# PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS Unit code: A/601/1625 QCF level: 4 Credit value: 15 TUTORIAL OUTCOME 2 Part 1

 To view this video please enable JavaScript, and consider upgrading to a web browser that supports HTML5 video
Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS Unit code: A/601/1625 QCF level: 4 Credit value: 15 TUTORIAL OUTCOME 2 Part 1"

## Transcription

1 UNIT 22: PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS Unit code: A/601/1625 QCF level: 4 Credit value: 15 TUTORIAL OUTCOME 2 Part 1 This work covers part of outcome 2 of the Edexcel standard module. The material is quite suitable for anyone wishing to study this interesting subject. This tutorial requires basic mathematical skills and a reasonable knowledge of digital electronic terminology. An industrial background will also be of great benefit to students. Obviously, access to suitable computer software such as Pneusim Pro or Bytronics simulation software will be a great help. SYLLABUS 2 Understand PLC information and communication techniques Forms of signal: analogue (0-10 V dc digital Digital resolution and relationships: 9-bit; 10-bit 12-bit Number systems: decimal; binary; octal; hexadecimal; Binary-Coded Decimal (BCD) Evaluate communication standards: comparison of typical protocols used in signal communication Evaluate networking methods and standards: master to slave; peer to peer; ISO; IEE; MAP Logic functions: writing programmes using logic functions based on relay ladder logic (AND; OR; EXCLUSIVE OR; NAND; NOR) Learning outcomes On successful completion of this unit a learner will: L02 Understand PLC information and communication techniques Assessment criteria for pass The learner can: 2.1 evaluate the different forms of signal used in programmable logic control 2.2 describe the resolution and relationship between analogue inputs and outputs and word length 2.3 express numbers using different number systems 2.4 describe typical protocols used in signal communication and evaluate networking methods and networking standards CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION 2. NUMBER SYSTEMS 2.1 Binary Numbers 2.2. Octal and Hexadecimal 2.3 Conversion to/from Binary 2.4 Decimal to Octal Conversion 2.5 Decimal to Hex Conversion 2.6. Applications 2.7. Manipulation 2.8. Binary Decimal Codes 3. REGISTERS 4. ANALOGUE TO DIGITAL and DIGITAL TO ANALOGUE CONVERSION D.J.Dunn 1

2 1. INTRODUCTION Programmable logic controllers are digital devices and using the same kind of internal structure as computers. The information is processed internally in digital forms using data and address busses. They must communicate with external devices such as other computers and programming panels. The digital communication must conform to industrial standards. In industrial applications there are many analogue signals and these must be converted into or from the digital form before they can be received or sent by the PLC. We first need to look at digital information and how it forms numbers of various forms. 2. NUMBER SYSTEMS 2.1 BINARY NUMBERS A number may be represented in digital form by a simple pattern. The pattern may be generated for example with a row of lights switched on by an electric current. The pattern will also exist in the wires connected to the light bulbs. In digital electronics the pattern exists as a voltage relative to zero. Ideally in a typical computer, 5V is ON or high and zero is OFF or low but to make a clear distinction, a voltage of over 3 is regarded high and below 2 is regarded as low. The patterns were originally developed in computers for 8 lines and then this became 16, 32 and 64. Consider a pattern of 8 lines. We indicate on or high with a 1 and off or low with a 0. Each line carries a bit of information as on or off and so the line is referred to as a bit. In the denary system the digit that represents the highest value is on the left (e.g. the 3 in 32 or the 4 in 461). The digit representing the lowest value is on the right. These are called the most significant digit and least significant digit. In binary numbers we adopt the same idea with the bit on the left being the most significant bit (MSB) and the one on the right being the least significant bit (LSB). Figure 1 The total pattern is called a word and the one shown is an 8 bit word. The pattern may be stored in a register so it is also referred to as an 8 bit register. A register is a temporary store where the word may be manipulated. Each bit has a value of zero when off (low) or the denary value shown when on (high). The denary value of the pattern is found by adding them all up. The maximum value for an 8 bit word is when all the bits are high and corresponds to 255. The minimum value is 0 when they are all low so there are 256 possible values. D.J.Dunn 2

3 WORKED EXAMPLE No.1 What is the denary value of the digital pattern below? Figure = 202 SELF ASSESSMENT EXERCISE No.1 Write down the decimal value represented by the following 8 bit patterns Here is a small table of binary numbers with the equivalent denary values. BINARY DENARY CONVERSION A way of converting decimal into binary is to keep dividing the number by 2 as follows. Convert decimal 12 into binary form = 6 remainder = 3 remainder = 1 remainder = 0 remainder 1 The binary pattern is hence D.J.Dunn 3

4 Another way to express the value of each bit comes about by realising that each bit is 2 raised to the power of the bit number OCTAL and HEXADECIMAL Figure 3 Octal is a numbering system based on cycles of 8. It is quite easy to convert a digital number into octal and for this reason it is used by programmers to address memory locations and port addresses (printer port, com port, CD driver address and so on). Early computers used words with 8 bits so octal was convenient to use. Hexadecimal is a numbering system based on 16 and was introduced for the same reasons as octal when computers were developed with 16 bit registers. Hexadecimal Numbers are of far greater importance in modern computing. One Nibble (4 bits) is represented by 1 Hex digit. One Byte is represented by 2 Hex Digits. In octal we have no need for the figures 9 as the cycle restarts after 7. In hexadecimal, we need extra figures and the letters A, B, C, D, E and F are used. Here is the beginning of a conversion table: Decimal Binary Octal Hexadecimal A B C D E F D.J.Dunn 4

