Malmö Hydrogen and CNG/Hydrogen filling station and Hythane bus project

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Malmö Hydrogen and CNG/Hydrogen filling station and Hythane bus project"

Transcription

1 WHEC 16 / June 2006 Lyon France 1(10) Malmö Hydrogen and CNG/Hydrogen filling station and Hythane bus project Bengt Ridell Carl Bro Energikonsult AB, Sweden, Abstract: The hydrogen production plant and the filling station is situated in Malmö, Sweden owned and operated by E.ON Gas Sverige AB. It started operation in September The hydrogen is produced by electrolysis in direct connection to the filling station. Two buses of the local bus fleet have tested in more than two years CNG mixed with 8 % vol of hydrogen as fuel without any modifications of the lean-burn CNG engines. The Lund Institute of Technology at Lund University, Sweden, has confirmed significant improvements in fuel efficiency, more stable operation of the engine and reduction of emissions by performing bench testing of the engines. The heavier mixture with 25 vol % hydrogen has required modifications of the mapping of the engine both for ignition and the air/fuel ratio. Keywords : Hydrogen filling station, Hythane, CNG, buses, ICE

2 WHEC 16 / June 2006 Lyon France 2(10) 1. Background The largest private utility company in Sweden, E.ON Sverige AB, with its head office in Malmö has a history of being in the forefront of the technologically development. The utilities former name was Sydkraft, today it belongs to the German E.ON group. Already in 1985 Sydkraft and the Municipality of Malmö started a long-term co-operation regarding conversion from diesel to CNG on the city busses. Now in the region Skåne more than 330 buses, 80 trucks and about 1000 cars are running on CNG and biogas. In 1995 the parties both implemented use of Electric Vehicles in their fleets as a part of a large EV demonstration project in the region. This quest for testing new alternative fuelled vehicles has continued and the latest step is now to test hydrogen mixed together with natural gas for local city buses. Carl Bro Energikonsult AB has been an active partner in the Malmö hydrogen filling station project from first idea, design, project management, procurement, start up of the filling station and the follow up of the operation of the plant and the buses. 2. The hydrogen production plant and filling station, The hydrogen plant and the filling station is situated at Nobelvägen 66 in Malmö and owned and operated by E.ON Sverige Gas AB. It started operation in September At the same site there are filling stations for CNG and also electrical vehicles. The hydrogen is produced by electrolysis in direct connection to the filling station. The electricity is produced in a nearby windpower plant and distributed to the plant via the electrical grid. The hydrogen plant including the production and filling station is delivered by Stuart Energy, Canada today called Hydrogenics. Vandenborre Hydrogen Systems in Belgium now owned by Hydrogenics ltd, Canada manufactured the electrolyser unit Technical data for the electrolyser as stated by the supplier, Capacity: 36 Nm 3 H 2 /h Power consumption electrolyser: 4,2 kwh/ Nm 3 H 2 Power consumption in total: 5,5 kwh/ Nm 3 H 2 Water consumption: 36 l/h Pressure from electrolyser H2: 10 bar Power requirement: 210 kw Load area: % The above pictures show the compressed hydrogen storage at the site. The hydrogen storage is placed closed to the electrolyser unit. Dynatech, Canada delivered the pressure vessels. Pressure 393 bar Volume 4m 3

3 WHEC 16 / June 2006 Lyon France 3(10) The dispenser is delivered by FTI, Canada. It consists of two hoses one for pure compressed hydrogen and the other for the mix of hydrogen and CNG. The mixture is done in the dispenser directly while filling the vehicle fuel tank. The different fuelling options at the dispenser are, Hydrogen 350 bars Hydrogen 200 bars H2/CNG CNG with a blend of 8% vol hydrogen H2/CNG CNG with a blend of 20% vol hydrogen The backgrounds to use these four fuelling options are Hydrogen 200 bar is a classic standard for delivery of bottled industrial hydrogen and several hydrogen demonstration vehicles are using 200 bar as pressure in the fuel tank. Hydrogen 350 bar is a new standard often used for fuel cell vehicles. DaimlerChrysler Evobus has specified 350 bar as onboard storage for the hydrogen fuel on their Citaro buses used in the CUTE and other similar projects. It is also the standard for DaimlerChrysler FCell fuel cell cars and several other modern demonstration vehicles using hydrogen as fuel. H2/CNG with a blend of 8% vol hydrogen; this lean mixture of hydrogen into the CNG is considered as CNG according to the specification of natural gas. The mixture can be used directly in the current CNG city buses without any modifications of the fuel system or engine set points or hardware. H2/CNG with a blend of 20% vol hydrogen; A larger portion of the fuel is produced locally and more environmental benefits can be achieved. This heavier mix of hydrogen into the CNG cannot be considered as natural gas. A modification of the engine set points for ignition and fuel injection is required. A comprehensive safety check of the fuel system of the buses has been performed.

4 WHEC 16 / June 2006 Lyon France 4(10) 3. The bus project, engine improvements The background of the bus project to use a mixture of hydrogen and CNG are To use a locally produced fuel To improve the efficiency and the operation of the engines To decrease emissions, both local emissions and CO 2 Two buses of the local bus fleet have used CNG mixed with 8 % vol of hydrogen as fuel without any modifications of the lean-burn CNG engines. The Lund Institute of Technology at Lund University, Sweden, has confirmed significant improvements in fuel efficiency, more stable operation of the engine and reduction of emissions by performing bench testing of the engines. Measurements of efficiency, emissions, combustion variations, knocking etc have been performed during different conditions. 40 Efficiency 2000 rpm 38 NG map-ign H2 map-ign Efficiency [%] Brake efficiency in % with 8% Hydrogen mix into the CNG compared with pure CNG for different air/fuel ratios Lambda It is reasonable to expect that the brake thermal efficiency could increase with hydrogen mixed into the CNG fuel as compared to pure natural gas since the combustion duration is reduced. With reduced combustion duration the effective expansion ratio increases and more work can be extracted from the gas. This increase in efficiency is likely to be the highest where the combustion duration is long with natural gas, i.e. at lean conditions./1/.the Volvo TG100 engine used in the local city is lean burning engine and can thus profit from the use of the mixture of hydrogen and CNG as fuel. The increase in efficiency together with the reduction of the carbon content in the fuel decrease the emissions of CO 2 substantially fuel when the use of hydrogen as a fuel additive.

