Renewable Energy in Public Transport in Oslo and Akershus. Bernt Reitan Jenssen CEO, Ruter

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1 Renewable Energy in Public Transport in Oslo and Akershus Bernt Reitan Jenssen CEO, Ruter

2 The increase in motorised transport is to be covered by public transport, bicycle or 1walking

3 All public transport is to run on renewable 2energy in 2020

4 Fossil Free 2020 Objective: In 2020, all public transport shall use renewable energy Dynamic approach when choosing renewable energy source and technology Ruter s aim is to introduce the most effective long-term solutions

5 Energy consumption 2012, millions of kwh Renewable energy Fossil energy Buses and ferries use fossil fuel 5 av side 114 Share of travels, 2012

6 Fuels as share of bus fleet in 2015 Hybrids (Diesel) 2 % Fuel Cell 0 % Bioethanol 1 % Biogas 14 % Biodiesel 6 % Diesel 77 %

7 Starting point: Hypothesis

8 Only renewable energy in 2020 Renewable energy: Technology alternatives: Electricity with renewable energy certificates Internal combustion engine with biofuels Biodiesel Biogas Bioethanol Biofuels that comply with the sustainability criteria of the Renewable energy Directive: 50-60% CO2-e reduction Hybrid bus combination of electric and combustion Biofuels + electric Rechargeable electric + biofuel (= plug-in) Electric bus Battery recharge overnight Battery - opportunity recharging Fuel cell with hydrogen

9 Knowledge base for Ruter s strategy Scenario 1 Mapping of relevant solutions Market dialogue, market survey, desktop research, interviews pilot projects Which solutions are suitable? Compared to operational set-up, line and route structure What is preferred? Level of ambition, risk, cost Scenario 2 Scenario 3

10 Battery electric bus Overnight Limited need for infrastructure High flexibility Large battery: Negative effect on passenger capacity, cost, risk 300 kwh battery: Range up to 250 km, 4-5 hrs recharging End stop Opportunity recharging and at depot at night Tailored to the line and recharging possibilities High need for incfrastrucutre, limited flexibility 100 kwh battery: Range km per 2-10 min recharging End stop Bus depot End stop

11 Recharging solutions Inductive (magnetic field) Conductive (physical contact) Less mature solution, less tested, lower power Plug-in (manual) Pantograph (automatic) Inverted pantograph (automatic) More tested, some standards in place, higher power possible, most preferred solution today

12 Electric bus hydrogen and fuel cell Higher flexibility Longer range (ca 300 km) Still costly Considerable infrastructure need (H2 facility) Low energy efficiency Still immature technology

13 Driving range between refueling/charging Approx. max range [km] Biodiesel Hybrid Bioethanol Plug-in hybrid Biogas Fuel cell Electric, overnight Electric, opportunity

14 Passenger capacity Index biodiesel = 100% % Biodiesel Biogas Bioethanol Hybrid Plug-in hybrid Electric, opportunity Electric, overnight Fuel Cell

15 Energy consumption Energy consumption for 12 meter buses kwh /km Bioethanol Biodiesel Biogas Diesel HEV Fuel cell Diesel PHEV Electric - Electric - opportunity overnight

16 All alternatives gives significant CO 2e reductions gco2/ km 400 Dotted line: CO2 emissions related to production of battery and fuel cell 0 2) Electric, Electric, Fuel cell, renewable renewable hydrogen electricity, electricity, electrolysis opportunity overnight Euro VI biogas, waste PHEV EURO VI, 100% biodiesel PHEV Euro VI biogas, waste EURO VI, 100% biodiesel HEV Euro VI, 100% biodiesel Euro VI, bioethanol, ED95 Euro VI fossil diesel Well-to-Wheel CO 2 emissions per km, 12 m bus, km per year

17 Costs per type of powertrain in 2020 Yearly Total Cost of Ownership (12 m bus), biodiesel Euro VI base case = Index N/A N/A Biodiesel Bioethanol Bus depreciation Bus maintenance Fuel costs Biogas Labor costs Hybrid (Biodiesel) Infrastructure costs Downtime costs Hybrid (Biogas) Plug-In Hybrid (Biodiesel)* Plug-In Hybrid (Biodiesel)** Plug-In Hybrid (Biogas) *Plug-in hybrid with opportunity charging ** Plug-in hybrid without opportunity charging Battery Overnight Battery Opportunity Fuel Cell

18 Ruter s target in 2025 Battery Overnight 3 Plug-In % Hybrids (Biodiesel) 4 % Hybrids (Biogas) 3 % Hybrids (Biodiesel) 3 % Battery Opportunity 20 % Bus fleet in 2025 Fuel Cell 5 % Biodiesel 18 % Biogas 44 % Environment: High level of ambitions Approx. 1/3 of bus fleet electric Large share of regionally produced biogas Costs (TCO): % compared to today s fleet

19 Implications for environment and operations

20 Lower costs than today s fleet Higher costs than today s fleet Higher costs for bus, infrastructure and labour - lower for fuels Yearly cost differential for bus fleet in 2025 Bus depriciation Bus maintenance Fuel Labour Infrastructure, maintenance Downtime cost 0 kr

21 Key learnings - bus technology and operations There are a number of bus options available that can meet the needs Ruter Electrification is part of the long-term solution, but not the only solution It is possible to have a considerable number of battery electric (including hybrids ) buses around 2020, primarily inner city Charging system and infrastructure more uncertain than the bus technology Lines and timetables restricts the choice of bus options Various bus options have different impacts on operations and costs

22 Key learnings - recharging and infrastructure Trend towards opportunity recharging as most efficient solution Charging Solution: Tendency towards conductive with pantograph Infrastructure recharging: Lacking standards and unknown life expectancy are main challenges Business model for charging: Who should build, own and operate the infrastructure? Many relevant commercial companies No dominant models for operation and ownership of the charging infrastructure today

23 Key learnings - implementation Step-by-step roll-out Uncertainty about technology maturity, lack of infrastructure standards Gain experience Need for Ruter to decide on technology solutions on a high level, until standards are in place or more mature solutions No need for bus technology test but for systems test How quickly new technology can be applied depends on risk appetite

24 Electric ferries? Renewable at sea too Biofuels, electricity or hydrogen Norwegian maritime cluster is breaking new ground for battery electric ships

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