5 2.3 CONVERSION TO/FROM BINARY Whereas Decimal seems to have no connection with Binary, from this table we can see that Octal and Hexadecimal are linked to Binary. The first digit in Octal corresponds to the first three digits in it's Binary equivalent, and so on. The same is true for Hexadecimal, but this time each digit represents four Binary digits. (It may be useful to note that 8 = 2 3, and 16 = 2 4 ). An advantage of knowing this is that is makes conversion to/from Binary very easy. WORKED EXAMPLE No.2 Convert : Into Octal and Hexadecimal Octal: Split the number into groups of 3 starting from the L.S.B. on the right Now convert each group immediately into one Octal digit, i.e. 1 becomes 1, 111 becomes 7, 101 becomes 5. So : is the prefix indicating an Octal number) Hexadecimal: Split the number into groups of 4 starting on the right Convert each group immediately into one Hex digit, i.e. 111 becomes 7, 1101 becomes D. So : = &7D (& is the prefix indicating a Hexadecimal number) Conversion from Octal and Hexadecimal to Binary is similarly easy. D.J.Dunn 5

6 2.4 DECIMAL TO OCTAL CONVERSION This is done in a similar way to converting Decimal to Binary. Repeatedly divide the decimal number by 8 and read off the remainders in reverse order. WORKED EXAMPLE No.3 Convert 70 Into Octal = 8 Remainder = 1 Remainder = 0 Remainder 1 So 70 WORKED EXAMPLE No.4 Convert 125 into Octal = 15 Remainder = 1 Remainder = 0 Remainder 1 So DECIMAL TO HEX CONVERSION This again is done by repeatedly dividing the Decimal number by 16 and reading off the remainders in reverse order. WORKED EXAMPLE No.5 Convert 70 into Hexadecimal = 4 Remainder = 0 Remainder 4 So 70 = &46 D.J.Dunn 6

7 WORKED EXAMPLE No.6 Convert 125 into Hexadecimal = 7 Remainder D 7 16 = 0 Remainder 7 So 125 = &7D An application of Hexadecimal numbers is for representing bit patterns. For example the letter "A" is represented in ASII codes as or more conveniently &41. Similarly, the letter "B" is represented as &42. SELF ASSESSMENT EXERCISE No.2 1. Convert 45 into Hex. 2. Convert 20 into Octal 3. Convert 125 into Binary. Note that most scientific/engineering calculators are able to do these conversions. D.J.Dunn 7

8 2.6. APPLICATIONS Consider the basic operation of a computer memory ship. The chip has an address bus and a data bus. It also has a read or write command line. Each line in the bus can be on (high) or off (low) so the system is based on binary patterns. Older equipment had 8 lines in each bus and so Octal became useful. Later this increased to 16 lines so hexadecimal became useful. It has since moved on to 32 and 64 lines. Figure 4 Clearly to use larger numbers, you need more lines in the bus. The diagram shows 8 lines in each bus. When they are all low the decimal value is 0. When they are all high the decimal value is 255 so there are 256 different values that can be represented. When the R/W line is set to write, the binary pattern on the data bus is transferred into a store at the address represented by the binary pattern on the address line. This store is also called a register and the binary pattern is contained in this register. When the R/W line is set to read, the pattern stored in the register at the address on the address bus is transferred to the data bus. SELF ASSESSMENT EXERCISE No.3 Write down the data value in decimal and the address in octal for the case shown. Figure 5 D.J.Dunn 8

9 2.7. MANIPULATION Numbers stored in registers may be added or subtracted to a number stored in another register. This is done in a processing chip. The number from two memory locations is transferred into data registers. A command to the processor makes it add them and the result is placed in a third data register and perhaps transferred to a memory location. ADDING IN DECIMAL Starting with the LSB = 11 write down 1 carry 1 Next carry 1 =6 write down 6 carry 0 Next carry 0 = 11 write down 1 carry 1 Next start a new column and write down carry 1 ADDING IN BINARY The process is the same Starting the LSB, 1+1 = 10 write down 0 carry 1 Moving to bit carry = 1 write down 1 carry 0 Moving to bit carry 0 = 1 write down 1 carry 0 Moving to bit carry 0 = 10 write down 0 carry 1 Moving to bit carry 1 = 10 write down 0 carry 1 Moving to bit carry 1 = 10 write down 0 carry 1 Moving to bit carry 1 = 11 write down 1 carry 1 Moving to bit carry 1 = 11 Write down 1 carry 1 Moving to bit 8 which does not exist there is an implied carry 1 so write down 1. Clearly to store this number you would need a register with more than 8 bits. ADDING IN OCTAL This is similar but remember that it is based on Starting with the LSB = 1 1 write down 1 carry 1 Next carry 1=12 write down 2 carry 1 Next 3+1+ carry 1 = 5 write down 5 Adding in HEX is more difficult as you need to remember the values of ABCDEF It is best to do it on the calculator. Computers do it in binary and the answers are usually expressed in Decimal, Octal or Hex. D.J.Dunn 9

10 SELF ASSESSMENT EXERCISE No.4 Use your calculator to do the following calculations. Binary Octel Hexadecimal x &2D5 x &3A1= &5CE + &9EF= &FF5 &3DE= D.J.Dunn 10

