# Digital Design. Assoc. Prof. Dr. Berna Örs Yalçın

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1 Digital Design Assoc. Prof. Dr. Berna Örs Yalçın Istanbul Technical University Faculty of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Office Number:

2 Grading 1st Midterm - % 18 31th October nd Midterm % th December Homeworks - % 6 Final Exam - % 34 Lab - % 24 2

3 Goals and objectives The goal of this course is to: provide a good understanding of the digital systems. introduce the basic building blocks of digital design including combinational logic circuits, combinational logic design, arithmetic functions and circuits and sequential circuits. Showing how these building blocks are employed in larger scale digital systems Having successfully completed this course, the student will: acknowledge the importance of digital systems. Design a digital circuit given a Boolean function. Get familiar with typical combinatorial (adders, decoders, multiplexers, encoders) and sequential (D flip-flops, counters, registers, shift registers) components. Understand how larger systems are organized. 3

4 References Text Books : Digital Design, M. Morris Mano, Michael D. Ciletti, Logic and Computer Design Fundamentals, 4/E, M. Morris Mano and Charles Kime, Prentice Hall, Slides and all anouncements : ee241/ 4

5 Overview of Chapter 1 C ha pte r 1 5 Digital Systems, Computers Information Representation Number Systems [binary, octal and hexadecimal] Arithmetic Operations Base Conversion Decimal Codes [BCD (binary coded decimal)]

6 What is a Digital System? One characteristic: Ability of manipulating discrete elements of information A set that has a finite number of elements contains discrete information Examples for discrete sets Decimal digits {0, 1,, 9} Alphabet {A, B,, Y, Z} Binary digits {0, 1} One important problem how to represent the elements of discrete sets in physical systems? 6

7 DIGITAL & COMPUTER SYSTEMS - Digital System Takes a set of discrete information inputs and discrete internal information (system state) and generates a set of discrete information outputs. C ha pte r 1 7 Discrete Inputs Discrete Information Processing System Discrete Outputs System State

8 Types of Digital Systems No state present Combinational Logic System Output = Function(Input) State present State updated at discrete times => Synchronous Sequential System State updated at any time =>Asynchronous Sequential System State = Function (State, Input) Output = Function (State) or Function (State, Input) C ha pte r 1 8

9 Digital System Example: C ha pte r 1 9 A Digital Counter (e. g., odometer): Count Up Reset Inputs: Count Up, Reset Outputs: Visual Display State: "Value" of stored digits

10 Analog Digital Signals The physical quantities in real world like current, voltage, temperature values change in a continuous range. The signals that can take any value between the boundaries are called analog signals. Information take discrete values in digital systems. Binary digital signals can take one of the two possible values: 0-1, high-low, openclosed. 10

11 Conversion of Analog Signals to Digital Signals Quantized Signal 11

12 How to Represent? In electronics circuits, we have electrical signals voltage current Different strengths of a physical signal can be used to represent elements of the discrete set. Which discrete set? Binary set is the easiest two elements {0, 1} Just two signal levels: 0 V and 4 V This is why we use binary system to represent the information in our digital system. 12

13 Binary System Binary set {0, 1} The elements of binary set, 0 and 1 are called binary digits or shortly bits. How to represent the elements of other discrete sets Decimal digits {0, 1,, 9} Alphabet {A, B,, Y, Z} Elements of any discrete sets can be represented using groups of bits A

14 How Many Bits? What is the formulae for number of bits to represent a discrete set of n elements {0, 1, 2, 3} 00 0, 01 1, 10 2, ands {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7} 000 0, 001 1, 010 2, ands , 101 5, 110 6, ands The formulae, then,? If n = 9, then 4 bits are needed 14

15 NUMBER SYSTEMS Representation Positive radix, positional number systems C ha pte r 1 15 A number with radix r is represented by a string of digits: A n - 1 A n - 2 A 1 A 0. A - 1 A - 2 A - m + 1 A - m in which 0 A i < r and. is the radix point. The string of digits represents the power series: i = n - 1 j = - 1 ( ) ( ) A r i A r j i j (Number) r = + i = 0 j = - m (Integer Portion) + (Fraction Portion)

16 Representation of positive numbers Örnek: =( ) 2 = Most Signaficant Bit (MSB) Least Signaficant Bit (LSB) The largest postive number that can be represented by 8 bits is: ( ) 2 = The smallest postive number that can be represented by 8 bits is: ( ) 2 =

17 Some Bases Name Base Digits Binary 2 0,1 Octal 8 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7 Decimal 10 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9 Hexadecimal 16 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,A,B,C,D,E,F 17

18 Some Numbers in Different Bases Decimal (Base 10) Binary (Base 2) Octal (Base 8) Hexa decimal (Base 16) A B C D E F

19 Base Conversions From base-r to decimal is easy expand the number in power series and add all the terms Reverse operation is somewhat more difficult Simple idea: divide the decimal number successively by r accumulate the remainders. If there is a fraction, then integer part and fraction part are handled separately. 19