5 WHEC 16 / June 2006 Lyon France 5(10) Emissions [g/kwh] Emissions 2000 rpm map Ignition HC NG HC H2 NOx NG NOx H2 CO NG CO H2 Emission values from tests with 8% Hydrogen mix into the CNG compared with pure CNG for different air/fuel ratios Lambda Lambda= air/fuel ratio A mix of hydrogen into the natural gas creates a faster combustion and thus more efficient combustion. Lower emissions of HC and CO are then achieved, as the combustion is more efficient. The higher combustion temperature can though increase the NOx emissions. This can be avoided by using a higher air/fuel ratio and/or less spark advance. 7 6 COV IMEP 1300 rpm NG map-ign H2 map-ign COV IMEP [%] Lambda H2 = mix of 8% hydrogen and CNG COV: Coefficient of variation Lambda= air/fuel ratio The flame speed of hydrogen is much higher than that of hydrocarbon fuels. Adding hydrogen to natural gas is thus likely to increase the flame speed of the charge. This could be used to extend the lean limit of the natural gas engine to air/fuel rates ratios where pure natural gas provides insufficient burn rate for stable combustion./1/ Summary of the conclusion with the measurements in a laboratory with a mixture of 8 % vol into the CNG using a Volvo TG100 engine. Higher efficiency More stable combustion, due to a faster combustion (less cycle to cycle variations) A slight increase in power Lower HC and CO emissions because of higher combustion efficiency Higher or similar NOx emissions (with no changes applied to fueling or spark) Slightly higher knock tendency

6 WHEC 16 / June 2006 Lyon France 6(10) Further test with a 20% hydrogen mix in the CNG have been performed in the laboratory. These tests show significant improvements compared to pure CNG. The reduced combustion duration increases the efficiency significantly and enables the reduction of NOx emissions by using a higher air/flow ratio combined with optimised ignition timing. The reduction of CO 2 -emissions is substantial NOx vs. HC, ignition (c) NG NG+H NOx vs. HC, ignition (d) NG NG+H NOx (g/kwh) NOx (g/kwh) HC (g/kwh) HC (g/kwh) Figur 1: HC - NOx trade-off with natural gas and Hythane. The markers represent different air/fuel ratios. Intermediate ignition timing strategy. Figur 2: HC - NOx trade-off with natural gas and Hythane. The markers represent different air/fuel ratios. Retarded ignition timing strategy. The above figures show results from engine tests with 20% vol hydrogen mixed with CNG. It shows the trade-off between HC and NOx emissions when different ignition angels have been used. The different measurements shown represent different air/fuel ratios. Extreme air/fuel ratios can lead to other problems like instable engines or too high knock tendency etc. Furthermore is also the other the harmful emissions significantly decreased as the carbon content of the fuel has decreased with the heavier blending of hydrogen in the fuel. This is especially significant for the reduction of CO 2 emissions. 4. Emissions testing on the road In August 2005 one bus was selected for emission testing on the road /5/. All other measurements have been done in an engine laboratory with an engine of the same type as the one in the city buses, Volvo TG100 lean burning engines. The bus was driven both with CNG mixed with 20 % hydrogen and pure CNG. Four different the tests were performed, 1. Max power in a long uphill slope on a motorway during non rush hour conditions 2. Steady state driving on an old airstrip at velocities between 20 and 70 km/h 3. Measurements during idling 4. Start from a bus stop and acceleration up to 40 km/h During the different tests were emissions, airflow, speed and engine rpm measured. During the uphill slope tests the velocity was significantly higher, 10 km/h, when the bus used the CNG mixed with 20% vol hydrogen fuel compared to pure CNG. The positive influence from the hydrogen mixed into the CNG is because of the higher flame speed and thus more efficient burning. The lean burning engines can have some misfiring when they go very lean. The Hythane fuel gives as mentioned before a higher efficiency and in some cases also higher power to the engine. The hydrocarbon emissions were significantly lower but the NO x emissions were in this test higher with CNG mixed with hydrogen fuel. The NO x emissions were lower in the laboratory during steady conditions.

7 WHEC 16 / June 2006 Lyon France 7(10) Speed (km/h) Emissions at constant velocities between 20 and 70 km/h The CO emissions were higher with Hythane at low velocities but lower above 35 km/h this is explained by the effect of the lean burning. A gearshift at these velocities did complicate the measurements. Fuel consumption at test during constant velocities The fuel consumption was lower with the Hythane mixture compared to CNG as the efficiency is higher.

8 WHEC 16 / June 2006 Lyon France 8(10) Emissions accumulated (gram) during 24s acceleration from a bus stop The results in the graph above are based on the accumulated emissions measured during acceleration of the bus from standstill to 24s. Measurements have been made very second. These tests were made with an old engine that has been in operation in a bus during real conditions about 10 years and km. Another bus might have given different results. These conclusions are not valid for new CNG engines. The fuel consumption and thus the CO 2 -emissions have decreased up to 10%. In other tests has values higher than 20% been measured. The NO x -emissions has increased with Hythane. This increase can be avoided by a more accurate mapping of the engines air/fuel ratio and ignition set points. 5. The findings and status of the bus and vehicles operation The operation with the mixture of 8 vol % hydrogen in the natural gas started in September Two city buses have used the Hythane fuel with 8% vol hydrogen. This has been done without any modifications of the engines. The buses could then also use CNG as fuel if needed. The heavier mixture with 20% vol hydrogen in the CNG has been used since the beginning of year This has required modifications of the mapping of the engine both for ignition and the air/fuel ratio. Connecting a PC for adjustments of the control system of the bus engine did the necessary modifications. There have not been any hardware modifications done. A comprehensive study of all components regarding safety has been performed by the engine manufacture. The buses have been in operation with CNG/hydrogen mixture more than km and used about 33 tonnes of CNG mixed with hydrogen8% vol and 6 tonnes of CNG mixed with hydrogen25% vol. There have not been any operational problems what so ever caused by the fuel. The buses and the engines have been examined by hydrogen detection systems but there has not been any signs of cracks or leakage of hydrogen The fuel consumption measured by a daily journal has shown 20 30% lower fuel consumption using CNG mixed with hydrgen instead of pure CNG

9 WHEC 16 / June 2006 Lyon France 9(10) The long-term vision is to use a mixture of hydrogen and CNG in all the city buses. Several passenger cars have tested the low-grade CNG mixed with hydrogen8% vol fuel with good results. There is a foreseen project to test 10 passenger cars including taxis and other service vehicles running on CNG mixed with hydrogen for a longer test period. A few hydrogen vehicles have visited the filling station but there are not yet any demonstration projects for vehicles running on pure hydrogen.

