Experiences on natural gas urban transport buses

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1 Experiences on natural gas urban transport buses Juan Angel Terrón, Dr. Ing. Engineering Director EMT Madrid, Spain DUBLIN, NOV 17, 2011 EMPRESA MUNICIPAL DE TRANSPORTES DE MADRID, S.A. 1

2 INDEX EMT PRESENTATION CNG EVOLUTION IN EMT CNG FIGURES CNG FUTURE IN EMT NEW SANCHINARRO DEPOT EMPRESA MUNICIPAL DE TRANSPORTES DE MADRID, S.A. 2

3 EMT: FIGURES HUMAN RESOURCES: PASSENGERS: KM: NETWORK: FUEL CONSUMPTION: AVERAGE SPEED: employees (5.971 drivers) 431 million/year 101 million/year 213 routes km busstops 40 M-litres biodiesel + 16 M kg CNG 13,4 km/h Year (31-12) FLEET Diesel Biodiesel CNG Ethanol Electric transmissi on Electricity Hydrogen Fleet ,3 % ,9 % ,3 % ,5 % ,7 % ,8 % ,6 % EMPRESA MUNICIPAL DE TRANSPORTES DE MADRID, S.A. 3

4 CNG Kick-off: First test starts in bus called ECOBUS UE: THERMIE 92 Program 1 year project Refilling station Total refilling: 4 hours Partners: EMT IVECO-PEGASO GAS NATURAL EMPRESA MUNICIPAL DE TRANSPORTES DE MADRID, S.A. 4

5 SINCE 1995 EMT HAS INTRODUCED CNG AS A REGULAR FUEL IN ITS FLEET OF BUSES BECAUSE THE FIRST TEST (ECOBUS) WAS VERY POSITIVE. CNG IS ONE OF THE CLEANEST FUELS. IT IS COMPATIBLE WITH DIESEL TECHNOLOGY. IT IS AN ALTERNATIVE TO PETROL. THERE ARE A LOT OF NATURAL RESERVES. A REGULAR SUPPLY IS ASSURED. ITS PRICE IS STABLE. THERE IS A KNOW-HOW OF NATURAL GAS. EMPRESA MUNICIPAL DE TRANSPORTES DE MADRID, S.A. 5

6 Red doméstica de gas INITIAL CNG REFILLING STATION FOR BUSES 10 bar bar 250 bar 250 bar 25 0 bar COMPRESSORS NOZZLES EMPRESA MUNICIPAL DE TRANSPORTES DE MADRID, S.A. 6

7 CNG : EMT EVOLUTION CNG Bus Fleet COMPRESSION FACILITIES REFILLING STATION Test Plant 60 Nm 3 /h. Only for 1 bus compressors 750 Nm 3 /h. = Nm 3 /hour. Another compressor added 3 x 750 Nm 3 /h. = Nm 3 /hour. Another compressor added 4 x 750 Nm 3 /h. = Nm 3 /hour. Increase of 5 compressors of 2000 Nm 3 /hour and 300 CV. New Depot: 9 compressors of Nm3/hour and 350 HP. Refilling structure for 20 buses Refilling structure for 20 autobuses Refilling structure for 20 buses and parking refilling points for 40 buses In lane refilling station. Refilling time: 4 min. 6 refilling points -- 4 lanes In lane refilling station. Refilling time: < 3 min. 9 refilling points -- 9 lanes EMPRESA MUNICIPAL DE TRANSPORTES DE MADRID, S.A. 7

8 IN PARK REFILLING STATION EMPRESA MUNICIPAL DE TRANSPORTES DE MADRID, S.A. 8

9 IN LANE REFILLING STATION EMPRESA MUNICIPAL DE TRANSPORTES DE MADRID, S.A. 9

10 FUENCARRAL CNG INITIAL DEPOT: REFILLING CNG STATION REFILLING STATION PARKING REFILLING IN LANE REFILLING EMPRESA MUNICIPAL DE TRANSPORTES DE MADRID, S.A. 10

11 FUENCARRAL DEPOT MAINTENANCE WORKSHOP REFILLING PLACE IN PARK REFILLING BRIDGE COMPRESSORS WASHING REFILLING STATION EMPRESA MUNICIPAL DE TRANSPORTES DE MADRID, S.A. 11

12 REFILLING PROCESS IN LANE vs IN PARK Same operations work as with diesel buses Similar investment to in park; less investment in new buildings Fewer maintenance costs Larger energetical costs Problems in bus parking area Large investment costs, requiring major civil works Larger maintenance costs Fewer energetical costs EMPRESA MUNICIPAL DE TRANSPORTES DE MADRID, S.A. 12

13 BUSES 1.- The main differences between CNG and diesel buses are those related to safety rules during maintenance work. 2.- In summer, with the air conditioning in service, the fuel consumption increases by 8%-10%. Some buses with a long workday are unable to finish it s daily service, so they must be changed in route. 3.- The EMT experience with CNG buses is proving positive, with few breakdowns. Their breakdown is smaller than that of diesel buses. But maintenance is more expensive than for diesel buses. date: 2010 maintenance cost /100 km breakdown ratio per 100 km CNG 41,2 1,49 DIESEL 37,3 1,57 EMPRESA MUNICIPAL DE TRANSPORTES DE MADRID, S.A. 13

