CLEAN VEHICLE Technologies

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1 CLEAN VEHICLE Technologies

2 CLEAN VEHICLE TECHNOLOGIES INTRODUCTION Clean vehicle technologies must now be adopted by the regional motor vehicle manufacture, assembly, new and used import, retail and service industry where new opportunities and benefits can be accrued by all stakeholders and new entrepreneurs. The resultant opportunities and benefits cuts across key sectors including Heath, Industry, Education, ICT and the Informal Sector providing improved public health, increased revenues and savings for the government as well as increased high-tech gainful employment for our youth. Opportunities for investment in upgrading our garages, retraining our mechanics, developing unique ICT applications, managing change in policy and creating attractive and effective incentives for the public abound ensuring our path towards cleaner urban air is a profitable one. Benefits include realization of the wider objectives of Kenya s Vision 2030 and the country s Millennium Development Goals by improving urban air quality to well below WHO maximum levels, a given right in our new constitution. Clean Vehicle Technologies Opportunities & Benefits 2

3 CLEAN VEHICLE TECHNOLOGY FACTORS Ambient air quality Emission levels Engine Characteristics Fuel Characteristics Use of vehicle Clean Vehicle Technologies Opportunities & Benefits 3

4 BUSINESS OPPORTUNITIES Vehicle Service Parts Manufacture New Technology Emissions Compliance Vehicle Inspection Clean Vehicle Technologies Opportunities & Benefits 4

5 VEHICLE SERVICE OPPORTUNITIES ON-BOARD DIAGNOSTICS (OBDII): tests vehicles equipped with OBD technology. OBD II checks for engine performance and can detect problems with the emissions control system before the driver is aware of them. TWO-SPEED IDLE TEST: An air sampling probe, placed in the tailpipe, collects information on the vehicle s emission of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide. The single- or 2-speed idle test is part of a basic emissions inspection program and is conducted with a 4-gas analyzer. ACCELERATION SIMULATION MODE (ASM): ASM testing requires a five-gas analyzer and dynamometer. This procedure more accurately measures vehicle emissions by simulating actual driving conditions (in other words, while the car is under load). The test measures levels of hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides. FUEL FILLER CAP PRESSURE: An adapter is placed and then pressurized on the vehicle s fuel filler cap. The test procedure measures leak flow rate (EVAP) of fuel vapour from the vehicle s fuel tank. Clean Vehicle Technologies Opportunities & Benefits 5

6 VEHICLE SERVICE ON-BOARD DIAGNOSTICS (OBD II) OBD II diagnostic equipment and graphic user interfaces Clean Vehicle Technologies Opportunities & Benefits 6

7 VEHICLE SERVICE EMISSIONS TESTING EQUIPMENT MODULAR EMISSIONS TESTING EQUIPMENT: A range of exhaust gas and statutory emission testing equipment is available for both petrol and diesel vehicles EMISSIONS ANALYSIS CAPABILITIES: engine speed measuring technology via B+/B ; Vehicle database; Additional measuring features: lambda sensor voltage, start of delivery, ignition timing; NO measurement retrofit capable; Brilliant color TFT display; operator guidance, ingeniously simple; Measuring accuracy as under OIML R99, Class 0; Separate device gasoline or diesel for upgrading to full-range exhaust emission check station; Network capability over AWN Clean Vehicle Technologies Opportunities & Benefits 7

8 VEHICLE SERVICE HAND HELD ANALYZERS Suitable for simple analysis of motorcycle and tuktuk exhausts 5-GAS ANALYZER: tests vehicle exhaust emissions for Nitrogen Oxide (NOx), Carbon Monoxide (CO), Hydrocarbons (HC), Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Oxygen (O2) and AFR/LAMDA DIAGNOSTIC WORK FUNCTIONALITY: pre-compliance testing and servicing vehicles to manufacturer's specifications. Helps diagnose engine problems and catalytic converter failure. Clean Vehicle Technologies Opportunities & Benefits 8

9 VEHICLE SERVICE EMISSIONS TESTING EQUIPMENT Fuel evaporation test equipment Emissions test cell set-up Light duty vehicle Dynamometer Exhaust probe Clean Vehicle Technologies Opportunities & Benefits 9