10 References: WHEC 16 / June 2006 Lyon France 10(10) 1. Per Tunestål, Patrik Einewall, Ola Stenlåås, Bengt Johansson, Lunds Institute of Technology, department of Heat and Power Engineering, Lund, Sweden, Poosible short-term introduction of hydrogen as vehicle fuel / fuel additive, Edition Technip Paris Per Tunestål, Magnus Christensen, Patrik Einewall, Tobias Andersson, Bengt Johansson, Lunds Institute of Technology, department of Heat and Power Engineering, Lund, Sweden, Hydrogen additive for improved lean burning capability of slow and fast burning natural gas combustion chambers, Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc, USA 3. Bengt Ridell Carl Bro Energikonsult AB, Malmö Hydrogen and hydrogen /CNG filling station, paper presented at the Hydrogen and Fuel cells 2004 Conference and Trade show, Toronto, Canada, September 27, Malmö Hydrogen and hydrogen/cng filling station and Hythane bus project, Bengt Ridell Carl Bro Energikonsult AB, paper presented Risø international energy conference May 2005, Denmark 5. Owe Jönsson, SGC, Swedish Gas Centre Utveckling och demonstation av användning av metan/vätgasblandningar som bränsle i befintliga metangasdrivna bussar, final report for the Swedish Energy Agency, December 2005.

Malmö Hydrogen and CNG/Hydrogen filling station and Hythane bus project

Malmö Hydrogen and CNG/Hydrogen filling station and Hythane bus project Malmö Hydrogen and CNG/Hydrogen filling station and Hythane bus project Bengt Ridell Carl Bro Energikonsult AB, Sweden, 2005-04-15 bengt.ridell@carlbro.se 1. Background The largest private utility company

More information

Hydrogen Addition For Improved Lean Burn Capability of Slow and Fast Burning Natural Gas Combustion Chambers

Hydrogen Addition For Improved Lean Burn Capability of Slow and Fast Burning Natural Gas Combustion Chambers -- Hydrogen Addition For Improved Lean Burn Capability of Slow and Fast Burning Natural Gas Combustion Chambers Per Tunestål, Magnus Christensen, Patrik Einewall, Tobias Andersson, Bengt Johansson Lund

More information

MIXED HYDROGEN/NATURAL GAS (HCNG) TECHNOLOGY- VISIT AT COLLIER TECHNOLOIES

MIXED HYDROGEN/NATURAL GAS (HCNG) TECHNOLOGY- VISIT AT COLLIER TECHNOLOIES ARIELI ASSOCIATES MANAGEMENT, ENGINEERING AND OPERATIONS CONSULTING Report No. 1108 MIXED HYDROGEN/NATURAL GAS (HCNG) TECHNOLOGY- VISIT AT COLLIER TECHNOLOIES -2-1. INTRODUCTION As a California transit

More information

Lean Burn Natural Gas Operation vs. Stoichiometric Operation with EGR and a Three Way Catalyst Einewall, Patrik; Tunestål, Per; Johansson, Bengt

Lean Burn Natural Gas Operation vs. Stoichiometric Operation with EGR and a Three Way Catalyst Einewall, Patrik; Tunestål, Per; Johansson, Bengt Lean Burn Natural Gas Operation vs. Stoichiometric Operation with EGR and a Three Way Catalyst Einewall, Patrik; Tunestål, Per; Johansson, Bengt Published in: SAE Special Publications Published: -1-1 Link

More information

Hydrogen Fueled I.C. Engine

Hydrogen Fueled I.C. Engine Hydrogen Fueled I.C. Engine Chetan Patel[90] Roll No:-10105143 chetanp@iitk.ac.in Abstract In this paper, initially in this paper some design modification is required for using hydrogen as a fuel in existing

More information

Natural Gas and Transportation

Natural Gas and Transportation 1 M.J. Bradley & Associates Potential for NG as a Vehicle Fuel Natural Gas and Transportation Options for Effective Resource Management Dana Lowell Senior Consultant Roundtable on Low Sulfur and Alternative

More information

Spark Ignition Engine Combustion

Spark Ignition Engine Combustion Spark Ignition Engine Combustion MAK 652E Lean Combustion in Stratified Charge Engines Prof.Dr. Cem Soruşbay Istanbul Technical University - Automotive Laboratories Contents Introduction Lean combustion

More information

Bio-natural-gas for cleaner urban transport

Bio-natural-gas for cleaner urban transport Bio-natural-gas for cleaner urban transport Green Cars y Oportunidades de Liderazgo Valencia. 15 de abril de 2010 Manuel Lage, Dr. Ing. General Manager Valencia. Abril 2010 1 Advantages of bio natural

More information

VARIABLE COMPOSITION HYDROGEN/NATURAL GAS MIXTURES FOR INCREASED ENGINE EFFICIENCY AND DECREASED EMMISSIONS

VARIABLE COMPOSITION HYDROGEN/NATURAL GAS MIXTURES FOR INCREASED ENGINE EFFICIENCY AND DECREASED EMMISSIONS VARIABLE COMPOSITION HYDROGEN/NATURAL GAS MIXTURES FOR INCREASED ENGINE EFFICIENCY AND DECREASED EMMISSIONS R. SIERENS University of Gent Laboratory of Transporttechnology Sint-Pietersnieuwstraat B-9000

More information

Environmental benefits with biogas buses

Environmental benefits with biogas buses Environmental benefits with biogas buses Nordic Biogas Conference Oslo, 10 12 March 2010 Nils-Olof Nylund VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland 2 Outline Introduction Gas engine technology Critical

More information

EMISSIONS #1 - COMBUSTION CHEMISTRY

EMISSIONS #1 - COMBUSTION CHEMISTRY Introduction to Combustion Chemistry The gasoline-powered internal combustion engine takes air from the atmosphere and gasoline, a hydrocarbon fuel, and through the process of combustion releases the chemical

More information

Hythane Company LLC. Hythane Tomorrow s low cost, low emission fuel today

Hythane Company LLC. Hythane Tomorrow s low cost, low emission fuel today Hythane Company LLC Hythane Tomorrow s low cost, low emission fuel today October 2006 Hythane Company LLC A wholly owned susidiary of Eden Energy Ltd PRODUCTS Hythane technology- a mixture of natural gas

More information

Sales & Marketing Natural Gas Business Development & Product Unit CNG for cleaner cities and road transport

Sales & Marketing Natural Gas Business Development & Product Unit CNG for cleaner cities and road transport Sales & Marketing CNG for cleaner cities and road transport Alfredo Martín, January 2005 Fuel evolution in city / road transportation Due to environmental and/or economic issues, the shift from liquid

