1 March 11, 2010 A Technical Research Report: The Electric Vehicle Prepared for Ann Holms University of California Santa Barbara College of Engineering Prepared By Rony Argueta University of California Santa Barbara College of Engineering
2 Abstract Due to the problems caused by the gasoline engine on the environment and people, the automotive industry has turned to the electrical powered vehicle. This report explains how an electric vehicle works and compares the electric vehicle to the internal combustion engine and hybrid vehicle. The report provides some of the advantages and disadvantages of the electric vehicle. In addition, a brief future view of the technology is given.
3 Table of Contents Introduction...1 Electric Vehicle (EV) History...1 Description of an Electric Vehicle...2 Description of Parts and their Functions...3 Theory of Operation for EV...3 Description of a Hybrid Vehicle...3 Description of Parts and their Functions...4 Theory of Operation for Hybrid...5 Comparison of Combustion Engine, Hybrid and Electric...5 Efficiency...5 Speed/Acceleration...5 Maintenance...6 Mileage...6 Cost...6 Advantages and Disadvantages of the EV...6 Emissions...7 Global Warming: Ozone Layer...7 Affected People: Sickness...7 Future of the EV...7 Conclusion...8 References...9 List of Figures Figure 1. Parts of an electric vehicle...2 Figure 2. Parts of a hybrid vehicle...4 List of Tables Table 1. Comparison between the ICE, HV, and EV...5 Table 2. Advantages and Disadvantages of the EV...6
4 Argueta - 1 Introduction The 1960s and 1970s saw a need for alternative fueled vehicles to reduce the problems of exhaust emissions from internal combustion engines and to reduce the dependency on imported foreign crude oil. During the years from 1960 to the present, many attempts to produce practical electric vehicles occurred and continue to occur. The purpose of this report is to describe the technology used to produce an electric vehicle and explain why the electric engine is better than the internal combustion engine. It includes reasons why the electric vehicle grew rapidly and the reason it is a necessity to better the world today. The report describes the most important parts in an electric vehicle and hybrid vehicle. It compares the electric to the hybrid and internal combustion engine vehicle. It also includes the future of the electric vehicle. The overall impact of the electric vehicle ultimately benefits the people. Compared to gasoline powered vehicles, electric vehicles are considered to be ninety-seven percent cleaner, producing no tailpipe emissions that can place particulate matter into the air. Particulate matter, carcinogens released into the atmosphere by gas-powered vehicles, can increase asthma conditions, as well as irritate respiratory systems . The paper begins with a history of the electric vehicle, specifically the lows and highs of production and the reasons for the change. The next section provides a technical description of an electric vehicle, including the parts, their functions, and the theory of operation. The following section describes the hybrid car, including parts, their functions and the theory of operation. Based on this understanding, I then compare the internal combustion engine, the hybrid engine, and the electrical engine in terms of efficiency, speed, acceleration, maintenance, mileage, and cost. The paper concludes with sections on the advantages and disadvantages of the electric vehicle and its future. Electric Vehicle (EV) History The first electric vehicle (EV) was built between 1832 and 1839, the exact year is not known, in Scotland by Robert Anderson, who created the first crude electric carriage. It was not until 1895, after A.L. Ryker built an electric tricycle and William Morrison built a six passenger wagon, that America paid attention to the electric vehicle. In 1902 Wood created the Electric Phaeton, which was more than an electrified horseless carriage and surrey. The Phaeton had a range of 18 miles, a top speed of 14 mph and cost $2,000 . The decline in use and production of the electric vehicle occurred in the 1920s. Causes of the decline in production include: a better road system, reduced price of gasoline by the discovery of the Texas crude oil, invention of the electric starter, and the mass production of the internal combustion engine vehicles . According to the History of Electric Vehicles, In 1912, an electric roadster sold for $1,750, while a gasoline car sold for $650 [2, p. 1]. By 1935, electric vehicles completely disappeared.
