CNG vehicles for urban transport

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1 CNG vehicles for urban transport An available solution for cleaner air in cities BESTUFS Madrid Pablo Cebrián Natural Gas Vehicle Development Iveco Medium and Heavy Development Platform

2 Global Problem: Scarcity of Fossil Fuels Fossil Fuels availability 40 years for petrol! 60 years for natural gas! Years PRODUCTION (MILLIONS BARRELS/DAY) OIL SANDS DEEP SEA OIL CONVENTIONELL OIL SHORTAGE Oil Natural Gas 2010: necessity of massive exploitation of actual stock. YEAR Total require oil sands deep sea oil conv.oil Madrid. March 14th, 2008 CNG vehicles for urban transport 2

3 Global Problem: Climate change Greenhouse gas emission caused by human activity is modifying climate change cycles by affecting the way the atmosphere reflects radiation. 31% of emissions to the atmosphere come from transport sector GWI = CO2 + 23*CH *N2O In Spain, aprox. 22% of CO 2 -equivalent emissions come from road transport In absence of mitigating policy, global transport CO 2 emissions could treble by 2050 (World Resources Institute) Madrid. March 14th, 2008 CNG vehicles for urban transport 3

4 Local problem: Air Quality Atmospheric pollution has been classed by the European Environmental Agency as the single factor with highest impact on human health in Europe. From the urban transport point of view, two culprits stand out: 50% of NO and NO2 emissions are produced by internal combustion engines. NO2 not decreasing as Diesel becomes more efficient! PM: road transport responsible for 50% of particulate matter in suspension. Short-term effects: eye, noise and throat irritation, breathing difficulty, asthma, heart, brain and lung failures leading to premature death Long-term effects: Slower lung development in children, chronic lung sickness, lung cancer and even potential damage to the brain. UE reports estimate of premature deaths every year due to poor air quality. Source: Kunzli and Tager (2005). Air pollution from the Heart. Swiss Med Wkly. Madrid. March 14th, 2008 CNG vehicles for urban transport 4

5 Alternative Transport Technologies Battery Electric Vehicle Still to come the technological break-through: the BATTERY Low capacity and high weight limit range and speed of electric cars Long recharging hours Lifetime & Reliability concerns Mass production and major market diffusion in the medium term are unlikely to happen with current battery technologies. Niche applications in the urban context, where ranges of km are not a problem, are becoming more common. Madrid. March 14th, 2008 CNG vehicles for urban transport 5

6 Alternative Transport Technologies Hybrids Serial/Parallel/Mixed architectures Electric and Hydraulic Hybrids Lower Fuel Consumption: the use of hybrid technology increases efficiency, reduces fuel consumption and, thus, reduces the pollutant emissions. 30% lower CO2 emissions will be possible Hybrids are here to stay...but require a consolidated fuel and propulsion technology Madrid. March 14th, 2008 CNG vehicles for urban transport 6

7 Alternative Transport Technologies Biofuels Recognised Well-To-Wheel CO2 benefits Biodiesel or bioethanol can be added to conventional fuels (diesel and petrol respectively) in amounts of 5% without requiring any modifications to the engines, which allows uncomplicated commercialisation from the technical perspective. Many controversial issues: engine warranty, substitution rate, cost of land conversion, energy balance taking into consideration labour and fertilizers, problems with imports, fuel from food, etc Biofuels are already an energy alternative and are sold blended with conventional fuels No significant improvement on local air quality Larger scale implementation requires scrict monitoring and policing and its feasibility is yet to be determined. Madrid. March 14th, 2008 CNG vehicles for urban transport 7

8 Alternative Transport Technologies Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Hydrogen does not exist in natural reservoirs, it must be produced Transport and Storage (gas: 700 bar, liquid: -253ºC) are also important challenges As energy carrier, it can be: Burned directly in H 2 ICE engines requires catalytic converter to avoid NO X emissions. Low efficiency 55% Used to power fuel-cells. Fuel Cells: Advantages: high energy conversion efficiency, almost zero pollutant emission, flexibility in size and power Disadvantages: still in early stages of development, lifetime, cost, reliability, fuel for zero emissions must be hydrogen, on-board storage of Hydrogen Economy of Hydrogen (2050?) will take place, but alternatives are needed that help pave the way Madrid. March 14th, 2008 CNG vehicles for urban transport 8

9 Alternative Transport Technologies Methane: Natural Gas and Biogas Nearly zero emissions, excellent carbon to hydrogen ratio, emission control both local (Nox, sulfphur, CO)and global (GHG: CO2, Nox)) 7 Million vehicles in operation in the world Available distribution grid Biogas: Highest fuel substitution rate per hectare of all biofuels CNG technology is feasible in the transport sector and has the potential to bring important short and mid term improvements in terms of energy security, GHG emissions and air quality Madrid. March 14th, 2008 CNG vehicles for urban transport 9

