Alternative to Fossil Fuel

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1 Alternative to Fossil Fuel

2 Biodiesel Emissions

3 Biodiesel Biodiesel is made from any vegetable oil such as Soya, Rice bran, Canola, Palm, Coconut, Jatropha or peanut,from any animal fat and recycled cooking oils.

4 Jatropha Biodiesel

5 Jatropha Biodiesel

6 Soyabeans Biodiesel

7 Rapeseeds Biodiesel

8 Coconut Biodiesel

9 Used cooking oil Biodiesel

10 Biodiesel Biodiesel can be blended with petroleum diesel fuel in any proportion for use in diesel engine vehicles. B5, B20,..B100

11 Features of Biodiesel Biodiesel is a clean burning fuel Biodiesel is intended to be used as a replacement for petroleum diesel fuel, or can be blended with petroleum diesel fuel in any proportion.

12 Features of Biodiesel Biodiesel has reduced exhaust emissions compared to petroleum diesel fuel. Biodiesel has lower toxicity compared to petroleum diesel fuel. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) reduction (80% less) and nitrited PAH compounds (90% less). (Source:US Environmental Protection Agency)

13 Features of Biodiesel Biodiesel has a higher cetane number than petroleum diesel because of its oxygen content. The higher the cetane number, the more efficient the fuel the engine starts more easily, runs better and burns cleaner. Biodiesel quality is governed by ASTM D 6751 (American Society for Testing and Materials) quality parameters. Biodiesel is biodegradable

14 Biodiesel Emissions Visible(smoke) Invisible(HC, CO, Nox and PM)

15 Biodiesel Emissions Biodiesel is an alternative fuel that have a complete evaluation of emission results and potential health effects submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It includes the most stringent emissions testing protocols ever required by EPA for certification of fuels or fuel additives.

16 Euro Norms Euro 1 standards (also known as EC 93): Directives 91/441/EEC (passenger cars only) or 93/59/EEC (passenger cars and light trucks) Euro 2 standards (EC 96): Directives 94/12/EC or 96/69/EC Euro 3/4 standards (2000/2005): Directive 98/69/EC, further amendments in 2002/80/EC Euro 5/6 standards (2009/2014): Regulation 715/2007 ( political legislation) and Regulation 692/2008 ( implementing legislation)

17 Euro Norms The following are the most important steps in the evolution of EU diesel fuel specifications: Effective 1994, a maximum sulfur limit of 2000ppm was introduced for all gas oils, including diesel fuel. 1996: A maximum sulfur limit of 500 ppm for diesel fuel. 2000: A maximum sulfur limit of 350 ppm 2005: A maximum sulfur limit of 50 ppm for diesel fuel 2009: A maximum sulfur limit of 10 ppm

18 Exhaust Emissions Source: A Comprehensive Analysis of Biodiesel Impacts on Exhaust Emissions,Draft Technical Report, Assessment and Standards Division Office of Transportation and Air Quality,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, October 2002, Accessed on

19 AVERAGE BIODIESEL EMISSIONS COMPARED TO CONVENTIONAL DIESEL, ACCORDING TO EPA Emission Type B100 B20 Unburned Hydrocarbons 67% 20% Carbon Monoxide 48% 12% Particulate Matter 47% 12% Nox +10% +2%

20 Biodiesel Emissions Explained CO 1. The additional oxygen content in the fuel, which enhances a complete combustion of the fuel, thus reducing CO emissions. 2. The increased biodiesel cetane number. The higher the cetane number, the lower the probability of fuel rich zones formation, usually related to CO emissions.

21 Biodiesel Emissions Explained HC 1. The oxygen content in the biodiesel molecule, which leads to a more complete and cleaner combustion. HC emissions decreased as the oxygen in the combustion chamber increased, either with oxygenated fuels or oxygen enriched air 2. The higher cetane number of biodiesel reduces the combustion delay, and such a reduction has been related to decreases in HC emissions.

22 Biodiesel Emissions Explained PM 1. The oxygen content of the biodiesel molecule, which enables more complete combustion even in regions of the combustion chamber with fuel rich diffusion flames. 2. Absence of aromatics in biodiesel fuels.

23 Biodiesel Emissions Explained NOx 1. the increased cetane number of biodiesel, which leads to an advanced combustion by shortening the ignition delay. 2. the higher oxygen availability in the combustion chamber when using biodiesel, which could promote the NO formation reactions. Measures to compensate the effect of biodiesel on Nox emissions re adjustment of the engine tuning, and use of additives

24 Application of Biodiesel On Road Vehicles: All Vehicles having Diesel Engine can be powered by Biodiesel without any hassle. Off Road Vehicles: Natural Biodiesel fuel can be used for construction, mining, and farm machinery.

25 Application of Biodiesel Marine Vessels: Natural Biodiesel can be used in marine engines safely. Marine use is especially attractive due to the elimination of any possibility for contamination of waterways. Stationary Power Generation: With new power generation capacity coming online, Natural biodiesel makes an attractive choice to meet the regulations.

26 Application of Biodiesel Boiler Fuel: With natural gas prices rising high, biodiesel can be substituted easily for natural gas with minor changes necessary to the burner train. Fuel Additive: Biodiesel can also be used as a diesel fuel additive for the purpose of keeping the injectors, pumps and other combustion components clean. A 1 2% blend should be sufficient for this purpose.

27 Application of Biodiesel Lubricity Agent/Additive: Natural biodiesel can also be used as a lubricity agent/enhancer in many applications. It is especially useful in marine applications where water contamination with petroleum lubricity agents can create problems. With the low sulfur fuel regulation of future, biodiesel can be used as a lubricity additive. A 1 2% biodiesel added to diesel fuel can increase diesel lubricity by 65%.

28 THANK YOU FOR YOUR KIND ATTENTION

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