5 Argueta - 2 In the 1960s and 1970s electric vehicles reappeared because internal combustion vehicles were creating an unhealthy environment for the people in America at that time. Description of an Electric Vehicle The electric vehicle (EV) is propelled by an electric motor, powered by rechargeable battery packs, rather than a gasoline engine. From the outside, the vehicle does not appear to be electric. In most cases, electric cars are created by converting a gasoline-powered car. Often, the only thing that clues the vehicle is electric is the fact that it is nearly silent . Under the hood, the electric car has: An electric motor. A controller. A rechargeable battery. The electric motor gets its power from a controller and the controller gets its power from a rechargeable battery. The electric vehicle operates on an electric/current principle. It uses a battery pack (batteries) to provide power for the electric motor. The motor then uses the power (voltage) received from the batteries to rotate a transmission and the transmission turns the wheels . Four main parts make up the electric vehicle: the potentiometer, batteries, direct current (DC) controller, and motor. See Figure 1. Figure 1. Parts of an electric vehicle .
6 Argueta - 3 Description of Parts and their Functions Potentiometer. It is circular in shape and it is hooked to the accelerator pedal. The potentiometer, also called the variable resistor, provides the signal that tells the controller how much power is it supposed to deliver. Batteries. The batteries provide power for the controller. Three types of batteries: leadacid, lithium ion, and nickel-metal hydride batteries. Batteries range in voltage (power). DC Controller. The controller takes power from the batteries and delivers it to the motor. The controller can deliver zero power (when the car is stopped), full power (when the driver floors the accelerator pedal), or any power level in between. If the battery pack contains twelve 12-volt batteries, wired in series to create 144 volts, the controller takes in 144 volts direct current, and delivers it to the motor in a controlled way . The controller reads the setting of the accelerator pedal from the two potentiometers and regulates the power accordingly. If the accelerator pedal is 25 percent of the way down, the controller pulses the power so it is on 25 percent of the time and off 75 percent of the time. If the signals of both potentiometers are not equal, the controller will not operate . Motor. The motor receives power from the controller and turns a transmission. The transmission then turns the wheels, causing the vehicle to run. Theory of Operation for EV When the driver steps on the pedal the potentiometer activates and provides the signal that tells the controller how much power it is supposed to deliver. There are two potentiometers for safety. The controller reads the setting of the accelerator pedal from the potentiometers, regulates the power accordingly, takes the power from the batteries and delivers it to the motor. The motor receives the power (voltage) from the controller and uses this power to rotate the transmission. The transmission then turns the wheels and causes the car to move forward or backward. If the driver floors the accelerator pedal, the controller delivers the full battery voltage to the motor. If the driver takes his/her foot off the accelerator, the controller delivers zero volts to the motor. For any setting in between, the controller chops the battery voltage, thousands of times per second to create an average voltage somewhere between 0 and full battery pack voltage. Description of a Hybrid Vehicle The hybrid vehicle (HV) is powered by both a gasoline engine and electric motor.
7 Argueta - 4 The HV runs using power from an internal combustion engine and electric motor. The engine provides most of the vehicle s power, and the electric motor provides additional power when needed, such as accelerating and passing . The hybrid vehicle operates on a gasoline and electric energy principle. A hybrid car features a small fuel-efficient gas engine combined with an electric motor that assists the engine when accelerating. The electric motor is powered by batteries that recharge automatically while you drive . Five main parts make up the hybrid vehicle: the battery, internal combustion engine (ICE), generator, power split device, and electric motor. See Figure 2. Figure 2. Parts of a hybrid vehicle . Description of Parts and their Functions Battery. The batteries in a hybrid car are the energy storage device for the electric motor. Unlike the gasoline in the fuel tank, which can only power the gasoline engine, the electric motor on a hybrid car can put energy into the batteries as well as draw energy from them. Internal Combustion Engine (ICE). The hybrid car has an ICE, also known as a gasoline engine, much like the ones found on most cars. However, the engine on a hybrid is smaller and uses advanced technologies to reduce emissions and increase efficiency. Receives its energy from the fuel tank where the gasoline is stored. Generator. The generator is similar to an electric motor, but it acts only to produce electrical power for the battery.