More information

Biomethane as vehicle fuel

Biomethane as vehicle fuel Biomethane as vehicle fuel Experiences from the Biogas West project Project manager Biogas Väst Bernt Svensén Business Region Göteborg Head and project manager Business Region Göteborg Represents 13 municipalities

More information

Lennart Pilskog Director Public Affairs. Branschdagarna Stockholm Our greatest challenge

Lennart Pilskog Director Public Affairs. Branschdagarna Stockholm Our greatest challenge Lennart Pilskog Director Public Affairs Branschdagarna Stockholm 2012 1 2012-05-23 Company presentation The Volvo Group Volvo Group Mack Trucks Renault Trucks UD Truck Volvo Buses Volvo Construction Equipment

More information

Flex Fuel Vehicles in Brazil

Flex Fuel Vehicles in Brazil Flex Fuel Vehicles in Brazil Henry Joseph Jr. ANFAVEA Energy & Environment Affairs Commission Brasília, March 22 th, 2013. The Brazilian Automobile Industry Local Manufacturers (2012) - 26 companies Net

More information

Hydrogenics Selected References. Fueling Stations

Hydrogenics Selected References. Fueling Stations Hydrogenics Selected References Fueling Stations 2013 In a nutshell Global provider of On-site hydrogen water electrolysers Energy Storage systems H 2 fueling stations Fuel cells systems Since over 60

More information

What makes clean vehicles interesting ten years of experience in promoting clean vehicles

What makes clean vehicles interesting ten years of experience in promoting clean vehicles What makes clean vehicles interesting ten years of experience in promoting clean vehicles Fredrik Högberg Project manager, Clean Vehicles in Götebg, City of Götebg www.miljofdon.se fredrik.hogberg@trafikkontet.gotebg.se

More information

Pollution by 2-Stroke Engines

Pollution by 2-Stroke Engines Pollution by 2-Stroke Engines By Engr. Aminu Jalal National Automotive Council At The Nigerian Conference on Clean Air, Clean Fuels and Vehicles, Abuja, 2-3 May 2006 Introduction to the 2-Stroke Engine

More information

Japan Simulation Model Overview

Japan Simulation Model Overview Japan Simulation Model Overview Simulation methods for Fuel Consumption measurement of HD and HD hybrid vehicles Hisakazu Suzuki JAPAN 1 CONTENTS 1. Overview of Fuel Consumption Measurement by Simulation

More information

The Next Generation Near-Zero Emission Natural Gas Vehicles

The Next Generation Near-Zero Emission Natural Gas Vehicles The Next Generation Near-Zero Emission Natural Gas Vehicles Jeff Reed Director of Emerging Technologies Southern California Gas Company November 29, 2011 1 2006 The Gas Company. All copyright and trademark

More information

Biogas as transportation fuel

Biogas as transportation fuel Biogas as transportation fuel Summary Biogas is used as transportation fuel in a number of countries, but in Europe it has only reached a major breakthrough in Sweden. All of the biogas plants in Sweden

More information

Emissions and fuel consumption of natural gas powered city buses versus diesel buses in realcity

Emissions and fuel consumption of natural gas powered city buses versus diesel buses in realcity Emissions and fuel consumption of natural gas powered city buses versus diesel buses in realcity traffic L. Pelkmans, D. De Keukeleere & G. Lenaers Vito Flemish Institute for Technological Research, Belgium

More information

INTERNAL COMBUSTION RECIPROCATING PISTON ENGINES

INTERNAL COMBUSTION RECIPROCATING PISTON ENGINES INTERNAL COMBUSTION RECIPROCATING PISTON ENGINES TYPES OF RECIPROCATING INTERNAL COMBUSTION PISTON ENGINES Depending on the ignition pattern: Otto cycle (spark-ignition - SI engines), Diesel cycle (auto-ignition

More information

Case Study submitted to NGVA Europe by The Swedish Gas Centre

Case Study submitted to NGVA Europe by The Swedish Gas Centre NGVA Europe Case Study: Methane Powered Urban Transport in Sweden Public Transport Buses Case Study submitted to NGVA Europe by The Swedish Gas Centre November 2010 Case Study. November 2010 Methane Transport

More information

Hydrogen Powered Bus Fleets Hydrogen Supply & Fueling. National Fuel Cell Bus Workshop October 5, 2011 - New Orleans, LA

Hydrogen Powered Bus Fleets Hydrogen Supply & Fueling. National Fuel Cell Bus Workshop October 5, 2011 - New Orleans, LA Hydrogen Powered Bus Fleets Hydrogen Supply & Fueling National Fuel Cell Bus Workshop October 5, 2011 - New Orleans, LA Agenda! Air Liquide hydrogen fueling experience! Overview of hydrogen supply and

More information

Experiment Study on Influence of Compression Ratio onto Performance and Emission of Compressed Natural Gas Retrofit Engine

Experiment Study on Influence of Compression Ratio onto Performance and Emission of Compressed Natural Gas Retrofit Engine Experiment Study on Influence of Compression Ratio onto Performance and Emission of Compressed Natural Gas Retrofit Engine Chaiyot Damrongkijkosol 1 and Somrat Kerdsuwan 2 Department of Mechanical Engineering,

More information

Drive Towards Zero, Volvo Cars Manufacturing Engineering, Luc Semeese Issue date: 2010-04-20, Security Class: Propriety Page 1

Drive Towards Zero, Volvo Cars Manufacturing Engineering, Luc Semeese Issue date: 2010-04-20, Security Class: Propriety Page 1 Page 1 Volvo Cars Electrification Strategy DRIVe Towards Zero Brussels April 20th 2010 Luc Semeese Director - Volvo Cars Manufacturing Engineering Page 2 Company philosophy : DRIVe towards Zero! Zero accidents

More information

NGVA Europe Position Paper: Minimum infrastructure needs for Methane (NG/biomethane) refuelling across Europe NGVA Europe

NGVA Europe Position Paper: Minimum infrastructure needs for Methane (NG/biomethane) refuelling across Europe NGVA Europe Madrid/ Brussels 20th May 2011 NGVA Europe Position Paper: Minimum infrastructure needs for Methane (NG/biomethane) refuelling across Europe NGVA Europe In response to the Expert Group Meeting on Future

More information

Experiences on natural gas urban transport buses

Experiences on natural gas urban transport buses Experiences on natural gas urban transport buses Juan Angel Terrón, Dr. Ing. Engineering Director EMT Madrid, Spain DUBLIN, NOV 17, 2011 EMPRESA MUNICIPAL DE TRANSPORTES DE MADRID, S.A. 1 INDEX EMT PRESENTATION