11 2.8. BINARY DECIMAL CODES BCD is yet another way of presenting digital data as a number and it is used in industrial applications (e.g. to code or decode a digital signal from a position transducer). The digital pattern in a register is converted into a 3 digit BCD as follows. The first 4 bits are turned into a normal (denary) number and this number is the units. The next 4 bits are the tens and the next 4 bits are the hundreds. The units cannot exceed a total of 9. The tens cannot exceed a total of 90 and the hundreds cannot exceed a total of 900. The maximum number which can be represented is 999. WORKED EXAMPLE No.7 Deduce the value of the BCD pattern. Figure 6 The first 4 bits decode to = 6 The second 4 bits decode to = 3 The third 4 bits decode to = 5 The decimal value represented is hence 536 SELF ASSESSMENT EXERCISE No.5 Deduce the value of this BCD pattern Answer 695 Figure 7 D.J.Dunn 11

12 3. REGISTERS A register is a memory location containing a digital number. The difference between a register and any other memory location is that the bits may be manipulated under control of the programme. Hence the bits may be shifted right or left or rotated. Depending on the programme, the new bit may be a 1 or a 0. SHIFTING Consider the example below where the register is shifted right with a 1 being added. What is the decimal value before the shift? What is the decimal value after the shift? Now consider the same problem with a left shift. What is the decimal value before the shift? What is the decimal value after the shift? Each bit of the register may be used to control an output so if a bit changes from 0 to 1 the output connected to the bit is turned on. There are many uses for shifting; one of them is to produce a counter. ROTATING Rotating is similar to shifting but the bit that drops off the end reappears as the new bit. Numbers stored in registers can be manipulated. ADDING and SUBTRACTION The contents of one register are added or subtracted to/from the contents of another and the result placed in a third register. MULTIPLICATION and DIVISION The contents of one register may be multiplied or divided by the contents of another and the result placed in a third register. INCREMENTING AND DECREMENTING The decimal value of the register is increased by 1 when incremented and decreased by 1 when decremented. D.J.Dunn 12

13 COMPARISON The contents of two registers may be compared to see if they are the same. Other arithmetical operations may be done such as square roots and differentiation depending on the PLC. The actual operation is much more complicated than discussed here and the result leads to carry over or borrowing of bits. There are special flags that are switched on to indicate these things. FLAGS are single bits in a register that are switched on to indicate the status of something. They are not physical outputs. They can be addressed and used within a programme. PLCs often contain flags that are automatically switched on when a certain event happens such as illustrated below. Figure 8 4. ANALOGUE TO DIGITAL and DIGITAL TO ANALOGUE CONVERSION Analogue to digital conversion is a process of turning an analogue voltage or current into a digital pattern that can be read by a computer and processed. Digital to analogue conversion is the reversed process. A typical module for a PLC is shown below. There are two A/D channels and one D/A channels. The module is connected to the PLC by a ribbon cable or plugs directly to the PLC. Figure 9 The analogue signals are 4 to 20 ma in a modern system but 0 10 volts is still common and others are possible such as -5V to +5 V. The appropriate signal must be connected to the appropriate terminal (V for Volts, I for current and C common). To read an analogue signal into the PLC a routine must be executed within the programme to read the appropriate input. The module produces the conversion and the digital number representing the analogue signal is read into a designated register of the PLC. To produce an analogue output, a routine must be executed to take a digital value in a designated register and put it out to the module where it is converted into a voltage or current. D.J.Dunn 13

14 RE When a digital number is converted into a voltage, each increment of the binary value corresponds with an increment in the voltage output. The value of this increment is the resolution. Consider an 8 bit system. The minimum and maximum number that can be stored is 0 and 255 so there are 255 steps. An analogue voltage in the range 0 to 10 V van be divided up into 255 steps so the resolution is 10/255 = V. This is adequate for most purposes but if very small changes in voltages are to be detected, a higher resolution is needed. A/D and D/A systems commonly available use anything from 4 bits to 32 bits depending on the resolution required. For example if a thermocouple is used to measure temperature, the voltage change for 1 o C is very small and a fine resolution is needed. Other instruments fall in this category. Digital Analogue Converters (DACs) are usually on a single chip and commonly have 9, 10 or 12 bit resolution. Figure bit DAC chip and technical specification 10BIT DAC DUAL Resolution (Bits): 10bit Sampling Rate: 93kSPS Input Channel Type: Serial Supply Voltage Range: 2.7V to 5.5V Digital IC Case Style: SOIC No. of Pins: 8 Data Interface: 3 Wire, Serial Supply Current: 1.6mA Operating Temperature Min: -40 o C Operating Temperature Max: 85 o C SVHC: No SVHC (19-Dec-2012) Base Number: 5617 IC Case Style: SOIC IC Generic Number: 5617 Input Type: Serial Linearity Error: 0.1% Linearity Error ADC / DAC +: 0.5LSB Linearity Error ADC / DAC -: 0.5LSB No. of Bits: 10 No. of Channels: 2 No. of DACs: 2 Operating Temperature Range: -40 o C to +85 o C Output Type: Voltage Package / Case: SOIC Sample Rate: 0.093MSPS Sample Rate: 93kSPS Settling Time: 2.5µs Supply Voltage Max: 5.5V Supply Voltage Min: 2.7V Supply Voltage Range - Analogue: 2.7V to 3.3V, 4.5V to 5.5V Supply Voltage Range - Digital: 2.7V to 3.3V, 4.5V to 5.5V Termination Type: SMD D.J.Dunn 14