8 Argueta - 5 Power Split Device. The power-split-device resides between the two motors and together with the two motors creates a type of continuously variable transmission. Electric Motor. The electric motor on a hybrid car acts as a motor as well as a generator. For example, when needed, it takes energy from the batteries to accelerate the car. But acting as a generator, it slows the car down and returns energy to the batteries. Theory of Operation for Hybrid When the driver steps on the pedal the generator converts energy from the engine into electricity and stores it in the battery. The battery then provides power to the electric motor. The internal combustion engine and electric motor work simultaneously and each provide power to the power split device. The power split device combines both powers and uses it to turn the transmission. The transmission then turns the wheels and propels the vehicle. The energy used when braking is converted into electricity and stored in the battery. When braking, the electric motor is reversed so that, instead of using electricity to turn the wheels, the rotating wheels turn the motor and create electricity. Using energy from the wheels to turn the motor slows the vehicle down. When the vehicle is stopped, the gasoline engine and electric motor shut off automatically so that energy is not wasted in idling. The battery continues to power auxiliary systems, such as the air conditioning and dashboard displays. Comparison of Combustion Engine, Hybrid and Electric Now that there is an established concept of how the internal combustion engine, hybrid, and electric vehicle function, their efficiency, speed, acceleration, maintenance, mileage and cost are compared in Table 1. The following abbreviations are used: ICE (internal combustion engine), HV (hybrid vehicle), and EV (electric vehicle). Table 1. Comparison between the ICE, HV, and EV Efficiency Speed (average top speed) ICE HV EV Converts 40%, of the energy stored in gasoline to power the vehicle. Converts 20% of the energy stored in gasoline to power the vehicle. Converts 75% of the chemical energy from the batteries to power the wheels . 124 miles per hour (mph) 110 mph mph 
9 Argueta - 6 ICE HV EV Acceleration (on average) 0-60 mph in 8.4 seconds 0-60 mph in 6-7 seconds 0-60 mph in 4-6 seconds  Maintenance Wheels/tires Same as ICE. Does not require Engine as much Fuel/gas maintenance Bodywork/paint because it does not Electrical use a gasoline Lights engine. No requirements to Dash/instrument take it to the warning lights Department of Environmental Quality for an emissions Mileage Can go over 300 miles before refueling. Typically get 19.8 miles per gallon (mpg). Cost (on average) $14,000 to $17,000. Typically get 48 to 60 mpg. $19,000 to $25,000. inspection . Can only go about 100 to 200 miles before recharging . Extensive range, $6,000 to $100,000 . Advantages and Disadvantages of the EV The greatest challenge EVs face deal with the rechargeable battery. Most EVs can only go about miles before recharging; fully recharging the battery pack can take four to eight hours. Battery packs are heavy, expensive, may need to be replaced, and take up considerable vehicle space . Overall, the electric vehicle has more advantages than disadvantages. Advantages include no tailpipe emissions, which leads to a reduction in global warming and unhealthy people. Table 2 summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of the EV. Table 2. Advantages and Disadvantages of the EV Advantages Fuel can be harnessed from any source of electricity, which is available in most homes and businesses. It reduces hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide, responsible for many environmental problems, by 98%. Also reduces pollution. Disadvantages Limited in the distance that can be driven before the complete failure of the battery. Accessories, such as air conditioning and radios drain the battery. Heavier car due to the electric motors, batteries, chargers, and controllers.
