Academic Nucleic Acids and Protein Synthesis Test

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1 Academic Nucleic Acids and Protein Synthesis Test Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Each organism has a unique combination of characteristics encoded in molecules of a. protein. b. enzymes. c. carbohydrates. d. DNA. 2. The primary function of DNA is to a. make proteins. c. control chemical processes within cells. b. store and transmit genetic information. d. prevent mutations. 3. Molecules of DNA are composed of long chains of a. amino acids. b. fatty acids. c. monosaccharides. d. nucleotides. 4. Which is NOT part of a DNA nucleotide? a. nitrogen base b. deoxyribose sugar c. ribose sugar d. phosphate group 5. What is the process called when DNA makes an exact copy of itself? a. replication b. transcription c. translation d. protein synthesis 6. What is the process called when the information in DNA is re-written to mrna? a. replication b. transcription c. translation d. protein synthesis 7. What is the process called when the information carried by RNA is decoded into amino acids? a. replication b. transcription c. translation d. none of the above 8. Which is NOT a difference between DNA and RNA? a. RNA is single stranded, DNA is double c. RNA has AGCU, DNA has AGCT b. RNA has ribose, DNA has deoxyribose d. RNA has AGCT, DNA has AGCU 9. Which would be the correct sequence for the mrna transcribed from this DNA: GATTACCAGATTACCA a. GAUUACCAGAUUACCA c. CUAATGGTCTAATGGT b. CUAAUGGUCUAAUGGU d. GATTACCAGATTACCA 10. What would the complementary strand of DNA look like for the one below? GATTACCAGATTACCA a. GATTACCAGATTACCA c. CTAATGGTCTAATGGT b. GAUUACCAGAUUACCA d. CUAAUGGUCUAAUGGU 11. What would be replicated from the strand of DNA below? GATTACCA a. GATTACCA b. GUAAUGGU c. CTAATGGT d. CUAAUGGA 12. Which one of the following nucleotide pair bonds would be found in a DNA molecule? a. adenine-guanine b. guanine-cytosine c. adenine-cytosine d. cytosine-uracil 13. The backbone of a DNA molecule is made of which two components? a. phosphates and ribose sugars c. phosphates and deoxyribose sugars b. deoxyphosphates and ribose sugars d. deoxyphosphates and deoxyribose sugars 14. Watson and Crick were the first to suggest that DNA is. a. a short molecule c. a protein molecule b. the shape of a double helix d. the genetic material 15. Which of the following would be most likely to happen as a result of a mutation in a person's skin cells from too much uv radiation (sunlight)? a. skin cancer c. lighter colored skin b. improved functioning of the skin cell d. darker colored skin

2 Figure The process illustrated in Figure 11-1 is called. a. translation b. replication c. monoploidy d. transcription 17. A DNA segment is changed from-aattag- to -AAATAG-. This is a. a. frameshift b. point mutation c. inversion d. deletion mutation 18. Which of the following genetic disorders can be detected by karyotyping? a. Down syndrome and Turner syndrome c. Down s syndrome and sickle cell anemia b. chicken pox and cancer d. Klinefelter syndrome and sickle-cell anemia 19. female : XX :: a. female : gametes b. female : eggs c. male : YY d. male : XY 20. The effects of a mutation can be a. helpful. b. harmful. c. neutral. d. All of the above 21. People with Down syndrome have a. 45 chromosomes. b. 46 chromosomes. c. 47 chromosomes. d. only one X chromosome. 22. Look at the karyotype below. Which choice best describes the individual?. a. normal male d. male with Down s syndrome b. normal female e. male with Kleinfelter s syndrome c. female with Down s syndrome 23. Look at the DNA fingerprint below. Which suspect committed the crime, according to the DNA evidence left at the crime scene?

3 . a. Suspect 1 b. Suspect 2 c. Suspect 3 d. Suspect 4 mrna: CUCAAGUGCUUC Genetic Code: 24. Refer to the illustration above. What is the portion of the protein molecule coded for by the piece of mrna shown in the diagram? a. Ser Tyr Arg Gly c. Leu Lys Cys Phe b. Val Asp Pro His d. Pro Glu Leu Val 25. Which of the following would represent the strand of DNA from which the mrna strand in the diagram was made? a. CUCAAGUGCUUC b. GAGUUCACGAAG c. GAGTTCACGAAG d. AGACCTGTAGGA 26. Explain the structure and function of DNA 27. Explain the significance of proteins in cell structure and function. 28. Explain the significance of gene transformation. 29. Explain the connection between the DNA code, the mrna codon, and protein synthesis.

4 30. What are the nitrogen base pairs contained in human DNA, and how do they relate to the DNA of other organisms? 31. Why is it important that DNA replicates accurately? Would errors in the DNA replication have any effect on the formation of new cells and new cell protein? 32. If all humans produce proteins and all humans have the same nitrogen base pairs, then how can the protein synthesized be different in each person? 33. A DNA Molecule (labeled as A) replicates to produce two new DNA molecules (labeled as B). Both of the B DNA molecules then replicate to form four new DNA molecules (labeled as C). Are any nucleotide chains from A present in the C DNA Molecules? Explain your answer. If you believe the answer is yes, how many of the A DNA nucleotide chains are present in the C DNA Molecules? 34. Describe the process of transcription. List the main steps involved. 35. List three roles of RNA polymerase in transacription. 36. What basic principle ensures that the transcribed RNA molecule is carrying the right genetic message? 37. Does it matter which of the separated DNA chains is used for transcription? Explain your answer. 38. Compare transcription with translation. 39. Distinguish a codon from an anticodon, and explain the significance of each. 40. What would translation of the mrna transcript UAACAAGGAGCAUCC produce? 41. Descrbe protein synthesis. 42. Describe the difference between a purine and a pyrimidine? 43. List two major structural differences between RNA and DNA. 44. What functions are carried out by those few codons that do not code for amino acids? 45. What is the role of ribosomes in protein synthesis. 46. Define: For DNA: adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine: base pairing rule; complimentary base pair; deoxyribose; DNA polymerase; double helix; helicase; mutation; nitrogen containing base; purine;

5 pyrimidine; replication; replication fork; transformation; plasmid, genetic engineering, bioinformatics For RNA: mrna; rrna; trna; ribose; RNA polymerase; promoter; termination; codon uracil For Protein synthesis: codon/anticodon; genetic code/protein synthesis; translation; Start codon/stop codon; peptides; polypeptides, protein

6 Academic Nucleic Acids and Protein Synthesis Test Answer Section MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. ANS: D 2. ANS: B 3. ANS: D 4. ANS: C 5. ANS: A 6. ANS: B 7. ANS: C 8. ANS: D 9. ANS: C 10. ANS: C 11. ANS: C 12. ANS: B 13. ANS: C 14. ANS: B 15. ANS: A 16. ANS: A 17. ANS: B 18. ANS: A 19. ANS: D 20. ANS: D 21. ANS: C 22. ANS: D 23. ANS: D 24. ANS: C 25. ANS: C

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