15 WORKED EXAMPLE No.8 An analogue instrument produces a variable voltage of 0 to 10 V. It is processed with an A/D converter using 5 bits. Calculate the minimum change in voltage that can be detected. 5 bits has maximum value of = 31 so the smallest voltage detectable is 10/31 = 0.322V SELF ASSESSMENT EXERCISE No.6 An analogue instrument produces a signal with a range 4 to 20 ma. It is processed with a 9 bit A/D converter. What is the smallest current change that ca be detected. Answer ma D.J.Dunn 15

### PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS Unit code: A/601/1625 QCF level: 4 Credit value: 15 TUTORIAL OUTCOME 2 Part 3

UNIT 22: PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS Unit code: A/601/1625 QCF level: 4 Credit value: 15 TUTORIAL OUTCOME 2 Part 3 This work covers part of outcome 2 of the Edexcel standard module. The material is

### 2011, The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Chapter 3

Chapter 3 3.1 Decimal System The radix or base of a number system determines the total number of different symbols or digits used by that system. The decimal system has a base of 10 with the digits 0 through

### PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS Unit code: A/601/1625 QCF level: 4 Credit value: 15 OUTCOME 1

UNIT 22: PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS Unit code: A/601/1625 QCF level: 4 Credit value: 15 OUTCOME 1 This tutorial covers all of outcome 1. The material is quite suitable for anyone wishing to study this

### Digital System Design Prof. D. Roychoudhury Department of Computer Science and Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Digital System Design Prof. D. Roychoudhury Department of Computer Science and Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Lecture - 03 Digital Logic - I Today, we will start discussing on Digital

### NUMBERING SYSTEMS C HAPTER 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 A REVIEW OF THE DECIMAL SYSTEM 1.2 BINARY NUMBERING SYSTEM

12 Digital Principles Switching Theory C HAPTER 1 NUMBERING SYSTEMS 1.0 INTRODUCTION Inside today s computers, data is represented as 1 s and 0 s. These 1 s and 0 s might be stored magnetically on a disk,

### PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS Unit code: A/601/1625 QCF level: 4 Credit value: 15

UNIT 22: PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS Unit code: A/601/1625 QCF level: 4 Credit value: 15 ASSIGNMENT 3 DESIGN AND OPERATIONAL CHARACTERISTICS NAME: I agree to the assessment as contained in this assignment.

### CSC 1103: Digital Logic. Lecture Six: Data Representation

CSC 1103: Digital Logic Lecture Six: Data Representation Martin Ngobye mngobye@must.ac.ug Mbarara University of Science and Technology MAN (MUST) CSC 1103 1 / 32 Outline 1 Digital Computers 2 Number Systems

### ORG ; ZERO. Introduction To Computing

Dec 0 Hex 0 Bin 00000000 ORG ; ZERO Introduction To Computing OBJECTIVES this chapter enables the student to: Convert any number from base 2, base 10, or base 16 to any of the other two bases. Add and

### Common Number Systems Number Systems

5/29/204 Common Number Systems Number Systems System Base Symbols Used by humans? Used in computers? Decimal 0 0,, 9 Yes No Binary 2 0, No Yes Octal 8 0,, 7 No No Hexadecimal 6 0,, 9, A, B, F No No Number

### INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL TUTORIAL 3 SIGNAL PROCESSORS AND RECEIVERS

INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL TUTORIAL 3 SIGNAL PROCESSORS AND RECEIVERS This tutorial provides an overview of signal processing and conditioning for use in instrumentation and automatic control systems.

### CHAPTER TWO. 2.1 Unsigned Binary Counting. Numbering Systems

CHAPTER TWO Numbering Systems Chapter one discussed how computers remember numbers using transistors, tiny devices that act like switches with only two positions, on or off. A single transistor, therefore,

### Part IA Engineering. Contents of Handout 2. Digital Circuits & Information Processing. Handout 2. Sequential Logic

Part IA Engineering Contents of Handout 2 Digital Circuits & Information Processing Handout 2 Sequential Logic ichard Prager Tim Flack anuary 29 Section A Section B Section C Section D Section E Binary

### DS1621 Digital Thermometer and Thermostat

www.maxim-ic.com FEATURES Temperature measurements require no external components Measures temperatures from -55 C to +125 C in 0.5 C increments. Fahrenheit equivalent is -67 F to 257 F in 0.9 F increments

### STEP Basics of PLCs

STEP 2000 Basics of PLCs Table of Contents Introduction...2 PLCs...4 Number Systems...8 Terminology...14 Basic Requirements...23 S7-200 Micro PLCs...28 Connecting External Devices...39 Programming A PLC...41

### Digital System Design Prof. D Roychoudhry Department of Computer Science and Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur

Digital System Design Prof. D Roychoudhry Department of Computer Science and Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Lecture - 04 Digital Logic II May, I before starting the today s lecture

### Oct: 50 8 = 6 (r = 2) 6 8 = 0 (r = 6) Writing the remainders in reverse order we get: (50) 10 = (62) 8

ECE Department Summer LECTURE #5: Number Systems EEL : Digital Logic and Computer Systems Based on lecture notes by Dr. Eric M. Schwartz Decimal Number System: -Our standard number system is base, also