More information

Engine Management Systems for Flex Fuel

Engine Management Systems for Flex Fuel TECNOLOGIA DE PONTA NOS MOTORES FLEX Engine Management Systems for Flex Fuel Fábio Ferreira 1 Agenda Fuels System solutions for Flex Fuel Challenges/drivers for Flex Fuel Main trends for engine management

More information

NATURAL GAS ENGINES FOR SHALE GAS OPERATIONS

NATURAL GAS ENGINES FOR SHALE GAS OPERATIONS NATURAL GAS ENGINES FOR SHALE GAS OPERATIONS Presenter: Nigel N. Clark Center for Alternative Fuels, Engines and Emissions Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering West Virginia University Morgantown,

More information

Present Scenario of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) as a Vehicular fuel in Bangladesh

Present Scenario of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) as a Vehicular fuel in Bangladesh Present Scenario of Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) as a Vehicular fuel in Bangladesh Salma A. Iqbal 1, M. Iqbal 2 and A.F.M. Salauddin 3 1. Department of Chemical Engineering & Polymer Science 2. Department

More information

Natural Gas fueling a better tomorrow Spring Environmental Forum Telluride, CO 6/1/16

Natural Gas fueling a better tomorrow Spring Environmental Forum Telluride, CO 6/1/16 Natural Gas fueling a better tomorrow Spring Environmental Forum Telluride, CO 6/1/16 An introduction to Natural Gas Vehicles and Compressed Natural Gas Purpose Presentation is designed for fleet operators,

More information

Operational experiences with methane buses - What s on the market and where is the potential for improvement? Jan-Helge Sandvåg

Operational experiences with methane buses - What s on the market and where is the potential for improvement? Jan-Helge Sandvåg Operational experiences with methane buses - What s on the market and where is the potential for improvement? Jan-Helge Sandvåg The Baltic Biogas Bus EU-Project Radisson Blue Royal Hotel 22. mai 2012 What

More information

Climate Change, driving force for biofuels Regional Seminar Tartu 23-24 of March 2011 Lennart Hallgren Project Manager. www.balticbiogasbus.

Climate Change, driving force for biofuels Regional Seminar Tartu 23-24 of March 2011 Lennart Hallgren Project Manager. www.balticbiogasbus. Climate Change, driving force for biofuels Regional Seminar Tartu 23-24 of March 2011 Lennart Hallgren Project Manager 1 Climate Change Peak Oil Energy security Diesel shortage Air Quality Congestion Increase

More information

HyNor and the Scandinavian Hydrogen Highway Partnership NAHA conference Reykjavik, April 24, 2008

HyNor and the Scandinavian Hydrogen Highway Partnership NAHA conference Reykjavik, April 24, 2008 HyNor and the Scandinavian Hydrogen Highway Partnership NAHA conference Reykjavik, April 24, 2008 Ulf Hafseld, Head of Business Development Hydrogen, StatoilHydro Chairman SHHP, Board member HyNor 2 Agenda

More information

FUEL CONSUMPTION MEASUREMENT OF BUS HVAC UNITS

FUEL CONSUMPTION MEASUREMENT OF BUS HVAC UNITS ID: 872 FUEL CONSUMPTION MEASUREMENT OF BUS HVAC UNITS KOPECKA M. (*), HEGAR M. (*), RYSKA A. (*) (*) Ingersoll Rand Engineering and Technology Center (IR ETC) Prague, Florianova 246, Hostivice, 253 Czech

More information

CHIC: Clean Hydrogen In European Cities - demonstration of 52 FC hydrogen buses - Hannover MESSE, 10.03.2014 Dr. Philipp Krüger, hysolutions

CHIC: Clean Hydrogen In European Cities - demonstration of 52 FC hydrogen buses - Hannover MESSE, 10.03.2014 Dr. Philipp Krüger, hysolutions CHIC: Clean Hydrogen In European Cities - demonstration of 52 FC hydrogen buses - Hannover MESSE, 10.03.2014 Dr. Philipp Krüger, hysolutions CHIC background CUTE / ECTOS: 2001 2005 Demonstration of a fleet

More information

Kalmar & LNG Power for Terminal Equipment. December 2004 Don Lawrence

Kalmar & LNG Power for Terminal Equipment. December 2004 Don Lawrence Kalmar & LNG Power for Terminal Equipment December 2004 Don Lawrence Kalmar s mission statement Kalmar s overriding mission is to provide solutions to make container and materials handling faster and more

More information

Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition the future of IC engines?

Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition the future of IC engines? Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition the future of IC engines? Prof. Bengt Johansson Lund Institute of Technology at Lund University ABSTRACT The Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine, HCCI,

More information

Study of Combustion Characteristics of an SI Engine Fuelled with Ethanol and Oxygenated Fuel Additives

Study of Combustion Characteristics of an SI Engine Fuelled with Ethanol and Oxygenated Fuel Additives Study of Combustion Characteristics of an SI Engine Fuelled with Ethanol and Oxygenated Fuel Additives C. Ananda Srinivasan and C.G. Saravanan Department of Mechanical Engineering, Annamalai University,

More information

Spark Ignited Natural Gas Engine Technology

Spark Ignited Natural Gas Engine Technology Spark Ignited Natural Gas Engine Technology Clean Fleets Technology Conference Sugar Land, TX, June 2014 Jorge Gonzalez Regional Manager Agenda Corporate Overview Natural Gas Technology Evolution Products

More information

Diesel Engine Combustion

Diesel Engine Combustion Diesel Engine Combustion 1. Characteristics of diesel combustion 2. Different diesel combustion systems 3. Phenomenological model of diesel combustion process 4. Movie of combustion in diesel systems 5.