10 Argueta - 7 Advantages Does not produce emissions. Important in urban cities, where cleaner air is much needed. Disadvantages More expensive because of cost of the parts. Emissions Compared to gasoline powered vehicles, electric vehicles are considered to be ninetyseven percent cleaner, producing no tailpipe emissions that can place particulate matter into the air . Global Warming: Ozone Layer The process of carbon dioxide emitted into the atmosphere, also known as global warming, diminishes the Earth s ozone layer, which is what occurs at this time. A factor that makes electric vehicles clean is their ability to use half the number of parts a gasoline powered vehicle does, including gasoline and oil. Affected People: Sickness Particulate matter, carcinogens released into the atmosphere by gas-powered vehicles, can increase asthma conditions, as well as irritate respiratory systems . The carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere by internal combustion vehicles reduces the ozone layer, which absorbs ninety-seven to ninety-nine percent of the sun s high frequency ultraviolet light . According to Ozone Layer, Every one percent decrease in the earths ozone shield is projected to increase the amount of UV light exposure to the lower atmosphere by two percent . Ultraviolet light, produced by the sun, is extremely harmful to life on Earth. UV light damages the skin, causing skin cancer. It also hurts the eyes and the marine life. Future of the EV Future electric cars will most likely carry lithium-ion phosphate (LiFePO4) batteries that are now becoming popular in other countries. The LiFePO4 batteries are rechargeable and powerful and are being used in electric bikes and scooters. Electric cars will most likely adopt this technology in the future. Another technology that is likely for future electric cars is the increased use of supercapacitors and ultracapacitors for storing and delivering electrical charge. Many of these batteries are currently being used in conjunction with hybrid car prototypes, so these are expected in the electric car future markets as well.
11 Argueta - 8 If the developers of future electric cars can create vehicles with a range of 300 miles per charge, a charging time of five to ten minutes, and safety in operating the vehicles, the market is wide open for them. Researchers are working on improved battery technologies to increase driving range and decrease recharging time, weight, and cost. These factors will ultimately determine the future of EVs . Conclusion As seen in this report, the electric vehicle has many advantages and benefits over the internal combustion engine and hybrid vehicle. It is cleaner and much more efficient; however, it also has disadvantages. It is heavier, limited to the distance it can travel before recharge, and costs more. The future of the EV relies on its battery. If researchers can produce or find the super battery, the EV s future is promising. As of today, each vehicle has its own characteristic that makes it better than the other. Only time and technological improvements will tell which vehicle will excel in the future.
12 Argueta - 9 References [1.] Electric Cars: Effect on the Environment. (1998) Retrieved January 31, 2010 from [2.] Bellis, M. History of Electric Vehicles. Retrieved January 31, 2010 from [3.] Brain, M. (2002). How Electric Cars Work. Retrieved January 29, 2010 from [4.] How Hybrids Work. (2009) Retrieved February 20, 2010 from [5.] Electric Vehicles (EVs).(2009) Retrieved January 31, 2010 from [6.] Dunn, P. (2006). Hybrid Cars Pros and Cons. Retrieved February 20, 2010 from [7.] Sparling, B. (2001). Ozone Layer. Retrieved February 1, 2010 from [8.] Future Electric Cars. (2007) Retrieved January 29, 2010 from
HYBRID BUSES COSTS AND BENEFITS Key Facts In 2005, more than 60 percent of the 9.7 billion transit passenger trips in the United States were provided by buses, approximately 84 percent of which are powered
AUTO LOG Miles per gallon, or MPG, is a measure of how efficiently a vehicle uses fuel. Filling out this log each time the gas tank is filled will help determine if the vehicle is running well. Compare
A Model for electric car usage in context with solar PV power and energy conservation Kenneth Parker PhD CEA Electric car use in Prince George 1. Context of talk today a) Forthcoming COP in Paris b) Much
EXECUTIVE ORDER (Amended) Approved as to Form Salt Lake City Attorneys Office By: Date: EFFECTIVE DATE:, 2008 SUBJECT: DISTRIBUTION: PROHIBITION OF IDLING OF ALL SALT LAKE CITY VEHICLES ALL DEPARTMENTS
