Bio-natural gas as the best solution for urban transport

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1 Bio-natural gas as the best solution for urban transport EGATEC. Copenhagen May, 2011 Manuel Lage, Dr. Eng. General Manager Copenhagen. May

2 Advantages of bio natural gas Natural gas is an alternative fuel coming from natural wells. It is mainly methane (CH4) Biogas is also a methane rich gas, produced by the fermentation of the biomass, it is then a renewable fuel. Methane contents 25% H and 75% C, in weight As a comparison, Petrol contents 13,5% H and 86,5% C Diesel oil contents 13,5% H and 86,5% C LPG contents 17,4% H and 82,6% C Due to its molecular advantage, regulated exhaust emissions and CO 2 are particularly favourable in the engines running on natural gas. Copenhagen. May

3 CNG. CO2 emission 3,3 1,4 kg CO 2 / kg fuel 3,2 3,1 3 2,9 2,8 2,7 2,6 3,2 0,73 3,15 0,97 3,02 0,87 0,75 2,75 1,2 1 0,8 0,6 0,4 kg CO 2 / kw h 2,5 Diesel Petrol LPG Natural Gas 0,2 Copenhagen. May

4 Regulated emissions and CO2 comparison CO 2 Carbon dioxide Reduction % main pollutants of urban areas 100 = petrol Benzene NOx Nitrogen oxide PM10 Particulate matter The use of CNG reduces substantially traffic pollution and contributes to the reduction of CO 2 Petrol 100 Diesel Due to their availability through the network, It does not require road transport and storage LPG Nat. gas % -100% -58% -60% -90% vs. diesel Copenhagen. May

5 Noise emitted by the truck 1 Vehicle #1: IVECO 240E25 6x2 RSU Vehicle #2: IVECO 240E26 6x2 RSU CNG (EEV) 6 2 Refuse collection chassis cab with body Vehicles laden and compacting Vehicles stationary Vehicle #1 Vehicle # m Microphone height = 1.5 m 3 db(a) Ave 71 db(a) Ave 66 db(a) (position) Copenhagen. May

6 Madrid CNG refuse collection fleet Total fleet in 2006: 445 Iveco CNG trucks Yearly gas consumption: Nm3 Reduction of yearly emissions, referred to a Diesel Euro 3: NOx CO + HC + PM CO kg kg kg 6

7 Food distribution on CNG chassis Supermarket chains are becoming more and more sensitive to clean transport of their own products Copenhagen. May

8 CNG urban buses Mercedes Citaro CNG 250 HP. Lean mix engine turbocharged. EEV certified Irisbus Iveco CITYCLASS CNG 12 & 18 m 280 CV. Stoichiometric turbo engine. EEV certified Tedom 12 m. CNG bus 300 HP. Turbocharged. EEV certified Copenhagen. May

9 CNG urban trucks and buses in Europe CNG Garbage trucks in Europe France approx. 600 Euro 2 - EEV Switzerland approx. 20 Euro 3 - EEV Italy approx. 600 Euro 3 - EEV Spain approx Euro EEV CNG Urban buses in Europe (+Turkey, Russia) Copenhagen. May Netherlands Portugal Greece Spain Sweden Germany Turkey France Italy Russia In Europe, most of the heavy vehicles running on NG are urban, using CNG/biomethane. Volume and weight of the CNG tanks limit their use in road transport.

10 1,34 million CNG Vehicles in Europe total. NGVs World Market growth to mid 2010 World: 65 M NGVs in 2020! Worldwide NGVs (.000) Europe total EU-27/EFTA Rest of Europe Estimations years 15% annual growth ,7 M NGVs Europe: 6% growth (end 2010 compared with 2009) 6 years 26% annual growth M NGVs 13 years, assuming 18% annual growth M NGVs (9% market share) Source: Copenhagen. May

11 Underfloor tanks save space Many modern cars have CNG tanks installed underneath the floor, offering the same internal space for passengers and luggage than the petrol or diesel equivalents. Copenhagen. May

12 European CNG cars Citroen Citroën C3 1.4 Style bivalent Citroën Berlingo Multispace Plus Bivalent Fiat Fiat Doblò V Natural Power Fiat Panda Panda 1.2 8V Natural Power Fiat Grande Punto 1.4 8V Natural Power Fiat Doblò Cargo SX V Natural Power Fiat Doblò Cargo SX Maxi V Natural Power Ford Ford C-Max 2.0 CNG Ford Focus 2.0 CNG Ford Transit 2.3 CNG Copenhagen. May

13 European CNG cars Mercedes Mercedes Benz B170 NGT Mercedes Benz E200 NGT Mercedes Sprinter 316 NGT NGT Opel Opel Zafira 1.6 ecoflex Opel Zafira 1.6 ecoflex Turbo Opel Combo Tour 1.6 ecoflex Opel Combo 1.6 CNG ecoflex Kastenwagen Volkswagen Volkswagen Caddy Life 2.0 Ecofuel Volkswagen Touran 1.4 TSI EcoFue Volkswagen Caddy Maxi Life 2.0 EcoFuel Volkswagen Passat 1.4 TSI EcoFuel Volkswagen Caddy 1.6 CNG Van Copenhagen. May

14 Natural Gas is the fossil fuel of the future Peter Voser, CEO of Royal Dutch Shell, Europe s biggest oil and gas company, said on 13th September 2010 at the World Energy Congress in Montreal: Natural Gas is an abundant resource for 250 years and as a fossil fuel it has the lowest CO2 content. It will therefore play a vital role in electricity generation and in the transport sector. Natural Gas is the fuel of future. Key points: - More than 50% of Shell s production in 2012 will be Natural Gas. - Low taxes for NG need to be secured by policy makers, for both consumers and the industry to support future investments. - Globalisation of standards is needed. Copenhagen. May