10 Fuel Roadmap Improvement of diesel fuel To enable the exploitation of Diesel engines and their further evolution. NOW DIESEL Natural Gas and Biogas NG is the most realistic alternative fuel in short term. Biogas adds benefits in terms of CO2 emissions. CNG & Biogas Biodiesel Limited availability. It will be used mainly as blend (5 to 30%) in diesel. Biodiesel (FAME) GTL (Gas to Liquid) It will gain importance in the next decade. First as fuel improver, later as fuel for advanced Diesel engines. GTL (Syndiesel) BTL (Biomass to Liquid) Derived from biomass. CO2 neutral. Hydrogen & Hythane (CNG + H2): Long term fuel for fuel cells application (Hythane transition fuel). BTL (Sundiesel) Hythane Hydrogen (H2) Madrid. March 14th, 2008 CNG vehicles for urban transport 10

11 Natural Gas Engines Madrid. March 14th, 2008 CNG vehicles for urban transport 11

12 Natural Gas Engines Iveco s implementation Iveco s CNG engines run on stoichiometric mixture, with lambda closed-loop control that ensures no oxygen is present in the exhaust. This makes it possible to use a tree-way catalytic converter as exhaust treatment device able to reduce by 95% the amount of all three pollutants (NOx - CO - HC) The catalyst is called three-way because the noble metals (Platinum - Pt, Palladium - Pd ) operate on three pollutants (NOx CO - HC); The platinum helps the reaction of the CO and HC to transform them into CO2 and H2O; The palladium helps the reaction to transform NOx into N2 Madrid. March 14th, 2008 CNG vehicles for urban transport 12

13 Iveco CNG Engines SOFIM F1C cm CV TECTOR cm CV CURSOR cm / 310 CV All compliant with 2005/55 CE normative for Environmentally Enhanced Vehicles (E.E.V.) Madrid. March 14th, 2008 CNG vehicles for urban transport 13

14 Iveco CNG Engines: NOx, PM, CO2 6 5 Euro 3 Diesel engines 4 Euro EEV limits Euro 5 1 CNG IVECO stoich. 0 Fuel cell Iveco CNG engines generate almost zero local pollution: PM and NOx well below E. E. V. /Euro 6 CO 2 emissions measured 10-15% lower than Diesel Madrid. March 14th, 2008 CNG vehicles for urban transport 14

15 Iveco CNG Engines: Noise Diesel engine at 1 m. CNG engine at 1 m. 100 db Hz 95 db Hz 90 db Hz 85 db Hz 80 db Hz 75 db Hz Sound levels 70 db Hz Madrid. March 14th, 2008 CNG vehicles for urban transport 15

16 Iveco CNG Vehicles: Product Range Daily range (Vans and minibuses) 2,760 Heavy trucks 1,240 Buses 4,400 Engines 2,330 TOTAL Sold 10,730 IVECO is the major player of CNG in Europe and the clear leader in buses Madrid. March 14th, 2008 CNG vehicles for urban transport 16

17 Iveco Daily CNG: Light Commercial V. Madrid. March 14th, 2008 CNG vehicles for urban transport 17

18 Iveco Daily CNG Customer Case: DHL Express DHL: The express and logistics network of Deutsche Post World Net No trading of low emissions against additional trips and mileage!!! DHL: Impulse to clean vehicle technologies. Various pilot projects, e.g. CNG vehicles in Regensburg since 1999 Open tender in late Result: 70 units of Iveco Daily 50C11P CNG From the end of 2006, 170 Iveco CNG vans are in service in DHL Madrid. March 14th, 2008 CNG vehicles for urban transport 18

19 Iveco Eurocargo CNG: Medium trucks Madrid. March 14th, 2008 CNG vehicles for urban transport 19

20 Heavy Trucks: Iveco Stralis CNG 4 x 2 6 x 2 8 x 2 Madrid. March 14th, 2008 CNG vehicles for urban transport 20

21 Natural Gas Vehicles: Iveco Madrid. March 14th, 2008 CNG vehicles for urban transport 21

22 Iveco Stralis CNG Customer Case: FCC MADRID, 445 units 10,500,000 m3(n) /year Yearly emission savings Iveco CNG (EEV) vs. Diesel Euro 3 limits NOx kg CO + HC + PM kg CO kg Madrid. March 14th, 2008 CNG vehicles for urban transport 22

23 Iveco Buses: Irisbus CNG Citels and Europolis Madrid. March 14th, 2008 CNG vehicles for urban transport 23

24 Iveco CNG Buses: Irisbus Customer Case: City of Madrid MADRID EMT, 400 units Yearly emission savings Iveco CNG (EEV) vs. Diesel Euro 3 limits Nm 3 NG/year NOx kg CO + HC + PM kg CO kg Madrid. March 14th, 2008 CNG vehicles for urban transport 24

25 FIAT Auto: Natural Power CNG Range Punto Multipla Doblo Panorama Punto Van Doblo Cargo Madrid. March 14th, 2008 CNG vehicles for urban transport 25

26 Concluding Remarks Natural Gas Vehicles are the cleanest serial produced vehicles today Practically zero local emissions: ultra-low NOx and PM Lower CO2 emissions than gasoline or diesel powered vehicles Drastic improvements on local air quaility can be achieved by substituting part of the Diesel fleet operating in cities by CNG vehicles Iveco s comprehensive CNG product portfolio makes this substitution a feasible option today. Madrid. March 14th, 2008 CNG vehicles for urban transport 26

27 Madrid. March 14th, 2008 CNG vehicles for urban transport 27

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