Are you ready to Save Money On Your Fuel Bills Build Your Own Electric Car Or Truck By Les and Jane Oke Les and Jane Oke- 2008 1 *** IMPORTANT*** Please Read This First If you have any Problems, Questions
UffESCO Module 1: Cars and energy Running It takes energy to make a car, and it takes energy to run it Energy is expensive, and in short supply Using energy causes pollution and contributes to global warming
HYBRID VEHICLES G. St. Cholakov University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, Sofia, Bulgaria Keywords: Alternative energy, Electric Batteries, Electric vehicles, Environmental Pollution, Flywheels,
PURPOSE The purpose of this policy is to document the process for purchasing and managing the City s diverse vehicle fleet, which include both vehicles and heavy equipment, in a manner that minimizes greenhouse
Chevrolet Fuel Cell Vehicle - Project Driveway Carlos Franca Fuel Cell Vehicle Deployment Manager GM R&D Global Energy Challenge 35% of the world s energy comes from petroleum Overall demand is increasing
Emerging Hybrid and Electric Vehicles and Their Impact on Energy and Emissions P. T. Krein Director, Grainger Center for Electric Machinery and Electromechanics Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
IMPACT: International Journal of Research in Engineering & Technology (IMPACT: IJRET) ISSN(E): 2321-8843; ISSN(P): 2347-4599 Vol. 2, Issue 5, May 2014, 59-64 Impact Journals A REVIEW ON HYBRID VEHICLES
Case Studies in Sustainable Transportation CASE STUDY 71 Hybrid Buses Overview Transit agencies are increasingly focused on making bus fleets cleaner and more efficient by incorporating new clean propulsion
Sources of Vehicle Emissions The power to move a motor vehicle comes from burning fuel in an engine. Pollution from vehicles comes from the by-products of this combustion process. In addition, volatile
The Road to Electrical Vehicle and Hybrid Evolution in Turkey Prof. Dr. R. Nejat TUNCAY OKAN University & MEKATRO R&D Company Istanbul, Turkey November 18, 2015 Why What Happened between 1890 and 1920?
Cook 1 Electric Taiwan Matt Cook HSA10-5 The Economics of Oil and Energy May 4, 2012 As we approach a time where crude oil supplies are decreasing, and gasoline prices are increasing, the need for alternative
SAVING $6.75 BILLION EACH YEAR FOR ILLINOIS ECONOMY: HOW WOULD YOU SPEND IT? With Gas Heading Toward $5.00 Per Gallon, Better Mileage and Cleaner Cars Will Pump Up Illinois Economy, Create Thousands of
Get On The Bus For Cleaner Air Get on the Bus for Cleaner Air and Healthier Kids An Education and Action Project of Welcome to the Idle Reduction and Clean School Bus Curriculum Developed by the Utah Clean
Fleet CO2 and Efficient Mobility CONTENTS An evolving policy landscape Vehicle selection, technology and alternative fuels Driver behaviour and eco-driving training Efficient maintenance arval.co.uk An
New Fuel Economy and Environment Labels for a New Generation of Vehicles Why New Label Designs? The U.S. Department of Transportation joined with EPA today in unveiling new fuel economy and environment
Topic 6: Forms of Potential Energy As you learned in the previous activity, energy is either potential energy or kinetic energy. Each can take many forms. Forms of potential energy include Stored Mechanical
H2 Fuel Cell for transport applications: Automotive & Material handling skills for technicians Dr. Ir. Marc NELIS Campus Francorchamps Vehicles concerned electric ones In fact hybrid vehicles: FC + battery
The new Outlander PHEV. A power-generating 4WD SUV plug-in hybrid EV. MITSUBISHI OUTLANDER PHEV THINK FORWARD - DRIVE FORWARD + Zero + 52km + 824km + 1.9L/100 km + emissions in EV mode EV mode cruising
What will happen to vehicles without fossil fuels? The world is a big place. If we went everywhere on foot, then most of your holiday in Rome would be getting there, and then you would have to walk all
What is Travel SMART? Travel SMART is an initiative from Surrey County Council that aims to help Surrey residents and businesses reduce carbon, calories and cost. The Travel SMART team want to encourage
4 Air Pollution: Sources and Effects in Urban Areas and How it Affect the Investment and Economy Dr. Suhas P. Veetil Amity University Dubai, UAE Introduction Without its atmosphere-the envelope of gases
AP Environmental Science 2013 Free-Response Questions About the College Board The College Board is a mission-driven not-for-profit organization that connects students to college success and opportunity.