More information

Biomethane production and its use in captive fleets. Lille Metropole Experience

Biomethane production and its use in captive fleets. Lille Metropole Experience Biomethane production and its use in captive fleets Lille Metropole Experience 1 Lille Urban Community : Local authority reuniting 85 communes and 1.1 million inhabitants. 4th urban area of France after

More information

HyNor and the Scandinavian Hydrogen Highway Partnership Brussels, June 25, 2008

HyNor and the Scandinavian Hydrogen Highway Partnership Brussels, June 25, 2008 HyNor and the Scandinavian Hydrogen Highway Partnership Brussels, June 25, 2008 Ulf Hafseld, Head of Business Development Hydrogen, StatoilHydro Chairman SHHP, Board member HyNor 2 Agenda StatoilHydro

More information

Marine after-treatment from STT Emtec AB

Marine after-treatment from STT Emtec AB Marine after-treatment from STT Emtec AB For Your Vessel and the Environment Recommended by Volvo Penta 16 15 5 6 10 8 13 2 14 12 3 4 7 9 11 1 1. SCR Catalyst 2. Injection nozzle 3. Mixer unit 4. Diagnostic

More information

Zero Emission Engine. An Economic and Environmental Benefit

Zero Emission Engine. An Economic and Environmental Benefit Zero Emission Engine An Economic and Environmental Benefit Saskia Scherfling Registration number: 731805 Department: VIII Course of studies: Process and Environmental Engineering September 2007 Table of

More information

Biomethane in transport

Biomethane in transport Biomethane in transport Experiences of use in different types of vehicles Mårten Ahlm Biogas Syd - Biogas Syd is a regional cooperation organisation for biogas actors in South Sweden - Biogas Syd s objective

More information

Design Study and Demonstration Project: 2. Stirling Engine hybrid electric bus for city centre transport 2

Design Study and Demonstration Project: 2. Stirling Engine hybrid electric bus for city centre transport 2 Design Study and Demonstration Project: 2 Stirling Engine hybrid electric bus for city centre transport 2 Hybrid Electric Vehicles 2 The Oxford Study 3 Anticipated results 3 State of the art 4 Demand Side

More information

Natural Gas Vehicles and Climate Change A Briefing Paper

Natural Gas Vehicles and Climate Change A Briefing Paper Natural Gas Vehicles and Climate Change A Briefing Paper This is a summary of the issues related to the use of natural gas vehicles to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. It has been prepared to inform

More information

What is CNG? CNG is compressed natural gas.

What is CNG? CNG is compressed natural gas. What is CNG? CNG is compressed natural gas. ADVANTAGES OF CNG - Vechiles running on CNG is more efficent than benzine by %70-80, LPG by %40-50 - CNG doesn't damage to motor and oil needs to be changed

More information

Emissions pollutant from diesel, biodiesel and natural gas refuse collection vehicles in urban areas

Emissions pollutant from diesel, biodiesel and natural gas refuse collection vehicles in urban areas Emissions pollutant from diesel, biodiesel and natural gas refuse collection vehicles in urban areas José Mª López, Nuria Flores, Felipe Jiménez, Francisco Aparicio Polytechnic University of Madrid (UPM),

More information

Mazda s Way to More Efficient Internal Combustion Engines

Mazda s Way to More Efficient Internal Combustion Engines COVER STORY Innovative Engines Mazda s Way to More Efficient Internal Combustion Engines The Japanese manufacturer believes that ICE-powered vehicles can reach an equal level of well-to-wheel CO 2 emissions

More information

Alternative Fuel. Which is Right for You?

Alternative Fuel. Which is Right for You? Alternative Fuel. Which is Right for You? Introduction As more alternative fuel and hybrid options emerge, it can be difficult to grasp or decipher the nuances between the benefits and challenges that

More information

New Approaches to Energy Storage for Transportation

New Approaches to Energy Storage for Transportation New Approaches to Energy Storage for Transportation Chris Reeves September 10, 2015 Driving Forces: CO 2 is increasing at record levels 2014 breached the 400ppm milestone Source: www.co2now.org September

More information

Jersey: 1 st Floor, 17 Esplanade, St, Helier, Jersey JE1 1WT, Channel Islands STANDARD DIESEL ENGINE + DUAL FUEL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM = INNOVATIVE SOLUTION FOR GENERATING 125 KW OF CLEAN ELECTRICITY FROM

More information

CNG Vehicles, CNG Filling and Conversion Centres: Looking at Environmental Assessment Point of View

CNG Vehicles, CNG Filling and Conversion Centres: Looking at Environmental Assessment Point of View CNG Vehicles, CNG Filling and Conversion Centres: Looking at Environmental Assessment Point of View QSI Hashmi and Mohammed Solaiman Haider Department of Environment Environmental Benefits of NGVs Significantly

More information

Both the gasoline and diesel engines will be winners

Both the gasoline and diesel engines will be winners Both the gasoline and diesel engines will be winners 26th International AVL Conference «Engine & Environment» Mitsuo Hitomi Mazda Motor Corporation 1 Contents Target for ICE powered vehicles Improving

More information

Towards Zero Emission

Towards Zero Emission Towards Zero Emission Sustainable Mobility Project CNG HCNG H 2 in transport EHA session at Sustainable Energy Week Brussels, 01/02/2007 Economic incentives Italy Finanziaria 2007 Innovative Industrial

More information

Dr. István ZÁDOR PhD: Rita MARKOVITS-SOMOGYI: Dr. Ádám TÖRÖK PhD: PhD, MSc in Transportation Engineering, KOGÁT Ltd. istvan.zador@kogat.

Dr. István ZÁDOR PhD: Rita MARKOVITS-SOMOGYI: Dr. Ádám TÖRÖK PhD: PhD, MSc in Transportation Engineering, KOGÁT Ltd. istvan.zador@kogat. Dr. István ZÁDOR PhD: PhD, MSc in Transportation Engineering, KOGÁT Ltd. istvan.zador@kogat.hu Rita MARKOVITS-SOMOGYI: MSc in Transport Engineering, Budapest University of Technology and Economics Department

More information

LNG Study Tour: Insights into a new market

LNG Study Tour: Insights into a new market LNG Study Tour: Insights into a new market Rolls Royce Marine Bergen Engine Sindre H. Håberg 2003 Rolls-Royce plc The information in this document is the property of Rolls-Royce plc and may not be copied

More information

Market potential for the use of LNG & L-CNG in road transport

Market potential for the use of LNG & L-CNG in road transport Market potential for the use of LNG & L-CNG in road transport UN ECE Round Table of Use of Gas in Transport 21 st Annual Session Geneva, 18-19 January, 2011 Manuel Lage, Dr. Eng. General Manager Rotterdam,

More information

BUS EMISSIONS IN REAL LIFE

BUS EMISSIONS IN REAL LIFE BUS EMISSIONS IN REAL LIFE Bergen, 22.05.2012 Nils-Olof Nylund / Kimmo Erkkilä / Timo Murtonen VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland 1 Background Emission certification for heavy-duty vehicles is carried

More information

JJMIE Jordan Journal of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering

JJMIE Jordan Journal of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering JJMIE Jordan Journal of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Volume 3, Number 2, June. 29 ISSN 1995-6665 Pages 15-11 Performance, Emission and Combustion of LPG Dual Fuel Engine using Glow Plug P.Vijayabalan