### Base Conversion written by Cathy Saxton

Base Conversion written by Cathy Saxton 1. Base 10 In base 10, the digits, from right to left, specify the 1 s, 10 s, 100 s, 1000 s, etc. These are powers of 10 (10 x ): 10 0 = 1, 10 1 = 10, 10 2 = 100,

### Number Representation and Arithmetic in Various Numeral Systems

1 Number Representation and Arithmetic in Various Numeral Systems Computer Organization and Assembly Language Programming 203.8002 Adapted by Yousef Shajrawi, licensed by Huong Nguyen under the Creative

### Numbering Systems. InThisAppendix...

G InThisAppendix... Introduction Binary Numbering System Hexadecimal Numbering System Octal Numbering System Binary Coded Decimal (BCD) Numbering System Real (Floating Point) Numbering System BCD/Binary/Decimal/Hex/Octal

### Lecture 8 Binary Numbers & Logic Operations The focus of the last lecture was on the microprocessor

Lecture 8 Binary Numbers & Logic Operations The focus of the last lecture was on the microprocessor During that lecture we learnt about the function of the central component of a computer, the microprocessor

### MICROPROCESSOR AND MICROCOMPUTER BASICS

Introduction MICROPROCESSOR AND MICROCOMPUTER BASICS At present there are many types and sizes of computers available. These computers are designed and constructed based on digital and Integrated Circuit

### Data types. lecture 4

Data types lecture 4 Information in digital computers is represented using binary number system. The base, i.e. radix, of the binary system is 2. Other common number systems: octal (base 8), decimal (base

### 1 Basic Computing Concepts (4) Data Representations

1 Basic Computing Concepts (4) Data Representations The Binary System The Binary System is a way of writing numbers using only the digits 0 and 1. This is the method used by the (digital) computer. The

### DS1621 Digital Thermometer and Thermostat

Digital Thermometer and Thermostat www.dalsemi.com FEATURES Temperature measurements require no external components Measures temperatures from 55 C to +125 C in 0.5 C increments. Fahrenheit equivalent

### PERIPHERAL INTERFACE CONTROLLERS. There are many different Peripheral Interface Controllers: examples include the PIC16F873 and the PIC16F876 and the

PERIPHERAL INTERFACE CONTROLLERS There are many different Peripheral Interface Controllers: examples include the PIC16F873 and the PIC16F876 and the PIC16F877. The PIC16F873 and PIC16F876 have the same

### Digital to Analog and Analog to Digital Conversion

Real world (lab) is Computer (binary) is digital Digital to Analog and Analog to Digital Conversion V t V t D/A or DAC and A/D or ADC D/A Conversion Computer DAC A/D Conversion Computer DAC Digital to

### Unit 2: Number Systems, Codes and Logic Functions

Unit 2: Number Systems, Codes and Logic Functions Introduction A digital computer manipulates discrete elements of data and that these elements are represented in the binary forms. Operands used for calculations

### Introduction Number Systems and Conversion

UNIT 1 Introduction Number Systems and Conversion Objectives 1. Introduction The first part of this unit introduces the material to be studied later. In addition to getting an overview of the material

### Logic Design. Dr. Yosry A. Azzam

Logic Design Dr. Yosry A. Azzam Binary systems Chapter 1 Agenda Binary Systems : Binary Numbers, Binary Codes, Binary Logic ASCII Code (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) Boolean Algebra

### PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS Unit code: A/601/1625 QCF level: 4 Credit value: 15 OUTCOME 3 PART 1

UNIT 22: PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLERS Unit code: A/601/1625 QCF level: 4 Credit value: 15 OUTCOME 3 PART 1 This work covers part of outcome 3 of the Edexcel standard module: Outcome 3 is the most demanding

### isppac-powr1220at8 I 2 C Hardware Verification Utility User s Guide

November 2005 Introduction Application Note AN6067 The isppac -POWR1220AT8 device from Lattice is a full-featured second-generation Power Manager chip. As part of its feature set, this device supports

### Binary Representation and Computer Arithmetic

Binary Representation and Computer Arithmetic The decimal system of counting and keeping track of items was first created by Hindu mathematicians in India in A.D. 4. Since it involved the use of fingers

### CPE 323 Data Types and Number Representations

CPE 323 Data Types and Number Representations Aleksandar Milenkovic Numeral Systems: Decimal, binary, hexadecimal, and octal We ordinarily represent numbers using decimal numeral system that has 10 as

### Data Acquisition Module with I2C interface «I2C-FLEXEL» User s Guide

Data Acquisition Module with I2C interface «I2C-FLEXEL» User s Guide Sensors LCD Real Time Clock/ Calendar DC Motors Buzzer LED dimming Relay control I2C-FLEXEL PS2 Keyboards Servo Motors IR Remote Control

### Experiment 5. Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)

Experiment 5 Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) Objectives: To implement and test the circuits which constitute the arithmetic logic circuit (ALU). Background Information: The basic blocks of a computer are central

### Digital/Analogue Signal Converters/Multiplexers Section F

Section F The conversion of Analogue signals to digital is an important part of many control systems. So is the conversion of serial data between various standards (RS, RS485 and RS4 for example). www.weidmüller.com.au

### INDEX. Cables Operator Interface, 2 15 Programming Device, 2 15

INDEX A Accessing AUX Functions via direct entry, A 3 via DirectSOFT 5, A 3 via the Handheld Programmer, A 3 Accumulating Fast Timer Instruction, 5 38 Accumulating Timer Instruction, 5 38 Accumulator /