Goals ᄏᄏ ᄏᄏ ᄏᄏ Assemble and experiment with different types of renewable energy generators Understand the advantages and disadvantages of different generators Make calculations based on data Background
Ozone Precursor and GHG Emissions from Light Duty s Comparing Electricity and Natural Gas as Transportation Fuels Robert E. Yuhnke Director, Transportation Program and Mike Salisbury Energy Analyst and
Emergency Response Guide Honda Fuel Cell Vehicle Prepared for Fire Service, Law Enforcement, Emergency Medical, and Professional Towing Personnel by American Honda Motor Co., Inc. Contents Key Components...2
reflect Imagine a car that could travel more than 200 miles using only one gallon of gas. Does this seem like a car of the future? Automakers are in the process of producing such an automobile. (In fact,
MAJOR TYPES OF AIR POLLUTANTS AND THEIR GLOBAL DISTRIBUTION INTRODUCTION In this lesson, students will study types of air pollutants and use maps to explore how they are distributed throughout the world.
Worksheet A Environmental Problems Vocabulary Can you talk about Environmental issues in English? With a partner, try to explain the terms in the diagram below. Why are the words divided into two groups
THE FUTURE OF THE SCHOOL BUS INTRODUCTION School buses across the country bring 24 million students to school every day. 1 They are a constant presence in our children s lives, and yet they have scarcely
Energy Efficiency, Energy Independence & Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions The Role of Diesel OIL OIL Why Diesel? Because of its unique combination of energy efficiency, power, reliability, and durability,
Battery management systems for electric vehicles: the crucial role of the current sensor interface Sabine Jud & Gernot Hehn Great hope has been invested in the technology of electric vehicles (EVs): it
Earth Day 2014 at GlobalGiving UK FURTHER TEACHING RESOURCES I. VIDEO SHOWING Official video for Earth Day 2014: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fticdunkugm Jaden Smith on the Canopy project: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0a0dnyprwx0&list=uukwebkq4kgan7n8pm
Integrated electronics for enhanced performance, energy efficiency and reduced emissions A SHARED DRIVE Hyperdrive Innovation develops powertrain systems for electric, hybrid and conventionally powered
Case study Switched on: why nations are exploring hydrogen s potential as an alternative fuel Growing global demand for fossil fuels is unsustainable, given oil, gas and coal supplies will eventually run
VECTRIX MAXI-SCOOTER PERSONAL ELECTRIC VEHICLE TEST RESULTS REPORT Prepared by etv October 2009 Disclaimer Notice Transport Canada s ecotechnology for Vehicles program ( etv ) tests emerging vehicle technologies
Fuel Economy Testing and Labeling 1. Why should I trust EPA s fuel economy values? The MPG estimates on the EPA/DOT Fuel Economy and Environment Label (or window sticker) are based on standardized laboratory
Advancing Electric Vehicles in New Mexico Why should NM support electric vehicles? Economic benefits Reduced fuel costs Clean Air Plug-in Electric Vehicle Models Ford, Chevy, Toyota, Nissan, Tesla, Honda,
Reducing America s Dependence on Foreign Oil Supplies Martin Feldstein * The United States now imports nearly 60 percent of the oil that we consume. This dependence on foreign supplies makes us vulnerable
Lecture 2. What are air pollutants: preliminary review Objectives: 1. Air pollution definitions. 2. Air pollution classifications. 3. Major air pollutants: introduction. Readings: Turco: p. 3-7, 111-112;
