Fuel Quality and Vehicle Emission Standards in GCC countries. Name, event, date

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1 Fuel Quality and Vehicle Emission Standards in GCC countries Name, event, date Shoa Ehsani UNEP March 12, 2008

2 Road Map of Today s Presentation 1. Why have standards and harmonize? (a) LAS declaration (b) The PCFV 2. Current state of fuels world wide and in the region. EU Standards aas an example. 3. Advantages of clean gasoline, diesel and vehicles. What can we do?

3 Why do we need standards? 1. Vehicle emissions are increasingly becoming a major source of urban air pollution in GCC and LAS cities. 2. Fuels and Vehicles are a system. We need both clean fuels and clean vehicles for better air quality. 3. New gasoline and diesel vehicle engines and components require special fuel types (i.e. unleaded, octane and low sulphur) to operate properly. 4. Air quality standards such as those suggested by the WHO for human health would then dictate emission standards requiring specific fuel and vehicle standards. 5. There is a great variation of fuel types within the region Leaded and Unleaded, Octane variation of 83 RON to 96 RON Sulphur levels of 11,000 ppm to 350 ppm and differing octane levels.

4 LAS Ministerial Resolution 2006 A resolution by the Ministerial session of the League of Arab States (LAS) in Algiers in December 2006, stating: Appreciating the efforts exerted by Arab States that have been using Unleaded Gasoline; and inviting other Arab states to achieve this (goal) by Year 2008, utilizing the support provided by UNEP vis-à-vis the PCFV Initiative; as well as inviting all Arab States to reduce sulphur contents in Diesel.

5 Partnership for Clean Fuels and Vehicles (PCFV) Set up at the WSSD, August 2002 to address issues of urban air pollution through use of clean fuels and vehicles. Public private partnership Clearing-House at UNEP Headquarters in Nairobi, Kenya Objectives: The elimination of lead in gasoline and the phase down of sulfur in diesel and gasoline fuels, concurrent with; The adoption of cleaner vehicle technologies website:

6 Leaded Gasoline Worldwide and in the Middle East

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10 European Fuel Standards Sulphur GASOLINE Parameter Euro Standard Options, Comments Research octane number (RON) Lead Euro 2: 500 ppm Euro 3: 150 ppm Euro 4: 50 ppm 1993: 95 RON (min) (Euro 2, 3) 1993: g/l max 2000: g/l max 2005: 0 g/l max All grades: 1 Jan 2002: 150 ppm 1 Jan 2005/6: 50 ppm 1 Jan 2008: 30 ppm 1 Jan 2002 ULP 91 RON (min) PULP 95 RON (min) DIESEL Parameter Euro Standard Options, Comments Sulphur (Max) Euro 2: 500 ppm Euro 3: 350 ppm Euro 4: 50 ppm 1 Jan 2002: 500 ppm 1 Jan 2006: 50 ppm 1 Jan 2008: 30 ppm Cetane Index 1993: 46 (min) (Euro 2) 2000: 46 (min) (Euro 3) 2005: 52 (min) (Euro 4) 1 Jan 2002: 47 (min) index 1 Jan 2006: 50 (min) index

11 European Vehicle Standards Standard Particulate Matter (mg/km) (NOx) (mg/km) Hydrocarbons (mg/km) - Diesel Petrol Diesel Petrol Diesel Petrol Euro 2 (1996) Euro 3 (2000) Euro 4 (2005) Euro 5 (2009) Euro 6 (2014)

12 Leaded Gasoline: Health & Environmental Effects (example Egypt) Heart Attacks - 6,500 to 11,600 Strokes to 1,400 Premature Deaths (Adults) - 6,300 to 11,100 Infant Deaths ~ 820 Average IQ Loss in Children Points Damage to cars (spark plugs, filters ) Egypt went unleaded

13 Leaded Gasoline: Vehicle Effects Damage to cars (spark plugs, filters ) Poisoning of catalytic converter Can boost required octane in other ways: Refining Technology (Catalytic Reformer, isomerisation ) Additives

14 Sulphur: Health & Environmental Effects Sulfur: bronchitis, asthma PM: Cardio-respiratory problems and some carcinogenic constituents Sulfur and particulate problems (visibility) Damage to plants and buildings Acid rain Vehicle engine & component damage

15 Sulphur: Vehicle Effects Engine and vehicle components wear Reduced efficiency of catalytic converter in gasoline vehicles. 100 Engine life increase (%) high average low PPM sulphur

16 Sulphur: Vehicle Effects Inability to use after-treatment technologies for diesel engines with high sulphur levels. Lower sulphur levels enable diesel treatment technologies: 500 ppm or less: Diesel Oxidation Catalysts (DOC). Removes CO and HC (60-90%) & some PM (25 30 %) 50 ppm 15 ppm: Selective catalytic reduction. Removes NOx (25 50 %) 15 ppm or less: Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF)/Particulate Trap. Removes PM (95 %), CO & HC (80% ) reduction NOx absorber. Removes NOx (90 %) Urea SCR and NOx traps

17 Clean Vehicles Can retrofit vehicles with after-treatment technologies (most) Vehicle maintenance is very important. Just correct tyre pressure can improve fuel efficiency by 10 % Mandatory Vehicle emission testing. Carbon monoxide testing is a cheap way to do this Alternative fuel or drive vehicles: hybrids, electric vehicles, CNG Vehicles, Air Car, biofuels.

18 Thank You!

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