### Chapter 20 DAC, DAC AND ANALOG- DIGITAL MIX INTERFACES

Chapter 20 DAC, DAC AND ANALOG- DIGITAL MIX INTERFACES Lesson 2 DIGITAL TO ANALOG CONVERTER (DAC or D/A) Ch20L2-"Digital Principles and Design", Raj Kamal, Pearson Education, 2006 2 Outline DAC DAC Circuit

### plc numbers - 13.1 Encoded values; BCD and ASCII Error detection; parity, gray code and checksums

plc numbers - 3. Topics: Number bases; binary, octal, decimal, hexadecimal Binary calculations; s compliments, addition, subtraction and Boolean operations Encoded values; BCD and ASCII Error detection;

### Basic DACs for Electronic Engineers

No. AN9741 July 1997 Intersil Linear Basic DACs for Electronic Engineers Author: Ronald Mancini Why and Where are DACs Used? The name is digital-to-analog converter, and the function of a DAC, as the name

### Digital Electronics. 1.0 Introduction to Number Systems. Module

Module 1 www.learnabout-electronics.org Digital Electronics 1.0 Introduction to What you ll learn in Module 1 Section 1.0. Recognise different number systems and their uses. Section 1.1 in Electronics.

### 6 3 4 9 = 6 10 + 3 10 + 4 10 + 9 10

Lesson The Binary Number System. Why Binary? The number system that you are familiar with, that you use every day, is the decimal number system, also commonly referred to as the base- system. When you

### Understanding Binary Numbers. Different Number Systems. Conversion: Bin Hex. Conversion MAP. Binary (0, 1) Hexadecimal 0 9, A(10), B(11),, F(15) :

Understanding Binary Numbers Computers operate on binary values (0 and 1) Easy to represent binary values electrically Voltages and currents. Can be implemented using circuits Create the building blocks

### Digital Fundamentals

Digital Fundamentals with PLD Programming Floyd Chapter 2 29 Pearson Education Decimal Numbers The position of each digit in a weighted number system is assigned a weight based on the base or radix of

### This representation is compared to a binary representation of a number with N bits.

Chapter 11 Analog-Digital Conversion One of the common functions that are performed on signals is to convert the voltage into a digital representation. The converse function, digital-analog is also common.

### Here 4 is the least significant digit (LSD) and 2 is the most significant digit (MSD).

Number System Introduction Number systems provide the basis for all operations in information processing systems. In a number system the information is divided into a group of symbols; for example, 26

### Intro to Microprocessors and Microcomputers

Intro to Microprocessors and Microcomputers Content Microprocessor, microcontrollers and microcomputers Communication within microcomputers Registers Process architecture CPU Data and program storage Negative

### ib technology Data Sheet Magswipe.pdf 8 Pages Last Revised 05/03/05 Micro RWD EM4001 Mag swipe Decimal Output Version

Data Sheet Magswipe.pdf 8 Pages Last Revised 05/03/05 Micro RWD EM4001 Mag swipe Decimal Output Version This version of the Micro RWD product behaves in the same manner as the standard Micro RWD EM4001

### Programming Logic controllers

Programming Logic controllers Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) is a microprocessor based system that uses programmable memory to store instructions and implement functions such as logic, sequencing,

### Number Systems Richard E. Haskell

NUMBER SYSTEMS D Number Systems Richard E. Haskell Data inside a computer are represented by binary digits or bits. The logical values of these binary digits are denoted by and, while the corresponding

### Number Systems and Base Conversions

Number Systems and Base Conversions As you know, the number system that we commonly use is the decimal or base- 10 number system. That system has 10 digits, 0 through 9. While it's very convenient for

### CS 16: Assembly Language Programming for the IBM PC and Compatibles

CS 16: Assembly Language Programming for the IBM PC and Compatibles First, a little about you Your name Have you ever worked with/used/played with assembly language? If so, talk about it Why are you taking

### PART B QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS UNIT I

PART B QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS UNIT I 1. Explain the architecture of 8085 microprocessor? Logic pin out of 8085 microprocessor Address bus: unidirectional bus, used as high order bus Data bus: bi-directional

### 1 Number systems 1.1 DECIMAL SYSTEM

A programmable logical controller uses the binary system rather than the decimal system to process memory cells, inputs, outputs, timers, flags etc.. DECIMAL SYSTEM In order to understand the binary number

### The counterpart to a DAC is the ADC, which is generally a more complicated circuit. One of the most popular ADC circuit is the successive

The counterpart to a DAC is the ADC, which is generally a more complicated circuit. One of the most popular ADC circuit is the successive approximation converter. 1 2 The idea of sampling is fully covered

### DS1721 2-Wire Digital Thermometer and Thermostat

www.dalsemi.com FEATURES Temperature measurements require no external components with ±1 C accuracy Measures temperatures from -55 C to +125 C; Fahrenheit equivalent is -67 F to +257 F Temperature resolution

### الدكتور المھندس عادل مانع داخل

الدكتور المھندس عادل مانع داخل / میسان جامعة / كلیة الھندسة قسم الھندسة الكھرباي یة Chapter 1: Digital Systems Discrete Data Examples: 26 letters of the alphabet (A, B etc) 10 decimal digits (0, 1, 2 etc)

Distributed by: www.jameco.com 1-800-831-4242 The content and copyrights of the attached material are the property of its owner. EDE707 7-Segment Display IC Octal Seven-Segment Display IC Functionality

### COMBINATIONAL CIRCUITS

COMBINATIONAL CIRCUITS http://www.tutorialspoint.com/computer_logical_organization/combinational_circuits.htm Copyright tutorialspoint.com Combinational circuit is a circuit in which we combine the different

### CHAPTER THREE. 3.1 Binary Addition. Binary Math and Signed Representations

CHAPTER THREE Binary Math and Signed Representations Representing numbers with bits is one thing. Doing something with them is an entirely different matter. This chapter discusses some of the basic mathematical

### Digital Logic. The Binary System is a way of writing numbers using only the digits 0 and 1. This is the method used by the (digital) computer.