Introduction The Genesis 2015 Initiative was announced by the University of South Carolina to convert all university vehicles to some form of alternative fuel by the year 2015. According to President Obama
Why Some Fuel-Efficient Vehicles Are Not Sold Domestically Bill Canis Specialist in Industrial Organization and Business August 17, 2012 CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress
Introduction to Combustion Chemistry The gasoline-powered internal combustion engine takes air from the atmosphere and gasoline, a hydrocarbon fuel, and through the process of combustion releases the chemical
Air Pollution Control Board Greg Cox District 1 Dianne Jacob District 2 Dave Roberts District 3 Ron Roberts District 4 Bill Horn District 5 Air Quality in San Diego 2013 Annual Report Protecting and improving
Iveco S.p.A. Via Puglia, 35 10156 Torino - Italia www.iveco.com Publication: IST.081412 September 2008 The data contained in this publication are purely indicative and not binding. SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT
INTRODUCTION Don t Be Idle Take Action to Prevent Diesel School Bus Idling Twenty-five million students in the United States ride to and from school each day on a fleet of 600,000 diesel buses. Although
Environmental Policies in Thailand and their Effects Viroat SRISURAPANON and Chana WANICHAPUN Department of Civil Engineering, King Mongkut s University of Technology Thonburi Pracha-u-tid Rd., Bangmod,
Chicago Area Clean Cities Fleet Efficiency Strategies: Saving Money and Fuel 9/11/14 Samantha Bingham Environmental Policy Analyst, City of Chicago Coordinator, Chicago Area Clean Cities Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
H 2 Hydrogen as a Transportation Fuel 3300 Industrial Blvd., Suite 1000 West Sacramento, CA 95691 Phone: (916) 371-2870 Fax: (916) 375-2008 E-mail: email@example.com The members of the California Fuel Cell
What are the causes of air Pollution Pollutant Particulate Matter (PM-PM 10 and PM 2.5 ) Description and main UK sources Particulate Matter is generally categorised on the basis of the size of the particles
Electric Power Systems Presented By: Lucien Miller President & CVO, Innov8tive Designs Why Fly Electrics? PROS No Mess, Easy Clean-up Less Noise Consistent Operation Low Cost Per Flight Easier than Glow
Meet Clean Diesel Improving Energy Security Fueling Environmental Progress Powering the Economy What is Clean Diesel? Diesel power is cleaner and more vital to the U.S. economy than ever before. The diesel
Emergency Response Guide For Hybrid Vehicles 2012 Model Year Edition Contents Introduction 1 Part 1: Information for All Honda Hybrids Vehicle Description 2 Identifying a Honda Hybrid 2 Gasoline Engine
AUTOCATALYSTS AND PLATINUM GROUP METALS (PGMs) PLATINUM GROUP METALS THE POWER TO IMPROVE LIVES LCA FACT SHEET LCA PRIMARY PRODUCTION FACT SHEET ENVIRONMENTAL PROFILE AUTOCATALYSTS FACT SHEET SECONDARY
OVERVIEW Table of Contents Introduction... 3 Benefits of Autogas... 4 Fuel Safety... 9 U.S. vs. Worldwide Autogas Vehicles... 10 About Autogas for America... 11 AUTOGASFORAMERICA.ORG 1 Introduction STUART
RENAULT S EV STRATEGY Th Koskas 15th May 2009 AGENDA 1. Why EV today 2. The Market 3. Renault s strategy AGENDA 1. Why EV today 2. The Market 3. Renault s strategy ➊ CO2 efficiency 100 CO2 Emission (%)
10 of the best kept secrets, and 5 BONUS tips! Secret #1 Drive Sensibly Estimated Savings: 5 to 22% savings Speeding, rapid acceleration and constant breaking are all symptoms of aggressive driving that
Environmental Impact A Hymotion plug-in charged from grid electricity of the average national blend results in a 70% or greater reduction in CO 2 emissions compared to a traditional gas-powered vehicle.