10 PARTS MANUFACTURE OPPORTUNITIES THREE WAY CATALYTIC CONVERTERS: Vehicles that fail emissions inspection tests due to failed catalytic converters will need to have them replaced. Due to the high volume of used vehicles imported to Kenya, there could be a manufacturing opportunity for replacement catalytic converters to be exploited. DIESEL OXIDATION CATALYSTS: Now that the sulphur in our diesel has been reduced to 500ppm, the use of diesel oxidation catalysts retrofitted to all non-compliant diesel vehicle exhaust systems would substantially reduce emissions and if manufactured locally would create jobs. DIESEL PARTICULATE FILTERS: We expect when our refinery (KPRL) upgrades, the locally refined diesel available will be50ppm at which point our diesel vehicles could be retrofitted with particulate filters to further reduce emissions. Local manufacture of particulate filters for all our diesel vehicles would be a viable opportunity for exploitation. Clean Vehicle Technologies Opportunities & Benefits 10

11 PARTS MANUFACTURE EMISSIONS RETROFIT CONTROL DEVICES DIESEL OXIDATION CATALYST (500ppm and below) DIESEL PARTICULATE FILTER (50ppm below) THREE-WAY CATALYTIC CONVERTER: For petrol vehicles Clean Vehicle Technologies Opportunities & Benefits 11

12 PARTS MANUFACTURE COMBINATION CATALYST Clean Vehicle Technologies Opportunities & Benefits 12

13 NEW TECHNOLOGY OPPORTUNITIES EXHAUST GAS ANALYSIS: Use of an exhaust gas analyser will allow vehicle mechanics to narrow down the potential cause of driveability and emissions concerns and focus their troubleshooting tests in areas most likely to be causing concern while save diagnostic time. EFFECTIVE VEHICLE SERVICING: In addition to helping mechanics focus their troubleshooting, an exhaust gas analyzer also gives them the ability to measure the effectiveness of repairs by comparing before and after exhaust readings providing objective analysis for customers. REMOTE DATA CAPTURE: System applications that allow for the remote updating of a centralized database on vehicles that pass emissions tests at decentralized independent certified test centers will ease the burden and increase transparency on tracking gross emitters. TRAINING ON NEW TECHNOLOGIES: New curriculums on emissions testing and effective repairs need to be introduced in our colleges and tertiary institutions and accommodate informal sector mechanics. Clean Vehicle Technologies Opportunities & Benefits 13

14 NEW TECHNOLOGY EXHAUST EMISSIONS CONTROL Shop grade analysers are capable of measuring from as few as two exhaust gasses, HC and CO, to as many as five; HC, CO, CO2, O2 and NOx. All five of these gasses, especially O2 and CO2, are excellent troubleshooting tools Use of a four or five Gas Exhaust Analyser can be helpful in troubleshooting both emissions and driveability concerns To completely burn all the fuel, the air to fuel ratio must be set at 14.7:1 known as the Stoichiometric Ratio Clean Vehicle Technologies Opportunities & Benefits 14

15 NEW TECHNOLOGY PARTICLE MATTER COMPOSITION Clean Vehicle Technologies Opportunities & Benefits 15

16 NEW TECHNOLOGY COMMON RAIL DIESEL ENGINE COMPONENTS Clean Vehicle Technologies Opportunities & Benefits 16

17 EMISSIONS REDUCTION OPPORTUNITIES ECO DRIVING: Increased public awareness and training in Ecodriving can sustainably reduce emissions and save 5% to 15% of fuel consumption with beneficial effects for the vehicle owner and national economy. Kenya s oil import bill soared almost 30% by US$608 million to US$2.7 billion in the 12 months to November Oil is the single biggest import item (22.5%) of our US$12 billion import bill. Oil prices have soared from US$70 per barrel in 2010 to above US$120. MASS TRANSIT SYSTEMS: Accelerated introduction of sustainable mass transit systems such as Light Rail and Bus Rapid Transit (BRT), ideally 160 passenger articulated buses, on exclusive lanes along main feeder artery routes to the city centre will result in substantial reduction in emissions per commuter with opportunities for shareholder investors. SATELLITE TRANSIT SYSTEMS: Lower capacity 26 to 33 passenger buses feeding into the main nodes of the mass transit system from satellite towns and suburban areas will further reduced emissions in our growing suburbs and satellite towns. Clean Vehicle Technologies Opportunities & Benefits 17

