Market potential for the use of LNG & L-CNG in road transport

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1 Market potential for the use of LNG & L-CNG in road transport UN ECE Round Table of Use of Gas in Transport 21 st Annual Session Geneva, January, 2011 Manuel Lage, Dr. Eng. General Manager Rotterdam, December

2 Advantages of bio natural gas Natural gas is an alternative fuel coming from natural wells. It is mainly methane (CH4) Biogas is also a methane rich gas, produced by the fermentation of the biomass, it is then a renewable fuel. Methane contents 25% H and 75% C, in weight As a comparison, Petrol contents 13,5% H and 86,5% C Diesel oil contents 13,5% H and 86,5% C LPG contents 17,4% H and 82,6% C Due to its molecular advantage, regulated exhaust emissions and CO 2 are particularly favourable in the engines running on natural gas. Rotterdam, December

3 CNG. Other Emissions Comparison Emissions IVECO CURSOR 8 CNG engine vs present and future Euro limitsl (Source: IVECO) 6,00 5,45 5,00 5,00 EURO 3 (2001) EURO 4 (2006) Emission (Gr), g/kwh 4,00 3,00 2,00 4,00 4,00 3,00 1,55 1,60 3,50 2,00 2,00 EURO 5 (2009) E.E.V. IVECO 1,00 0,00 1,10 1,10 0,78 0,50 0,50 0,40 0,65 0,53 0,01 0,008 0,16 0,03 0,03 0,02 0,0022 CO NMHC CH4 NOX PT Exhaust pollutants Rotterdam, December

4 Noise emitted by the truck 1 Vehicle #1: IVECO 240E25 6x2 RSU Vehicle #2: IVECO 240E26 6x2 RSU CNG (EEV) 6 2 Refuse collection chassis cab with body Vehicles laden and compacting Vehicles stationary Vehicle #1 Vehicle # m Microphone height = 1.5 m 3 db(a) Ave 71 db(a) Ave 66 db(a) (position) Rotterdam, December

5 Madrid CNG refuse collection fleet Total fleet in 2006: 445 Iveco CNG trucks Yearly gas consumption: Nm3 Reduction of yearly emissions, referred to a Diesel Euro 3: NOx CO + HC + PM CO kg kg kg 5

6 CNG urban buses Mercedes Citaro CNG 250 HP. Lean mix engine turbocharged. EEV certified Irisbus Iveco CITYCLASS CNG 12 & 18 m 280 CV. Stoichiometric turbo engine. EEV certified Tedom 12 m. CNG bus 300 HP. Turbocharged. EEV certified Rotterdam, December

7 CNG urban trucks and buses in Europe CNG Garbage trucks in Europe France approx. 600 Euro 2 - EEV Switzerland approx. 20 Euro 3 - EEV Italy approx. 600 Euro 3 - EEV Spain approx Euro EEV CNG Urban buses in Europe (+Turkey, Russia) Netherlands Portugal Greece Spain Sweden Germany Turkey France Italy Russia In Europe, most of the heavy vehicles running on NG are urban, using CNG/biomethane. Volume and weight of the CNG tanks limit their use in road transport. Rotterdam, December

8 Wide offer of European NGVs Citroen Citroën C3 1.4 Style bivalent Citroën Berlingo Multispace Plus Bivalent Fiat Fiat Doblò V Natural Power Fiat Panda Panda 1.2 8V Natural Power Fiat Grande Punto 1.4 8V Natural Power Fiat Doblò Cargo SX V Natural Power Fiat Doblò Cargo SX Maxi V Natural Power Ford Mercedes Ford C-Max 2.0 CNG Ford Focus 2.0 CNG Ford Transit 2.3 CNG Mercedes Benz B170 NGT Mercedes Benz E200 NGT Mercedes Sprinter 316 NGT NGT Opel Opel Zafira 1.6 ecoflex Opel Zafira 1.6 ecoflex Turbo Opel Combo Tour 1.6 ecoflex Opel Combo 1.6 CNG ecoflex Kastenwagen Volkswagen Volkswagen Caddy Life 2.0 Ecofuel Volkswagen Touran 1.4 TSI EcoFue Volkswagen Caddy Maxi Life 2.0 EcoFuel Volkswagen Passat 1.4 TSI EcoFuel Volkswagen Caddy 1.6 CNG Van Rotterdam, December

9 NGVs World Market growth to 2020 Worldwide NGVs (.000) years 15% annual growth ,7 M NGVs years 26% annual growth M NGVs years, assuming 18% annual growth M NGVs (9% market share) Rotterdam, December

10 The bright future of NGV s The DG MOVE (EU) is preparing a white paper with the title: Report of the European Expert Group on Future Transport Fuels Fuels in which there is a significant support to the NG, following the contributions given by NGVA Europe, the only NGV expert invited to the group. The development of NGV s in the medium and long term future, other than the existing and well established technologies, will be wide and following five additional main lines: CNG Hybrid Vehicles Dual Fuel Technology for heavy duties Biogas LNG for trucks and buses Methane-Hydrogen mixtures Rotterdam, December