- 70 - EVALUATION AND COMPARISON OF AUTOMOBILE FUEL SYSTEMS, MOST APPROPRIATE TO SRI LANKAN AUTOMOBILE STANDARDS S. Abeygunasekara 1, V. P. Henry 2, G. D. D. L. A. Perera 3 1 Senior Lecturer, Faculty of
The Citroen C Zero - A Quick Start Guide Key Vehicle Information Maximum range 93 miles Top speed 81 mph Average range 70 miles The car is an automatic The range is impacted by: Driver behaviour - up to
David Katz AEE SOLAR FOUNDER AND CTO TYPES OF ELECTRIC VEHICLES Hybrid Electric Vehicles HEV s HEV s have been on the market for over 10 years. They have a battery powered electric motor coupled with a
Hydrogenics and Maxwell Combine Technologies to Bring the Material Handling Equipment Market Improved Productivity with Clean, High Performance Fuel Cell Power About Hydrogenics Corporation: Hydrogenics
UNIT 1 INTRODUCTION TO AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING Introduction to Automobile Engineering Structure 1.1 Introduction Objectives 1.2 Definition 1.3 Classification of Vehicles 1.4 Layout of an Automobile Chassis
CITY OF MINNEAPOLIS GREEN FLEET POLICY TABLE OF CONTENTS I. Introduction Purpose & Objectives Oversight: The Green Fleet Team II. Establishing a Baseline for Inventory III. Implementation Strategies Optimize
The Potential for Battery Electric Vehicles in New Zealand Dr Mike Duke 1, Timothy Anderson 2 1,2 Department of Engineering, The University of Waikato Keywords: Battery electric vehicles, New Zealand Abstract
Fun facts: Regenerative braking? Hold on to your science seats. When the car is coasting and when the driver first touches the brake pedal, the electric motor acts as a generator. This slows the car and
INSG SECRETARIAT BRIEFING PAPER September 2014 No.23 The Global E-bike Market Introduction This insight, issued jointly as an ILZSG and INSG report, provides members with information on the global market
ADVANCED ENGINEERING 3(2009)1, ISSN 1846-5900 KINETIC ENERGY RECOVERY SYSTEM BY MEANS OF FLYWHEEL ENERGY STORAGE Cibulka, J. Abstract: This paper deals with the design of Kinetic Energy Recovery Systems
INSPECTION BEFORE RIDING Check the following items before riding. ITEM Engine cum transmission oil Fuel Tyres Battery Speedometer Lighting Steering Throttle Clutch Brakes Wheels WHAT TO CHECK FOR Availability
Design Study and Demonstration Project: 2 Stirling Engine hybrid electric bus for city centre transport 2 Hybrid Electric Vehicles 2 The Oxford Study 3 Anticipated results 3 State of the art 4 Demand Side
Gordon Wozniak Councilmember District 8 To: Honorable Mayor and Members of the City Council From: Mayor Tom Bates and Councilmember Gordon Wozniak Subject: Energy Efficient Parking Enforcement Vehicles
Briefing Cleaner Cars and Fuels Introduction Advances in vehicle design and fuel quality mean cars can be made cleaner and more efficient. Lower emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx),
COMMITTEE OF THE WHOLE OCTOBER 25, 2011 GREEN FLEET STRATEGY AND PURE ELECTRIC VEHICLE FEASIBILITY PROGRAM Recommendation The Manager of Environmental Sustainability and the Commissioner of Community Services,
learn how plug-in vehicles can work for you Contents Types of plug-in vehicles 02 The business case for plug-in vehicles 03 Charging modes and types 04 Practicalities of running plug-in vehicles 05 Plugged-in