18 EMISSIONS REDUCTION ECODRIVING TIPS TARGET ACTION Change gear at 2000 rpm for a diesel engine or 2400 rpm for a petrol engine Don t warm the engine even on frosty mornings Check the tyre pressure every 30 days Limit the difference between the outside and the inside temperature to 5 degrees When stopping for more than 60 seconds switch off the engine Clean Vehicle Technologies Opportunities & Benefits 18

19 EMISSIONS REDUCTION KENYAN DESIGNED ARTICULATED BUS Clean Vehicle Technologies Opportunities & Benefits 19

20 MOTOR VEHICLE INSPECTION OPPORTUNITIES REMOTE SENSING TECHNOLOGY: uses Remote Sensing Devices (RSDs) to measure vehicle exhaust emissions with roadside monitoring systems as the vehicle passes without interfering with or altering the vehicle progress to identify the concentration of the three regulated pollutants of interest: carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxides. EMISSIONS LABELLING: Establishing and storing information on all vehicle models imported indicating their fuel consumption rating and CO 2 emission category to guide an increasingly sensitized public on environmentally beneficial vehicle purchasing choices. INDEPENDENT EMISSIONS TEST CENTERS: Decentralized privately owned emissions test centers, licensed by the Motor Vehicle Inspection Unit of the Kenya Police, will ease the burden and help cope with the volume of vehicles to be tested if all vehicles manufactured a couple of years ago or more are to be tested and certified for urban use. Clean Vehicle Technologies Opportunities & Benefits 20

21 MOTOR VEHICLE INSPECTION REMOTE SENSING TECHNOLOGY ROADSIDE TESTING: causes disruptions to traffic flow causing more emissions REMOTE SENSING DEVICES : cause no disruptions to traffic flow and captures more gross emitting vehicles Clean Vehicle Technologies Opportunities & Benefits 21

22 MOTOR VEHICLE INSPECTION EMISSIONS LABELLING Clean Vehicle Technologies Opportunities & Benefits 22

23 SECTOR BENEFITS Informal Sector Industry Education Health Government Clean Vehicle Technologies Opportunities & Benefits 23

24 INFORMAL SECTOR BENEFITS BUSINESS GENERATION: Basic pre-emissions tests and servicing of older in-use vehicles to meet new emissions regulations through the informal sector will ensure targeted policy measures to reduce air pollution reaches the majority of motorists who only service their vehicles at informal sector garages (jua-kali), where the informal sector will benefit from increased business opportunities. JOB CREATION: Through retrofit programs to replace inactive emissions control equipment, the informal sector which services almost all used vehicle imports can play an important and beneficial role while improving their revenue base for growth. UPGRADE TO SME: Informal sector participants that successfully adopt new strategies for controlling vehicle emissions will benefit from improved turnaround time through accurate diagnosis and targeted service reducing their running costs thereby allowing for progressive upgrading to the formal sector s SME category. Clean Vehicle Technologies Opportunities & Benefits 24

25 INFORMAL SECTOR EMISSIONS SYSTEMS REPLACEMENTS Diesel exhaust system Petrol exhaust system Clean Vehicle Technologies Opportunities & Benefits 25

26 INDUSTRY BENEFITS NEW VEHICLE TEST CENTRES: The establishment of new independent test centers, necessary to handle the volumes of testing all vehicles over a couple of years old, will benefit both new car dealerships with service workshops and existing vehicle non-engine service centers such as tyre sales centers to boost their product and service range as well as entrepreneurs who want to establish dedicated test centers. PRE-EMISSIONS SERVICE GARAGE TESTING AND REPAIR: For smaller garages, emissions pre-testing before formal emissions testing at authorized centers will boost their business and allow for targeted repair solutions that boost productivity and reduce customer charges while improving customer satisfaction. RETROFIT COMPONENT MANUFACTURE: The manufacture of retrofit components such as 3-way catalytic converters for petrol engines, oxidation catalysts and particulate filters for diesel engines is a natural progression that will benefit our local exhaust manufacturers who supply CKD operations as well as new entrepreneurs. Clean Vehicle Technologies Opportunities & Benefits 26

