The Introduction of Euro IV and Euro V Emissions Directive for Heavy Vehicles

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1 The Introduction of Euro IV and Euro V Emissions Directive for Heavy Vehicles Introduction As a member of the European Union, Ireland is obliged to introduce Directive 2005/55/EC. Directive 2005/55/EC and its implementing Directive 2005/78/EC as amended by 2006/51/EC and 2008/74/EC is an EU Directive and applies to all trucks, lorries and buses sold in the EU market. This Directive lays down limit values for emissions of gaseous and particulate pollutants and for the opacity of exhaust fumes from diesel, natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) engines, known as Euro IV and Euro V, and applies to passenger and goods vehicles of categories of M and N with a reference mass in excess of 2,610kg. The major difference between the Euro IV and Euro V is the reduction in the emission limits for nitrogen oxides from 3.5 to 2.0 g/kwh. The Directive specifies dates from which vehicles must be manufactured with Euro IV and Euro V engines and also specifies the dates by which these vehicles must be registered. Vehicles equipped with Euro IV engines must be registered by October 1 st 2009 and vehicles registered thereafter must be of Euro V specification. In certain conditions, an end of series exemption can be applied for, which if granted, will allow vehicles an extended period of time for registration. More detailed implementation dates for each vehicle category are summarised at the end of this document. Reference mass means the mass of the vehicle in running order less the uniform mass of the driver of 75kg and increased by a uniform mass of 100kg (refer to Certificate of Conformity point 12.1). Objectives of the Directive Improving the health and welfare of the European population is an important objective for the EU authorities. Euro IV and V revises the current emissions limits for motor vehicles and its specific objectives are as follows;

2 To set harmonised rules on the construction of motor vehicles. To improve air quality by reducing pollutants emitted from the road transport sector by setting the next stage of emission limit values for all vehicle categories with a reference mass in excess of 2,610kg. Background The Regulations were originally introduced by the Directive 88/77/EEC and have since been subjected to a number of amendments. In 2005, the Directives were re-cast and consolidated by the Directive 2005/55/EC. Directive 2005/55/EC adopted by the EU Parliament in 2005 introduced durability and On Board Diagnostic (OBD) requirements, and re-stated the emission limits for Euro IV and Euro V which were originally published in 1999/96/EC. In a split-level regulatory approach, the technical requirements pertaining to durability and OBD including provisions for emission systems that use consumable reagents have been described by the Commission in Directive 2005/78/EC. The technical requirements take effect in two stages, Euro IV emission limits came into effect for new type approvals from 1 st October 2005 (and new registrations 1 st October 2006) and Euro V emission limits applied from 1 st October 2008 for new type approvals (and new registrations will apply from 1 st October 2009). Implications for Irish stakeholders Although there is no indigenous engine manufacturing industry in Ireland, the introduction of the tighter Euro IV and V emission limits will have type approval implications for a number of sectors such as importers, distributors and converters of commercial vehicles. The introduction of the Directives will help to ensure the proper functioning of the internal EU market and will guarantee a common level of emissions amongst all vehicles within Europe. They will also facilitate an improvement in air quality, which in turn will improve public health, thus enabling the Government to generate savings in the longer term.

3 Requirements of the Directive Emissions of gaseous pollutants and particulate pollutants, opacity of fumes Initially, the limit values in row B1 of the tables in Annex I, point of the Directive, known as Euro IV, were applicable to all new vehicles type approved from 1 st October 2005 and to all new vehicles registered from 1 st October In a second phase, known as Euro V, the stricter limit values in row B2 of the same tables have been compulsory for all new vehicles type approved since 1 st October 2008 and will be compulsory for all new vehicles registered from 1 st October The table in the attached Appendix is extracted from Directive 2005/55/EC and details the limit values for emissions. Row B1 refers to Euro IV and row B2 refers to Euro V. Durability of emission control systems Vehicle manufacturers must guarantee that diesel and gas engines, having met the standards laid down in Directive 2005/55/EC upon approval, comply with these standards throughout the normal life of the vehicle under normal conditions of use. Onboard diagnostic systems Diesel and gas engines, and vehicles fitted with them, must also have an onboard diagnostic system (OBD) which signals immediately any malfunction of the system for checking emissions from the engine once the limit values are exceeded. Penalties for breach of these Directives Under SI 448 of 2007 European Communities (Mechanically Propelled Vehicle Entry Into service) Regulations 2007 and European Communities (Mechanically Propelled Vehicle Entry Into Service) (Amendment) Regulations 2008 a person guilty of an offence under these Regulations is liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding 5,000

4 Type Approval and Registration Dates The implementation dates of Euro IV and V for new type approvals and new registrations for vehicle types (with a reference mass exceeding 2,610kg) are summarised below. Reference to the Directive should be made for more details. While the Euro IV dates have passed, all new vehicles with a reference mass in excess of 2,610kg will be required to have Euro V certification in order to be registered from 1 st October In certain conditions, an end of series exemption can be applied for, which if granted, will allow vehicles an extended period of time for registration. Details of the end of series exemption procedure and an application can be found at Euro IV Categories M and N with a reference mass in excess of 2,610kg New Type New Registrations Approvals 1/10/2005 1/10/2006 Euro V Categories M and N with a reference mass in excess of 2,610kg Euro VI At present being discussed at EU level 31/12/2013 1/10/2008 1/10/2009 Euro VI The Regulation known as Euro VI, which is at present being discussed at EU level, proposes new tougher emission limits than the Euro V Regulation and will enter into effect from 31 st December The proposal will lower limit values for damaging emissions of several pollutants (CO, THC, NMHC, CH4 NOx, NH3). For example the limit value for total Oxides of Nitrogen (NOx), will be approximately 400 mg/kwh (80% less compared with Euro V), and under the proposal, the particle mass limit will be 10 mg/kwh a 66% reduction compared with the Euro V satge limits. This will be a step forward towards global harmonisation since the limit values are similar to those of the USA. Euro VI will require all passenger and goods vehicles manufactured of categories of M and N with a reference mass in excess of 2,610kg to comply with the standards from 31 st December It is also proposed that the Euro VI Regulation will include measures relating to access to repair information so as to ensure effective competition on the market in repair and maintenance services. Similar measures already exist for the relevant legislation on passenger cars (Euro 5).

5 Appendix A detailed table as taken from Directive 2005/55/EC below details the limit values for emissions. Row B1 refers to Euro IV and row B2 refers to Euro V. Row C refers to enhanced environmentally friendly vehicle or EEEV and is a term used in the European emission standards for the definition of a clean vehicle greater than 3.5 tonne in category M2 and M3. The standard lies between the levels of Euro V and VI.

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