Cleaner vehicle fleets in. Central and Eastern Europe

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1 Cleaner vehicle fleets in Central and Eastern Europe Training for REC Country Offices Friday 19 September 2008 Regional Environmental Center for Central and Eastern Europe Szentendre, Hungary

2 Agenda 19 th September 8:30 Registration of participants 9:00 Welcome and tour de table 9:15 Session 1: Sustainable transport and the importance of cleaner fleet management United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and Regional Environmental Center for Central and Eastern Europe (REC) cooperation on cleaner fuels and vehicles Transport and the environment: energy, air quality and climate change Cleaner, more efficient vehicles the role of fleets and fleet managers 10:30 Coffee Break 10:45 Session 2: Presentation of the cleaner fleet management toolkit Overview at purpose and function of the toolkit In-depth look at the tools available Understanding the Inventory and Options Tool #18 13:00 Lunch 14:00 Session 3: The toolkit in practice The experience of TNT Turkey, by Turgut Yildiz, Country General Manager, TNT Express Turkey Development of cleaner fleet strategies 15:00 Coffee Break 15:15 Session 4: Applying the toolkit in your country programmes Discussion targeting fleets and fleet managers UNEP and REC support 17:00 Close

3 Emission Control Technologies Catalytic converters Ceramic or metallic substrate with an Active coating incormporating Aluminium, oxydes and precious metals like Platinum (Pt), Palladium (Pd) and Rhodium (Rd) These elements accelerate the reactions without being used itself Particulate Filters Gas forced to flow through the walls, filtering out PM Can have a catalytic coating for regeneration (or with fuel) Traps and adsorbers Store pollutants before releasing it to: React over catalytic materials when reached the optimal operation conditions (like temperature) More info on and

4 Three Way Catalyst Spark engine vehicles only (gasoline, LPG, CNG) Requires unleaded petrol fuel Reductions strongly depend on sulfur contents New & retrofit option Reduces NOx ~70%: 2NO x xo 2 + N 2 HC ~50%: 2C x H y + (2x+y/2)O 2 2xCO 2 + yh 2 O CO ~50%: 2CO + O 2 2CO 2

5 Examples of TWCs Catalytic converter on a Dodge Ram Van Catalytic converter on a Saab 9-5

6 Diesel Oxydation Catalyst Uses excess of oxygen in exhaust gas stream CO + ½O 2 CO 2 and HC + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O with >90% eff. Reduces the Soluble Organic Fraction of the PM by 15-40% No reduction of NO x ( SCR and NO x traps) Sulfur <500 ppm required, <150 ppm recommended Retrofitting on Pre-Euro vehicles usually is too expensive

7 Diesel Particulate Filter Converters are unable to affect elemental carbon DPF collects particles A clogging soot filter creates back pressure, so regeneration cycle to burn off the accumulated soot <50 ppm Sulfur required <15 ppm recommended Pre-Euro to Euro II trucks and buses cannot be retrofitted with DPFs (requires electronic injection system)

8 Selective Catalytic Reduction Reduces NO x : NO x + O 2 N 2 + H 2 O (various reactions) Urea as a catalyst, e.g. ammonia or AdBlue Adding AdBlue reduces the total fuel costs SCR also reduces emissions of HC (~80%) and PM (~25%) sulfur <50 ppm diesel required

9 Hybrid Electric Vehicles Step Technologies Degree of hybridization 1 Avoiding energy losses during idling by shutting off the combustion engine. 2 Recuperating energy from regenerative braking. 3 Using the battery energy to assist the engine and downsizing the engine Mild Hybrid Electric Vehicle, e.g. the Honda Civic 4 Running the combustion engine at its maximum load, where the engine efficiency maximizes. 5 Driving without the combustion engine running Full HEV, e.g. Toyota Prius 6 Enlarging the battery pack and recharging it with energy from a wall plug Plug-in Hybrid: Under development

10 Benefits of Hybrids The best results are achieved when: a large share of the traffic is urban or Stop & Go traffic, increasing the benefits of regenerative braking and high annual mileage, reducing the payback period of the additional investment high fuel prizes, increasing the value of the fuel saved and so reducing the pack period used in densely populated areas, where the reduction of polluting emissions contribute to the health of a large number of people governments have a programme supporting fuel efficient vehicles by financial or other incentives, like dedicated lanes Typical fleets to use HEVs for: Private and business passenger vehicles, exposed to traffic jams City taxis Light Duty Delivery trucks Transit buses and School buses Waste collection trucks