Digital Logic 1 Data Representations 1.1 The Binary System The Binary System is a way of writing numbers using only the digits 0 and 1. This is the method used by the (digital) computer. The system we

### Number Conversions Dr. Sarita Agarwal (Acharya Narendra Dev College,University of Delhi)

Conversions Dr. Sarita Agarwal (Acharya Narendra Dev College,University of Delhi) INTRODUCTION System- A number system defines a set of values to represent quantity. We talk about the number of people

### Lecture 11: Number Systems

Lecture 11: Number Systems Numeric Data Fixed point Integers (12, 345, 20567 etc) Real fractions (23.45, 23., 0.145 etc.) Floating point such as 23. 45 e 12 Basically an exponent representation Any number

### Computers Are Your Future Eleventh Edition

Computers Are Your Future Eleventh Edition Chapter 2: Inside the System Unit Copyright 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall 1 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be

### EE 261 Introduction to Logic Circuits. Module #2 Number Systems

EE 261 Introduction to Logic Circuits Module #2 Number Systems Topics A. Number System Formation B. Base Conversions C. Binary Arithmetic D. Signed Numbers E. Signed Arithmetic F. Binary Codes Textbook

### Number Systems. Decimal Number System. Number Systems Week 3

Number Systems When we type some letters or words, the computer translates them in numbers as computers can understand only numbers. A computer can understand positional number system where there are only

### Binary, Hexadecimal, Octal, and BCD Numbers

23CH_PHCalter_TMSETE_949118 23/2/2007 1:37 PM Page 1 Binary, Hexadecimal, Octal, and BCD Numbers OBJECTIVES When you have completed this chapter, you should be able to: Convert between binary and decimal

### Analog and Digital Interfacing

Analog and Digital Interfacing BJ Furman Spring, 1999 DAC & ADC Digital-to-Analog Conversion (DAC) Converts a binary word from computer to a scaled analog voltage Used for controlling systems that require

### UNIT 2 : NUMBER SYSTEMS

UNIT 2 : NUMBER SYSTEMS page 2.0 Introduction 1 2.1 Decimal Numbers 2 2.2 The Binary System 3 2.3 The Hexadecimal System 5 2.4 Number Base Conversion 6 2.4.1 Decimal To Binary 6 2.4.2 Decimal to Hex 7

### USB-I2C USB to I2C Communications Module Technical Specification

USB-I2C USB to I2C Communications Module Technical Specification The USB-I2C module provides a complete interface between your PC and the I2C bus. The module is self powered from the USB cable and can

### Modbus RTU Communications RX/WX and MRX/MWX

15 Modbus RTU Communications RX/WX and MRX/MWX In This Chapter.... Network Slave Operation Network Master Operation: RX / WX Network Master Operation: DL06 MRX / MWX 5 2 D0 Modbus Network Slave Operation

### Combinational Circuits (Part II) Notes

Combinational Circuits (Part II) Notes This part of combinational circuits consists of the class of circuits based on data transmission and code converters. These circuits are multiplexers, de multiplexers,

### 23 1 The Binary Number System

664 Chapter 23 Binary, Hexadecimal, Octal, and BCD Numbers 23 The Binary Number System Binary Numbers A binary number is a sequence of the digits 0 and, such as 000 The number shown has no fractional part

### Number Systems (2.1.1)

Computer Studies 0 Syllabus Number Systems (..) Representation of numbers in binary. Conversion between decimal and binary, and between binary and hexadecimal. Use of subscripts, 0 and 6 for bases. The

### CPU systron S 200 - S 250 - S 250c. systron S 200 - S 250 - S 250c. CPUs to the process modules. Stand-alone PLC

E031019 000823 systron S 200 - S 250 - S 250c CPU systron S 200 - S 250 - S 250c 45 mm width Flexible and expandable Easy to use software for bus connection (S 250/ S 250c) CPUs to the process modules

### NUMBER SYSTEMS. 1.1 Introduction

NUMBER SYSTEMS 1.1 Introduction There are several number systems which we normally use, such as decimal, binary, octal, hexadecimal, etc. Amongst them we are most familiar with the decimal number system.