11 CNG Hybrid Urban buses Castrosua TEMPUS CNG Hybrid. New urban bus presented in FIAA Madrid (November 2010) The municipality of Madrid has already passed orders for 23 CNG-Hybrid buses: 13 Castrosua 10 Tata Hispano. Tata Starbus CNG Hybrid, to be produced in Europe by: Tata Hispano, Zaragoza, Spain. Rotterdam, December

12 Dual Fuel technology available Dual fuel systems have been developed to substitute a major part of diesel for natural gas in heavy duty engines, keeping the Diesel cycle Retrofit market considered too for EURO 2 and 3 vehicles Full diesel operation is available, when run out of CNG The natural gas injection system is electronically controlled with a separate ECU. Legislation still under development Dual fuel system is an alternative to dedicated NG engines Members of NGVA Europe offering Dual Fuel technologies: Rotterdam, December

13 Biogas production potential EU is still missing a European legislation for the injection of biomethane in the NG grid. NGVA Europe is working also in the next legislation about the gas quality. Among different options of biofuels, biomethane presents the highest efficiency per hectare of land. A global European estimation shows a potential of TWh (9,9EJ=238Mtoe), made out of TWh (5,4 EJ=130Mtoe) coming from crops, plus another 1.250TWh (4,5EJ=1.108Mtoe) coming from other sources: sewage, manure, landfills, etc. If we choose bioethanol instead of biogas we would loose the potential of the waste, sewages, etc (1.250TWh, 4,5EJ=108Mtoe) and we would also reduce the efficiency of the land by 47%. In other words we would obtain 800TWh (2,9EJ=70Mtoe) instead of 2.750TWh (9,9EJ=238Mtoe). Rotterdam, December

14 LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) NG with a high energy density Diesel vs CNG & LNG Autonomy equivalence Diesel oil 1 litre 200 bar 200 bar 200 bar 200 bar 200 bar -162 O C CNG 5 litre LNG 1,8 litre LNG opens the way for the medium and long distance road transport Rotterdam, December

15 First in Europe LBG (Liquid Bio Gas) truck Rolande LNG B.V., a specialist in supplying LNG and LBG for road transport applications, has recently introduced the first truck running on Liquid Bio Gas. Rolande LNG B.V. made this concept to work by converting, in close cooperation with the OEM, an IVECO Stralis CNG into a truck being capable to run on LNG/LBG. Rolande LNG B.V. provided not only the know how but also the special cryogenic tanks and heat exchanger. LBG is made from gas coming out of a landfill. It gives better emission levels than EEV or Euro 5 diesel engines. LBG CO2 emissions (Well to Wheel) are by far the best alternative to any other bio fuel currently available (up to 80% CO2 reduction compared to diesel). The truck is being used to show and promote the many advantages of LBG as fuel: It is cleaner (better than future Euro 6), quieter (5 dba lower noise level than a diesel) and up to 80% CO2 neutral! There is no better and economic alternative today. LBG can save between 2 and 5 cents per km. The truck can run more than km before refuelling. Rotterdam, December

16 Refueling Stations L-CNG Lleida - Spain Rotterdam, December

17 LNG supply to Europe Rotterdam, December

18 The LNG Blue Corridors The availability of LNG all around the Iberian Peninsula, plus the French port of Fos (Marseille), and the Italian ones of Panigaglia (near Genova) and Revigo (near Trieste) constitutes a fantastic existing infrastructure to cover all the supply needs for road transport around the Mediterranean arch. Another corridor could also be imagined from Portugal and Spain to the north of France, Belgium, Netherlands, UK, north of Germany and Denmark, once all the LNG terminals, now under construction, will be in service. Rotterdam, December

19 Methane/Hydrogen mixtures Methane/Hydrogen mixture (Hythane, Hydrometano) offers a number of significant advantages as a bridge solution for a future hydrogen fuelled transport: It can be used in the existing NGV engines and vehicles with minor engine resetting The inboard fuel storage uses the same type of tanks and fittings, with some specification changes in materials The H2 content considered (up to 30%) does not alter the autonomy of the vehicles There is an immediate impact as CO2 emission reduction (- 11%) The use of compressed H2 in a large basis will push ahead the development of the hydrogen production and logistics Rotterdam, December

20 Conclusions Natural gas (methane) is an excellent energy vector, with the lowest Carbon to Hydrogen ratio of all the hydrocarbons. Additionally natural gas is an alternative fuel, having a different origin from the traditional oil derived diesel, petrol and LPG Natural gas is used in existing internal combustion engines, with minor additional investments, taking advantage of a well known and mature car & commercial vehicle technology. Dual Fuel technology offers the possibility of conversion for existing engines The increasing production of biomethane, both from urban waste and from agricultural stuff is giving natural gas the new and valuable consideration of a renewable fuel Natural gas has been used so far as CNG mainly for urban applications. The availability of LNG will spread its use for medium and long distances road transport Methane/Hydrogen mixtures, that could be used the existing NGVs will become the bridge to a potential hydrogen fuelled transport NG vehicles are today the best and most economic alternative to oil derived fuels, also improving gaseous and acoustic emissions. Rotterdam, December

21 Rotterdam, December

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