14 COST ( /100 km) COST ( /100 km) MAINTENANCE COSTS EVOLUTION COSTS OLD BUSES YEARS CNG GASOLEO The CNG buses quality has increased a lot over the recent years and, therefore, the differences between the maintenance costs of diesel buses and CNG buses has been reduced as well. COSTS NEW BUSES YEARS CNG GASOLEO EMPRESA MUNICIPAL DE TRANSPORTES DE MADRID, S.A. 14

15 ECONOMICAL COMPARISON (2010) /100 km GNC Diesel % Fuel and compression costs ,7% Maintenance Costs ,8% CNG bottle tests 1 13,5% Bus Price Cost ,2 % Total ,8% EMPRESA MUNICIPAL DE TRANSPORTES DE MADRID, S.A. 15

16 FUEL COST ( /100 KM) Diesel Biodiesel B20 GNC Etanol EMPRESA MUNICIPAL DE TRANSPORTES DE MADRID, S.A. 16

17 ENVIRONMENTAL RESULTS The fleet of CNG buses, that started with ONE bus in 1994 and nowadays is made up of SIX HUNDRED AND SIXTY THREE buses, has reduced the emission of more than SEVENTY THOUSAND TONES of pollutants during the last FIFTEEN years. This means a reduction of more than 83% of the emissions compared to diesel buses. The improvement in diesel technology has meant, in the last fifteen years, a reduction of more than the 40 % of the emissions of a 1994 diesel bus. EMPRESA MUNICIPAL DE TRANSPORTES DE MADRID, S.A. 17

18 CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE THE COMPETITIVENESS OF THE USE OF NATURAL GAS IN URBAN TRANSPORT SHOULD BE JOINED WITH A SIGNIFICANT REDUCE OF FUEL PRICE THAT COMPENSATES THE HIGHER MAINTENANCE COSTS. COMPRESED NATURAL GAS IS, AT LEAST IN THE SHORT TERM, THE MOST COMPETITVE ALTERNATIVE TO DIESEL IN EVERYTHING RELATED TO COST AND ENVIRONMENT. IN 2010 EMT MADRID, ACCORDING TO THE RESULTS IN ITS CNG BUSES, DECIDED THAT ALL NEW THERMAL ENGINES FOR NEW BUSES MUST USE CNG. THE BUSES ALSO COULD BE EITHER ELECTRICAL OR HYBRID BUSES BUT, IN THIS CASE, WITH CNG ENGINE. EMPRESA MUNICIPAL DE TRANSPORTES DE MADRID, S.A. 18

19 ACTUALLY, THE FUTURE IS TODAY TARGET: TO REACH CNG AS FUEL IN 35 % OF FLEET IN : A DEPOT FOR 410 CNG BUSES HAS BEEN DESIGNED AND BUILT THE NEW REFILLING STATION IS, PROBABLY, THE FASTEST AND LARGEST IN EUROPE: 9 BUSES REFILLING SIMULTANEOUSLY IN LESS THAN 3 MIN FROM 30 BAR TO 210 BAR. MAINTENANCE WORKSHOPS WERE DESIGNED FOR BUSES WITH GASEOUS FUELS. EMPRESA MUNICIPAL DE TRANSPORTES DE MADRID, S.A. 19

20 SANCHINARRO DEPOT Total surface area: 58,000 m 2 EMPRESA MUNICIPAL DE TRANSPORTES DE MADRID, S.A. 20

21 SANCHINARRO DEPOT MAIN ENTRANCE REFILLING AND WASHING STATION FACILITIES BUILDING ACCESS TO 1º FLOOR REFILLING STATION PARKING FOR BUSES WORKSHOP 11,000 m 2 CARS PARKING ENTRANCE EMPRESA MUNICIPAL DE TRANSPORTES DE MADRID, S.A. 21

22 REFILLING AND WASHING STATION BUILDING Ground Floor: m 2 9 filling up lanes, < 3 minutes for a complete bus refilling process 9 automatic washing machines to wash a bus under 1 minute First Floor: m 2 Machines: 9 units 350 kw Compressors 3 un. 50 kw Vacuum Machines 2 un and 2 un. 800 kva Elec Transformers 2 Electric Generator with Power of KVA/u. EMPRESA MUNICIPAL DE TRANSPORTES DE MADRID, S.A. 22

23 DETAILS PLACES FOR ROOF WORKS PLACE TO DISMOUNT CNG BOTTLES CNG TOW EMPRESA MUNICIPAL DE TRANSPORTES DE MADRID, S.A. 23

24 THANK YOU FOR YOUR TIME EMPRESA MUNICIPAL DE TRANSPORTES DE MADRID, S.A. 24

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