More information

Engineering Fundamentals of the Internal Combustion Engine

Engineering Fundamentals of the Internal Combustion Engine Engineering Fundamentals of the Internal Combustion Engine SECOND EDITION Willard W. Pulkrabek University of Wisconsin Plattevilie PEARSON Prentice Hall Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 Preface Acknowledgments

More information

Fuel cells in Sweden. Svenska Tekniska Vetenskapsakademin Esbo, Finland 28 th May 2009. Bengt Ridell, Grontmij AB

Fuel cells in Sweden. Svenska Tekniska Vetenskapsakademin Esbo, Finland 28 th May 2009. Bengt Ridell, Grontmij AB Fuel cells in Sweden Svenska Tekniska Vetenskapsakademin Esbo, Finland 28 th May 2009 Bengt Ridell, Grontmij AB Fuel cells in Sweden There is not any official fuel cell or hydrogen program in Sweden. A

More information

Testing of various fuel and additive options in a compression-ignited heavy-duty alcohol engine

Testing of various fuel and additive options in a compression-ignited heavy-duty alcohol engine Testing of various fuel and additive options in a compression-ignited heavy-duty alcohol engine 2015 Polttomoottori- ja turboteknologian seminaari Espoo, 7.5.2015 Timo Murtonen, Nils-Olof Nylund, Mårten

More information

Impact of air conditioning system operation on increasing gases emissions from automobile

Impact of air conditioning system operation on increasing gases emissions from automobile Home Search Collections Journals About Contact us My IOPscience Impact of air conditioning system operation on increasing gases emissions from automobile This content has been downloaded from IOPscience.

More information

Exhaust emissions of a single cylinder diesel. engine with addition of ethanol

Exhaust emissions of a single cylinder diesel. engine with addition of ethanol www.ijaser.com 2014 by the authors Licensee IJASER- Under Creative Commons License 3.0 editorial@ijaser.com Research article ISSN 2277 9442 Exhaust emissions of a single cylinder diesel engine with addition

More information

The success of biomethane in Sweden

The success of biomethane in Sweden The success of biomethane in Sweden Sustainable Transport - for better air quality and reduced greenhouse gases London, 21 May 2007 Project manager Biogas Väst Bernt Svensén Business Region Göteborg The

More information

Natural Gas Vehicles. Fuel of the Future

Natural Gas Vehicles. Fuel of the Future Natural Gas Vehicles Fuel of the Future Contents 1- Introduction 2- Advantages of utilizing CNG as a vehicular fuel. - Available - Environment friendly & Clean - Safe - Economical 3- A successful experience

More information

Biogas upgrading Technologies, framework and experience

Biogas upgrading Technologies, framework and experience Biogas upgrading Technologies, framework and experience Owe Jönsson, E.ON Gas Sverige Presentation at Biogas Seminar, Fredericia 2008-08-28 Biogas as vehicle fuel the driver for biogas injection in Sweden

More information

Table of contents. B4184S8 (FlexiFuel)...2

Table of contents. B4184S8 (FlexiFuel)...2 Table of contents B4184S8 (FlexiFuel)...2 General... 2 FlexiFuel and the environment... 2 Changes... 3 Cylinder head... 4 Injectors... 4 Fuel lines... 4 Electric engine block heater... 4 DC/AC converter...

More information

HRB Hydrostatic Regenerative Braking System: The Hydraulic Hybrid Drive from Bosch Rexroth

HRB Hydrostatic Regenerative Braking System: The Hydraulic Hybrid Drive from Bosch Rexroth HRB Hydrostatic Regenerative Braking System: The Hydraulic Hybrid Drive from Bosch Rexroth Contact Eric Lindzus, Bosch Rexroth AG Bosch Rexroth AG Product Management Sales Mobile Hydraulics Innovative

More information

Combustion characteristics of LNG

Combustion characteristics of LNG Combustion characteristics of LNG LNG Fuel Forum, Stockholm 21. September 2011 Øyvind Buhaug, Principal Engineer - Fuels and Engine Technology, Statoil Content LNG compositions in the global market LNG

More information

Performance of Alternative Fuels at High Altitude

Performance of Alternative Fuels at High Altitude Technical Manual Performance of Alternative Fuels at High Altitude April 2012 This document was prepared by the Paul S. Sarbanes Transit in Parks Technical Assistance Center. DISCLAIMER This document is

More information

Effect of GTL Diesel Fuels on Emissions and Engine Performance

Effect of GTL Diesel Fuels on Emissions and Engine Performance Rudolf R. Maly Research and Technology, Stuttgart Effect of GTL Diesel Fuels on Emissions and Engine Performance 10th Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction Conference August 29 - September 2, 2004 Coronado,

More information

Biomethane in Vehicles. October 2008

Biomethane in Vehicles. October 2008 Biomethane in Vehicles October 2008 1 Gas vehicles A gas vehicles is a vehicle fuelled buy a gaseous fuel not liquid fuel. Seems simple, but not all gasses are the same, and storage methods vary 2 Definitions

More information

Benefits and challenges of biomethane production in Sweden

Benefits and challenges of biomethane production in Sweden Benefits and challenges of biomethane production in Sweden Dr. Jonas Dahl, Energiforsk Swedish Energy Research Centre DENA European Biomethane conference Berlin 12 Oktober 2015 Energiforsk Swedish Energy

More information

Performance Enhancement of a Conventional Motorcycle to a Racing Motorcycle without Afffecting the Mileage by Using HHO Generator

Performance Enhancement of a Conventional Motorcycle to a Racing Motorcycle without Afffecting the Mileage by Using HHO Generator International Journal of Advanced Mechanical Engineering. ISSN 2250-3234 Volume 4, Number 1 (2014), pp. 121-128 Research India Publications http://www.ripublication.com/ijame.htm Performance Enhancement

More information

Vorlesung Teil 4 Regelung, Zündung. Dr. Günther Herdin

Vorlesung Teil 4 Regelung, Zündung. Dr. Günther Herdin Vorlesung Teil 4 Regelung, Zündung Dr. Günther Herdin Ignition Systems CDI (Capacitor Discharge Ign.) Transistor Ignition Plasma Ignition High Frequency Ignition Corona Ignition Auto Ignition Laser Ignition

More information

E - THEORY/OPERATION

E - THEORY/OPERATION E - THEORY/OPERATION 1995 Volvo 850 1995 ENGINE PERFORMANCE Volvo - Theory & Operation 850 INTRODUCTION This article covers basic description and operation of engine performance-related systems and components.