27 INDUSTRY CATALYTIC CONVERTER MANUFACTURE Clean Vehicle Technologies Opportunities & Benefits 27

28 EDUCATION BENEFITS NEW CURRICULUMS: The education sector will benefit from the infusion of new curriculums that deal with the inspection and maintenance aspects of motor vehicle emissions control. This will require employment of more teaching staff and enrolment of more mechanics and students. NEW TARGET SECTOR: Education in emissions controls is here to stay and programs should be targeted on a wider scale to encourage participation by the youth as a gainful employment opportunity NEW TECHNOLOGIES: Technology transfer will take place with the added benefit of improved public health and reduced GHG emissions through the comprehensive education of all sector participants on their role. Clean Vehicle Technologies Opportunities & Benefits 28

29 EDUCATION EXHAUST CONFIGURATION Clean Vehicle Technologies Opportunities & Benefits 29

30 EDUCATION VEHICLE EMISSIONS TESTING Clean Vehicle Technologies Opportunities & Benefits 30

31 HEALTH BENEFITS REDUCED EXPENDITURE: Reduced government expenditure on public health care with reducing cases of emissions related ailments. INCREASED CAPACITY: Increased hospitalization capacity at public and private health centers due to reduced emissions related cases. INCREASED RESOURCES: Additional resources become available for the treatment of other chronic diseases as emissions related cases reduce. INCREASED LIFE EXPECTANCY: reduced premature deaths due to exposure to excessive urban emissions leading to increased productive life. CHILDREN HEALTH: better child healthcare as life long ailments leading to brain deficiencies and retarded growth from significantly higher dosages of toxic emissions than adults is reduced. Clean Vehicle Technologies Opportunities & Benefits 31

32 HEALTH IMPROVING PUBLIC HEALTH Clean Vehicle Technologies Opportunities & Benefits 32

33 HEALTH URBAN SMOG Clean Vehicle Technologies Opportunities & Benefits 33

34 HEALTH REDUCING EFFECTS ON CHILDREN Clean Vehicle Technologies Opportunities & Benefits 34

35 GOVERNMENT BENEFITS REDUCED NATIONAL VEHICLE FLEET EMISSIONS: both toxic and GHG emissions reduced through developing and implementing the MVEC strategy such as incentives for increased new and used Low Emission Vehicle (LEV) imports. NEW JOB CREATION: Through increased vehicle inspection capacity by introducing decentralized, privatized non-service high level vehicle emission and certification inspection centers in all major towns and basic emissions testing in authorized service garages country wide. REDUCED GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURE: Redefined role of the Motor Vehicle Inspection Unit to license vehicle inspection centers and carry out random testing will lead to reduced costs and increased job opportunities. REDUCED FUEL IMPORTATION: as a more efficient national vehicle fleet consumes less fuel, demand for foreign exchange to service fuel imports will reduce boosting the shilling s strength. Clean Vehicle Technologies Opportunities & Benefits 35

36 GOVERNMENT REDUCING NATIONAL VEHICLE FLEET EMISSIONS Clean Vehicle Technologies Opportunities & Benefits 36

37 GOVERNMENT HYBRID INCENTIVES Clean Vehicle Technologies Opportunities & Benefits 37

38 MVEC STRATEGY OTHER IMPACTS NEW CONSTITUTION: Meeting our new constitutional requirements that state every citizen has the right to a good environment. VISION 2030: Reducing vehicle emissions will contribute towards achieving our our vision 2030 goals by improving the health of our citizens particularly children and allowing for improved productivity through reduced absentee workers due to emissions related health issues and reduced premature deaths. MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS: A healthy workforce will improve our attainment of our Millennium Development Goals on health care and productivity as well as reduced expenditure on our largest import, fuel, which will contribute towards accelerating economic growth. REGIONAL INTEGRATION: Improvements in vehicle emissions and cleaner fuels will impact positively within the Eastern African region as both vehicles and fuels are exported throughout the region via our ports and oil refineries. Clean Vehicle Technologies Opportunities & Benefits 38

39 MVEC STRATEGY REDUCING ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS Clean Vehicle Technologies Opportunities & Benefits 39

40 Thank you!

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