual reproduction. Mendelian Genetics GEN-2.1: I can explain how Mendel's Law of Independent Assortment and Law of Segregation relate to Meiosis I or Meiosis II. GEN-2.2: I can contrast the words genotype and phenotype, and use the words correctly in a genetics problem.

5 GEN-2.3: I can describe how dominant and recessive alleles contribute to heterozygous and homozygous phenotypes. GEN-2.4: I can calculate genotypic and phenotypic frequencies of offspring from various crosses using Punnett squares. Linked Genes GEN-3.1: I can diagram linked genes and their progression through meiosis showing crossing over. GEN-3.2: I can describe the difference between parental and recombinant offspring. GEN-3.3: I can use recombination information from linked genes to calculate map distance. GEN-3.4: I can describe three ways that genetic variation can occur in offspring. Evidence for Evolution EVO-1.1: I can give examples of how fossils, embryology, and genetics and biochemistry provide evidence for evolution and common descent. EVO-1.2: I can give examples of how fossils, embryology, and genetics and biochemistry provide evidence for evolution and common descent. EVO-1.3: I can describe how artificial selection has led to changes in offspring that are different in appearance and/or behavior. Natural Selection EVO-2.1: I can describe how artificial selection has led to changes in offspring that are different in appearance and/or behavior. EVO-2.2: I can explain the theory of natural selection and the four principles that must exist for natural selection to take place. EVO-2.3: Given a real-life example, I can explain how natural selection favored a change in appearance or behavior in a population. EVO-2.4: I can explain the connection between evolution and the theory of natural selection.

6 Phylogenetics EVO-3.1: I can use genetic data to create a phylogenetic tree. EVO-3.2: I can use a phylogenetic tree to determine common ancestors and relatedness. EVO-3.3: I can find examples of divergence, convergence, and adaptive radiation in phylogenetic trees.

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