Review of Number Systems The study of number systems is important from the viewpoint of understanding how data are represented before they can be processed by any digital system including a computer. Different

### Chapter 2: Number Systems

Chapter 2: Number Systems Logic circuits are used to generate and transmit 1s and 0s to compute and convey information. This two-valued number system is called binary. As presented earlier, there are many

### ProCod. User Manual. Programming software for TWK - Encoders Series CRF and DAF CRF 11069 DE 08 / 10

Programming software for TWK - Encoders Series CRF and DAF CRF 11069 DE 08 / 10 User Manual ProCod TWK-ELEKTRONIK GmbH D-40041 Düsseldorf PB. 10 50 63 T. 02 11/96117-0 F. 02 11/96117-99 e-mail: info@twk.de

### 1. True or False? A natural number is the number 0 or any number obtained by adding 1 to a natural number.

CS Illuminated, 5 th ed. Chapter 2 Review Quiz 1. True or False? A natural number is the number 0 or any number obtained by adding 1 to a natural number. 2. True or False? The category of numbers called

### By the end of the lecture, you should be able to:

Extra Lecture: Number Systems Objectives - To understand: Base of number systems: decimal, binary, octal and hexadecimal Textual information stored as ASCII Binary addition/subtraction, multiplication

### 8051 Programming. The 8051 may be programmed using a low-level or a high-level programming language.

8051 Programming The 8051 may be programmed using a low-level or a high-level programming language. Low-Level Programming Assembly language programming writes statements that the microcontroller directly

### Programmable Logic Controller

Programmable Logic Controller By Dr. Mohammad Salah Mechatronics Engineering Department Hashemite University Outlines Introduction What can a PLC do? Structure and Hardware Programming the PLC PLC Operation

### CDA 3200 Digital Systems. Instructor: Dr. Janusz Zalewski Developed by: Dr. Dahai Guo Spring 2012

CDA 3200 Digital Systems Instructor: Dr. Janusz Zalewski Developed by: Dr. Dahai Guo Spring 2012 Outline Data Representation Binary Codes Why 6-3-1-1 and Excess-3? Data Representation (1/2) Each numbering

### VREFout CFG B TMS TCK TDI TDO CS ENSPI

Using SPI to Control isppac80 and isppac81 October 2002 Application Note AN6037 Introduction This application note describes how to use the Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) to adjust the gain, select

### Chapter 2. Binary Values and Number Systems

Chapter 2 Binary Values and Number Systems Numbers Natural numbers, a.k.a. positive integers Zero and any number obtained by repeatedly adding one to it. Examples: 100, 0, 45645, 32 Negative numbers A

### Number Systems and Data Representation CS221

Number Systems and Data Representation CS221 Inside today s computers, data is represented as 1 s and 0 s. These 1 s and 0 s might be stored magnetically on a disk, or as a state in a transistor, core,

### SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING & BUILT ENVIRONMENT. Mathematics. Numbers

SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING & BUILT ENVIRONMENT Mathematics Numbers. Factors 2. Multiples 3. Prime and Composite Numbers 4. Modular Arithmetic 5. Boolean Algebra 6. Modulo 2 Matrix Arithmetic 7. Number Systems

### Introduction ToNumber Systems

Introduction ToNumber Systems Collected by: Zainab Alkadhem Page 1 of 25 Digital systems have such a prominent role in everyday life that we refer to the present technological period as the digital age.

### CHAPTER 3 Number System and Codes

CHAPTER 3 Number System and Codes 3.1 Introduction On hearing the word number, we immediately think of familiar decimal number system with its 10 digits; 0,1, 2,3,4,5,6, 7, 8 and 9. these numbers are called

### MICROPROCESSOR. Exclusive for IACE Students www.iace.co.in iacehyd.blogspot.in Ph: 9700077455/422 Page 1

MICROPROCESSOR A microprocessor incorporates the functions of a computer s central processing unit (CPU) on a single Integrated (IC), or at most a few integrated circuit. It is a multipurpose, programmable

### Machine Architecture and Number Systems. Major Computer Components. Schematic Diagram of a Computer. The CPU. The Bus. Main Memory.

1 Topics Machine Architecture and Number Systems Major Computer Components Bits, Bytes, and Words The Decimal Number System The Binary Number System Converting from Decimal to Binary Major Computer Components

### Introduction to Microcontrollers. ECE473/573 Microprocessor System Design, Dr. Shiue

Introduction to Microcontrollers 1 Introduction It is hard to imagine the present world of electronic devices without the microprocessor. Cash register, scales, ovens, washing machine, alarm clock, thermostats,

### Switching Circuits & Logic Design

Switching Circuits & Logic Design Jie-Hong Roland Jiang 江介宏 Department of Electrical Engineering National Taiwan University Fall 2013 1 1 Number Systems and Conversion Babylonian number system (3100 B.C.)

### PACKAGE OUTLINE DALLAS DS2434 DS2434 GND. PR 35 PACKAGE See Mech. Drawings Section

PRELIMINARY DS2434 Battery Identification Chip FEATURES Provides unique ID number to battery packs PACKAGE OUTLINE Eliminates thermistors by sensing battery temperature on chip DALLAS DS2434 1 2 3 256

### Useful Number Systems

Useful Number Systems Decimal Base = 10 Digit Set = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9} Binary Base = 2 Digit Set = {0, 1} Octal Base = 8 = 2 3 Digit Set = {0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7} Hexadecimal Base = 16 = 2

### CPEN 214 - Digital Logic Design Binary Systems

CPEN 4 - Digital Logic Design Binary Systems C. Gerousis Digital Design 3 rd Ed., Mano Prentice Hall Digital vs. Analog An analog system has continuous range of values A mercury thermometer Vinyl records

### S6A SEG / 16 COM DRIVER & CONTROLLER FOR DOT MATRIX LCD

S6A69 4 SEG / 6 COM DRIVER & CONTROLLER FOR DOT MATRIX LCD June 2 Ver Contents in this document are subject to change without notice No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted in any form