11 Total cost of ownership 50,000 Total Cost of Ownership for a Hybrid at fuel prizes 1.4 and 2.0 $/ltr, excluding any tax incentives Costs for buying the car Maintenance Fuel costs for km USD 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 - $22,400 $14,000 $4,500 $17,000 Conventional (1.4$/ltr) $4,500 $21,500 Hybrid (1.4$/ltr) $32,000 $20,000 $4,500 $17,000 Conventional (2$/ltr) $4,500 $21,500 Hybrid (2$/ltr) Assuming fuel consumptions: 20 km/ltr (= 0.05 ltr/km) for the hybrid 12, 5 km/ltr for a comparable conventional car (=0.08 ltr/km), Expected life time of km reduction of fuel consumption will be 6000 litres.

12 Source: HybridCenter.org Some hybrid models Honda Civic Hybrid Gen. 2 Toyota Prius Gen. 1 Ford Escape Hybrid (4WD) Mercury Mariner Hybrid (4WD) Lexus LS 600hL Honda Accord Hybrid Lexus GS 450h Nissan Altima Hybrid Toyota Camry Hybrid Lexus RX 400h (4WD) Toyota Highlander (4WD) Honda Insight 2

13 Examples of Passenger cars fleets Vancouver Hybrid Taxi Fleet NY will have their taxis all hybrid by 2012 London: Congestion charge not to be paid by hybrid taxis

14 Practical steps to take by fleet managers Collect fleet Data, so that you can measure improvements Calculate or estimate your environmental Impact Start by applying the toolkit Search for other more accurate information sources, like vehicle handbooks, manufacturers websites, test reports, etc. Identify your Options for improvement Start with the options in the toolkit Search for other options as well Define your Clean Fleet Management Strategy Short term strategy (incl. quick wins) Medium term strategy Long term strategy Develop Indicators for monitoring Indicators should be independent of future changes of business The perfect baseline is seldom possible Ensure there is high level Commitment Start your strategy Inform each other (and us) on your results! See the participants list for contact details.

15 Quiz Questions

16 Quiz: A new vehicle? Q: Is it possible to drive a Toyota Prius in Serbia (both unleaded& leaded petrol fuel available with max ppm / 0.2% sulfur) A: Yes, if you buy unleaded fuel only, you can drive the Prius. However, as low sulfur petrol fuel is recommended (but not required), the 3 way catalytic converter usually installed when imported second hand- will not reduce the emissions properly.

17 Source: Low-Sulphur gasoline and diesel: the key to lower vehicle emissions, Katherine O. Blumberg, Michael P. Walsh, and Charlotte Pera, prepared by for the International Council on Clean Transportation, May nts/low-sulfur_icct_2003.pdf Sulfur Impacts on emissions TWC = Three Way Catalyst DOC = Diesel Oxidation Catalyst SCR = Selective Catalytic Reduction DPF = Diesel Particulate Filter control technologies

18 Quiz: the effects of sulfur Q: Sulphur significantly reduces the life of engines. When the sulphur level was decreased from 10,000 ppm to 1,000 ppm, by what percentage did the average engine life increase?

19 The effect of sulfur on engine life 100 Engine life increase (%) high average low PPM sulphur A: Going from to 1000 ppm (1,5% to 0,1%) sulfur in fuel, is estimated to increase engine life by 80 to 90%.

20 Quiz: CO2 from cars Q: How much CO 2 is emitted by a single 1000 km trip by a new passenger car like the Opel Astra 1.6? A: Fuel consumption acc. To Ecotest: 6,99 L/100 km = 14,3 km/l So for 1000 km 69,9 L of fuel will be consumed, emitting 69,9 x 2,35 = 164 kg of CO 2.

21 A: Distance: km; Fuel consumption: 249 liter 0,625 ton CO2, plus air pollutants Source: KLM CO2 calculator Quiz: CO2 from airplanes Q: How much CO2 is emitted by a single flight Amsterdam- Nairobi?

22 Quiz: Air Pollution Q: How many people die prematurely due to air pollution? A: WHO estimates 800,000 people die prematurely every year due to air pollution

23 Quiz: Fuel Economy Q: What's the fuel economy of the new Toyota Prius (in km/l)? A: According to the New European Drive Cycle: 5,02 L/100km = 19,9 km/l A2: US New Combined Drive Cycle: 46 MPG = 19,6 km/l (19,1 on highways, 20,4 in city traffic)

24 Question: Lead particles in Greenland ice core Q: How far does the impact of lead particles emitted by cars in Europe reach? A: Lead particles from Europe can still be found in Green land

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