20 Example: to base 2 Convert 46 to binary 46/2=23 remainder 0 23/2=11 remainder 1 11/2=5 remainder 1 5/2=2 remainder 1 2/2=1 remainder 0 1/2=0 remainder 1 Convert to binary *2= *2= *2= *2=1 0*2=0 Put two results together with a radix point

21 Example: to hexadecimal (base 16) Convert 46 to base 16 46/16=2 remainder 14 2/16=0 remainder 2 Convert to base *16= *16= *16= *16= Put two results together with a fraction dot 2E.AEDF 16 21

22 Conversion from base r to base decimal Convert to base = = = = 1/2 + 1/8 + 1/16 = =

23 Conversions between Binary, Octal and Hexadecimal Octal to Binary = Hexadecimal to Binary A49.0C6 16 = Binary to Octal = Binary to Hexadecimal =1A49.2C68 16 Octal and hexadecimal representations are more compact. Therefore, we use them in order to communicate with computers directly using their internal representation 23

24 Representation of Negative Numbers In order to differ between positive and negative numbers the MSB is used. If 0 positive If 1 negative The positive numbers that can be shown by 8 bits are between and , hence between 0 and s complement method is used for representation of negative numbers. 2 s complement of a positive number shows the negative of it. In order to find the 2 s complement of a number 1 s complement is found: 0s are changed to 1s, 1s are changed to 0s. 1 is added to 1 s complement of the number. 24

25 Examples for Negative Numbers s complement Addition of s complement Negative number

26 Examples for Negative Numbers s complement Addition of s complement Pozitive number 26

27 ARITHMETIC OPERATIONS - Binary Arithmetic Single Bit Addition with Carry Multiple Bit Addition Multiple Bit Subtraction Multiplication C ha pte r 1 27

28 Single Bit Binary Addition with Carry C ha pte r 1 28

29 Addition of Positive Numbers Carry X Y Sum Note: 1. The carry input to the LSB is always The sum of two n-bit numbers has n+1- bits. 29

30 Addition of Positive and Negative Numbers Represented By 2 s Complement Carry X Y Sum -2 5 Negative Positive 30

31 Addition of Positive and Negative Numbers Represented By 2 s Complement Carry X Y Sum -4 1 ignored negative positive ignored 31

32 Addition of Positive and Negative Numbers Represented By 2 s Complement Carry X Y Sum Is the sum negative? ignored Is the sum positive? Overflow occured. The largest positive number that can be represented by 4-bits is +7. Larger numbers can not be reprsented by 4-bits. The smallest negative number that can be represented by 4-bits is -8. Smaller numbers can not be reprsented by 4-bits. The number of bits to be used in the representation of the numbers should be decided according to the boundaries of the inputs and the outputs of the operations. 32

33 Subtraction of Positive Numbers 33 Borrow X Y Difference Note: The borrow input to the LSB is always 0. If Y>X, then X and Y are exchanged and sign is put in front of the result.

34 Subtraction of Numbers With Sign Bit and 2 s complement 34 X Y s complement (-1) Difference ignored X Y s complement (-4) Difference X Y -(-1) s complement Difference positive negative positive

35 Subtraction of Numbers With Sign Bit and 2 s complement X Y -(-7) s complement Difference 8 Is the result negative? X Y s complement (-4) ignored Difference Is the result positive? Overflow occured. The largest positive number that can be represented by 4-bits is +7. Larger numbers can not be represented by 4-bits. The smallest negative number that can be represented by 4-bits is -8. Smaller numbers can not be reprsented by 4-bits. The number of bits to be used in the representation of the numbers should be decided according to the boundaries of the inputs and the outputs of the operations.

36 Binary Multiplication C ha pte r 1 36

37 Binary Numbers and Binary Coding Flexibility of representation Within constraints below, can assign any binary combination (called a code word) to any data as long as data is uniquely encoded. Information Types Numeric Must represent range of data needed Very desirable to represent data such that simple, straightforward computation for common arithmetic operations permitted Tight relation to binary numbers Non-numeric Greater flexibility since arithmetic operations not applied. Not tied to binary numbers C ha pte r 1 37

38 Non-numeric Binary Codes Given n binary digits (called bits), a binary code is a mapping from a set of represented elements to a subset of the 2 n binary numbers. Example: A binary code for the seven colors of the rainbow Code 100 is not used Color Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Indigo Violet Binary Number C ha pte r 1 38

39 Number of Elements Represented C ha pte r 1 39 Given n digits in radix r, there are r n distinct elements that can be represented. But, you can represent m elements, m < r n Examples: You can represent 4 elements in radix r = 2 with n = 2 digits: (00, 01, 10, 11). You can represent 4 elements in radix r = 2 with n = 4 digits: (0001, 0010, 0100, 1000). This second code is called a "one hot" code.

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