15 The bright future of NGV s The development of NGV s in the medium term future, will follow five main lines: CNG Hybrid Vehicles Dual Fuel Technology for heavy duties Biogas LNG for trucks and buses Methane-Hydrogen mixtures Copenhagen. May

16 CNG Hybrid Urban buses Castrosua TEMPUS CNG Hybrid. New urban bus presented in FIAA Madrid (November 2010) The municipality of Madrid has already passed orders for 23 CNG-Hybrid buses: 13 Castrosua 10 Tata Hispano. Tata Starbus CNG Hybrid, to be produced in Europe by: Tata Hispano, Zaragoza, Spain. Copenhagen. May

17 Dual Fuel Technology Renewed interest in this diesel-natural gas combustion technology CO2 important reduction. Diesel cycle maintained Target market: heavy duty trucks and buses Retrofit market considered too for EURO 2 and 3 vehicles Options: full diesel operation when no CNG is available Legislation still under development Copenhagen. May

18 LNG trucks for long distance haulage Diesel vs CNG & LNG. Autonomy equivalence 1 litre CNG 5 litre Diesel oil -162 O C LNG 1,8 litre Two engine technologies are available for heavy engines: - Dedicated, using 100% natural gas - Dual fuel, using diesel injection for ignition and natural gas as the main fuel LNG opened the way for the medium and long distance road transport Copenhagen. May

19 Refueling Stations L-CNG Lleida - Spain L-CNG stations are a reality in some parts of Europe Copenhagen. May

20 LNG supply to Europe Copenhagen. May

21 The Mediterranean LNG Blue Corridor The availability of LNG all around the Iberian Peninsula, plus the French port of Fos (Marseille), and the Italian ones of Panigaglia (near Genova) and Revigo (near Trieste) constitutes a fantastic existing infrastructure to cover all the supply needs for road transport around the Mediterranean arch. Another corridor could also be imagined from Portugal and Spain to the north of France, Netherlands, UK, north of Germany and Denmark, once all the LNG terminals, now under construction, will be in service. Copenhagen. May

22 Biogas. Another source of Natural Gas Biogas comes from fermentation processes of biomass (organic waste, landfills, vegetable and animal feedstock), which produces methane rich gases. Biogas brings together the advantages of natural gas with the environmental benefits of renewable energy sources. Due to the wide different types of sources: forestry, landfills, agricultural; there is a large and wide potential for biogas production in Europe, where it is expected to grow significantly in the coming years. Copenhagen. May

23 Biogas production potential Among different options of biofuels, biomethane presents the highest efficiency per hectare of land. A global European estimation shows a potential of TWh (9,9EJ=238Mtoe), made out of TWh (5,4 EJ=130Mtoe) coming from crops, plus another 1.250TWh (4,5EJ=1.108Mtoe) coming from other sources: sewage, manure, landfills, etc. If we choose bioethanol instead of biogas we would loose the potential of the waste, sewages, etc (1.250TWh, 4,5EJ=108Mtoe) and we would also reduce the efficiency of the land by 47%. In other words we would obtain 800TWh (2,9EJ=70Mtoe) instead of 2.750TWh (9,9EJ=238Mtoe). Copenhagen. May

24 Big city. Gas consumption vs biogas production The yearly biogas production of the city is of about 40 mio m3, that once refined would mean: 22 mio m3 of biomethane The yearly consumption of natural gas of the complete fleet of 445 garbage collection trucks is: 10,5 mio m3 This volume is enough to fuel the full fleet of garbage collection (445 units) plus a similar figure of buses. Near heavy urban vehicles! Copenhagen. May

25 Methane/Hydrogen mixtures Methane/Hydrogen mixture (Hythane, Hydrometano) offers a number of significant advantages as a bridge solution for a future hydrogen fuelled transport: It can be used in the existing NGV engines and vehicles with minor engine resetting The inboard fuel storage uses the same type of tanks and fittings, with some specification changes in materials The H2 content considered (up to 30%) does not alter the autonomy of the vehicles There is an immediate impact as CO2 emission reduction (- 11%) The use of compressed H2 in a large basis will push ahead the development of the hydrogen production and logistics Copenhagen. May

26 The Hythane buses Hythane: Natural gas / Hydrogen (80% - 20% by volume) In service since July 2009 Two units IRISBUS-IVECO with Cursor 8 engine 270 CV. Gas tanks: 8 x 155 litres each from Dynetek Autonomy: km Copenhagen. May

27 Conclusions Natural gas (methane) is an excellent energy vector, with the lowest Carbon to Hydrogen ratio of all the hydrocarbons. Additionally natural gas is an alternative fuel, having a different origin from the traditional oil derived diesel, petrol and LPG Natural gas is used in existing internal combustion engines, with minor additional investments, taking advantage of a well known and mature car & commercial vehicle technology. Dual Fuel technology offers the possibility of conversion for existing engines The increasing production of biomethane, both from urban waste and from agricultural stuff is giving natural gas the new and valuable consideration of a renewable fuel Natural gas has been used so far as CNG mainly for urban applications. The availability of LNG will spread its use for medium and long distances road transport NG vehicles are today the best and most economic, available and technically mature alternative to oil derived fuels, also improving gaseous and acoustic emissions NG is the perfect fuel for fleets having their own filling stations, avoiding any dependence of the distribution infrastructure. Copenhagen. May

28 See you next June in Berlin! Copenhagen. May

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