Biomethane in Vehicles. October 2008

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1 Biomethane in Vehicles October

2 Gas vehicles A gas vehicles is a vehicle fuelled buy a gaseous fuel not liquid fuel. Seems simple, but not all gasses are the same, and storage methods vary 2

3 Definitions Biogas - is used to describe the gas made in anaerobic digesters or land fill sites typically 65% methane and 35% carbon dioxide, with contaminants in the form of water, hydrogen sulphide and siloxanes CH 4 Biomethane is upgraded biogas. the upgrade process removes the contaminants and the majority of the carbon dioxide removed. Biomethane is typically 97% methane, 2% carbon dioxide and 1% oxygen Natural gas is used to describe a gaseous fossil fuel consisting primarily of methane but including significant quantities of ethane, propane, butane, and pentane Petroleum gas (LPG) - is used to describe a gas produced when refining petroleum, typically supplied as a variable mix of propane and butane. C 3 H 8 3

4 Scope The vehicles discussed in this presentation run on Biomethane & Natural gas No vehicles run on raw biogas No discussion of LPG (different technology) 4

5 Gas vehicles So, here a gas vehicle is simply a normal car, motorbike, bus or truck that uses natural gas or biomethane as a fuel rather than petrol or diesel. In these vehicles the natural gas or biomethane fuel is burnt in an internal combustion engine exactly like conventional liquid fuels (petrol and diesel) through mixing the fuel with air and achieving ignition. More definitions vehicles may be know by their gas storage methods e.g the Mercedes Sprinter CNG, so: CNG = Compressed natural gas CBM = Compressed biomethane Same storage method LNG = Liquefied natural gas LBM = Liquefied biomethane Same storage method 5

6 Vehicle architecture VW Caddy Eco Fuel available UK end of l SI engine optimised for natural gas and biomethane, can also run on petrol Two filling locations A Bi-Fuel vehicle 13 litres of petrol as a reserve Up to 26kg compressed natural gas storage 6

7 Gas engines Current use of technologies by vehicle type Heavy duty applications Light duty applications Heavy duty applications 7

8 Filling up Station types CNG or CBM = Compressed gas. Refilling stations has a large compressor and storage tanks to hold pre-compressed gas at rising pressures (storage cascades). LNG or LBM = Liquefied gas. Refilling station holds liquefied gas in a cryogenic container, Liquid is passed to a similar container on the vehicle LCNG or LCBM = Liquefied and Compressed gas. Liquefied gas is stored as above, the station can also deliver compressed gas by gasifying the liquid and capturing boil off 8

9 Filling up Fast fill - Filling times which are comparable to those achieved when refuelling similar vehicles with diesel. Can be supplied by CNG, LNG or LCNG station Fast fill normally requires some buffer high pressure storage and large capacity compressors. Slow fill One or more vehicles connected directly to a compressor over a long time period. Can service an overnight fleet parking areas with sufficient refuelling outlets, allows compressor to bring all vehicles to full charge. Smaller compressor required. Overnight slow fill can take advantage of off-peak electricity. 9

10 Filling up Gas Quality No current UK standard for Biomethane, options: Reference gases use for vehicle homologation (to Euro standards) The Swedish biogas standard CNG or LNG 10

11 Why use biomethane? Low carbon fuel Air quality benefits Vehicle noise reduction Reduces waste to landfill Reduces cost? 11

12 Biomethane vs. natural gas CO 2 Well to Wheel 12

13 Biomethane vs. natural gas CO 2 Well to Wheel 13

14 Biomethane other benefits Air quality benefits Vehicle noise reduction Position Diesel Methane Delta Reduction db(a) db(a) db(a) ratio 7.5m from front m from left m from right In-cab at driver s ear Source: Scania Reduces waste to landfill UK Landfill Tax Credit and Landfill Allowance Trading Scheme (LATS). Local authorities to trade allowances rather than pay up to 150 per tonne of waste sent to landfill. Each LA is required to reduce disposal of bio-degradable waste to landfill by progressively increasing amounts up to 65% by

15 Vehicle availability world wide 15

16 Vehicle availability UK 16

17 Vehicle availability EU 17

18 Vehicle availability EU 18

19 Additional costs Calculator session will further explore costs 19

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