More information

PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION OF DIESEL ENGINE WITH ADDITIONAL INJECTION OF ETHYL ALCOHOL

PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION OF DIESEL ENGINE WITH ADDITIONAL INJECTION OF ETHYL ALCOHOL Journal of KONES Internal Combustion Engines 2002 No. 3 4 ISSN 1231 4005 PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION OF DIESEL ENGINE WITH ADDITIONAL INJECTION OF ETHYL ALCOHOL Andrzej Kowalewicz, Grzegorz Pawlak Technical

More information

Alternative fuels for heavy duty vehicles

Alternative fuels for heavy duty vehicles Alternative fuels for heavy duty vehicles Anthony Greszler Volvo Group Truck Technology Presented to Energy Use and Policy in the U.S. Trucking Sector Resources for the Future Volvo Group 2012 Trucks Volvo

More information

Bio-natural gas as the best solution for urban transport

Bio-natural gas as the best solution for urban transport Bio-natural gas as the best solution for urban transport EGATEC. Copenhagen 12-13 May, 2011 Manuel Lage, Dr. Eng. General Manager Copenhagen. May 2011 1 Advantages of bio natural gas Natural gas is an

More information

Göteborg Energi. Biogas potential. Henrik Forsgren. Dir. Public Affairs. Biogas has a wide range of biomass feedstock.

Göteborg Energi. Biogas potential. Henrik Forsgren. Dir. Public Affairs. Biogas has a wide range of biomass feedstock. Göteborg Energi Henrik Forsgren Dir. Public Affairs Biogas potential Biogas has a wide range of biomass feedstock. Cities Agriculture Forest Sludge Household waste Industry org waste Landfill Manure Rest-products

More information

US Heavy Duty Fleets - Fuel Economy

US Heavy Duty Fleets - Fuel Economy US Heavy Duty Fleets - Fuel Economy Feb. 22, 2006 Anthony Greszler Vice President Advanced Engineering VOLVO POWERTRAIN CORPORATION Drivers for FE in HD Diesel Pending oil shortage Rapid oil price increases

More information

Hydrogenics Investor Presentation January 2014

Hydrogenics Investor Presentation January 2014 Hydrogenics Investor Presentation January 2014 Safe Harbor Statement Certain statements in the Business Update and Order Backlog sections contain forward-looking statements within the meaning of the safe

More information

Copenhagen, June 4th Scandlines Green Agenda

Copenhagen, June 4th Scandlines Green Agenda Copenhagen, June 4th 2014 Scandlines Green Agenda Agenda Introduction to Scandlines and our Green Strategy Scandlines Hybrid Ferries Scandlines Zero Emission program 2 Scandlines is a central part of the

More information

FACT SHEET. Upgrading Biogas to Biomethane

FACT SHEET. Upgrading Biogas to Biomethane FACT SHEET Upgrading Biogas to Biomethane On-farm digester model source: FNR On farm Biogas plant Introduction to Anaerobic Digestion (AD) Anaerobic Digestion (AD) is the process whereby organic matter

More information

Biogas. creating the future

Biogas. creating the future Biogas creating the future Carbon-dioxide-neutral and locally produced We need to limit our dioxide emissions. For many years this has been the most important issue, in order to put a stop to climate

More information

A.Pannirselvam*, M.Ramajayam, V.Gurumani, S.Arulselvan and G.Karthikeyan *(Department of Mechanical Engineering, Annamalai University)

A.Pannirselvam*, M.Ramajayam, V.Gurumani, S.Arulselvan and G.Karthikeyan *(Department of Mechanical Engineering, Annamalai University) A.Pannirselvam, M.Ramajayam, V.Gurumani, S.Arulselvan, G.Karthikeyan / International Journal of Vol. 2, Issue 2,Mar-Apr 212, pp.19-27 Experimental Studies on the Performance and Emission Characteristics

More information

Hydrogen as a fuel for internal combustion engines

Hydrogen as a fuel for internal combustion engines Hydrogen as a fuel for internal combustion engines Contents: Introduction External mixture formation for hydrogen operated engines Experimental engine for hydrogen in Stralsund Internal mixture formation

More information

Biogas as a vehicle fuel in buses costs and greenhouse gas emissions

Biogas as a vehicle fuel in buses costs and greenhouse gas emissions Biogas as a vehicle fuel in buses costs and greenhouse gas emissions Kaunas 22.9.2009 Tuula Kajolinna and Mona Arnold VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland www.balticbiogasbus.eu 1 The aim Well to wheel

More information

70 Mpa Hydrogen Refuelling Stations

70 Mpa Hydrogen Refuelling Stations 70 Mpa Hydrogen Refuelling Stations Ph.d. Student: Erasmus Rothuizen DTU/MEK Section of Thermal Energy Systems In cooperation with H2Logic Supervisor: Masoud Rokni email: edro@mek.dtu.dk Agenda Hydrogen

More information

The Mercedes-Benz Econic NGT. Conservation of Natural Resources

The Mercedes-Benz Econic NGT. Conservation of Natural Resources The Mercedes-Benz Econic NGT Conservation of Natural Resources Clean, economical, reliable Sustainability and the conservation of resources have long been part of the corporate philosophy at Mercedes-Benz:

More information

PROPANE POWERED ALTERNATIVE FUEL SCHOOL BUSES. PALMETTO BUS SALES

PROPANE POWERED ALTERNATIVE FUEL SCHOOL BUSES. PALMETTO BUS SALES PROPANE POWERED ALTERNATIVE FUEL SCHOOL BUSES Clean. Domestic. Safe. Abundant. Discovered in 1910 Dr. Walter O. Snelling First used as an engine fuel in 1913 Composition Propane = C 3 H 8 Gasoline = C

More information

Numerical Analysis for the Performance of a Thermoelectric Generator According to Engine Exhaust Gas Thermal Conditions

Numerical Analysis for the Performance of a Thermoelectric Generator According to Engine Exhaust Gas Thermal Conditions Numerical Analysis for the Performance of a Thermoelectric Generator According to Engine Exhaust Gas Thermal Conditions Jinkyu Park, Yungjin Kim, Byungdeok In, Sangki Park and Kihyung Lee* Abstract Internal

More information

INTERNAL COMBUSTION (IC) ENGINES

INTERNAL COMBUSTION (IC) ENGINES INTERNAL COMBUSTION (IC) ENGINES An IC engine is one in which the heat transfer to the working fluid occurs within the engine itself, usually by the combustion of fuel with the oxygen of air. In external

More information