Tissue Types. 1. Epithelial Tissue (or epithelium) is the lining, covering, and glandular tissue of the body

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1 Tissue Types A. Tissues 1. Tissues: groups of cells similar in structure and function 2. Four Types of Tissues: a. Epithelium: for covering b. Connective Tissue: for support c. Muscle: for movement d. Nervous Tissue: for control B. Epithelial Tissue 1. Epithelial Tissue (or epithelium) is the lining, covering, and glandular tissue of the body 2. Functions include a. Protection Ex) Skin protects against bacteria b. Absorption Ex) Small intestine absorbs food into the body c. Filtration Ex) Kidneys filter blood d. Secretion Ex) Glands produce perspiration, oil, mucus, etc 3. Characteristics of Epithelium a. Cells fit closely together in continuous sheets i. Neighboring cells are bound by cell junctions (tight junctions and desmosomes) b. Membranes always have one free surface i. This is called the Apical Surface ii. Exposed to the body s exterior or cavity of an internal organ c. The lower surface rests on a Basement membrane i. Basement membrane: a structureless material secreted by cells

2 d. Are avascular i. Avascular: no blood supply 4. Classification of Epithelium a. Every epithelium type is given two names i. First name indicates cell arrangement ii. Second name indicates cell shape b. Cell Arrangement c. Cell Shape i. Simple Epithelium: one layer of cells ii. Stratified Epithelium: more than one cell layer i. Squamous Cells: flattened like fish scales (squam = scale) ii. Cuboidal Cells: cube-shaped like dice iii. Columnar Cells: shaped like columns d. Stratified Epithelia are named for the cell at the free surface (not the basement membrane) 5. Simple Squamous Epithelium a. Single layer of thin cells resting on a basement membrane b. Forms membranes where filtration of exchange of substances by rapid diffusion occur Example: air sacs of lungs, walls of capillaries c. Serous Membranes (serosae): slick membranes that line the ventral body cavity and cover organs of that cavity 6. Simple Cuboidal Epithelium a. One layer of cube-shaped cells resting on a basement membrane b. Common in glands and ducts

3 Example: salivary glands and pancreas 7. Simple Columnar Epithelium a. Single layer of tall cells that fit close together b. Goblet cells: produce a lubricating mucus i. Often found in this type of epithelia c. Lines the entire digestive tract d. Mucosae (mucus membranes): epithelial membranes that line body cavities open to the body exterior 8. Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium a. All cells rest on the basement membrane, but some cells are short than others so their nuclei appear at different heights giving the false (pseudo) impression that it is stratified b. Is ciliated in the respiratory tract i. The mucus of goblet cells traps dust and cilia propel it away from the lungs 9. Stratified epithelium is more durable and functions mainly to protect 10. Stratified Squamous Epithelium a. Most common stratified type b. Cells at free edge are Squamous, but the basement membrane layer are not c. Found in areas that receive a lot of friction Examples: esophagus, mouth, outer portion of the skin 11. Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium a. Typically have just two layers (both Cuboidal) b. Very Rare: mostly in large ducts and glands 12. Stratified Columnar Epithelium a. Surface cells are columnar, but basal (basement) can vary in size and shape

4 b. Very Rare: mostly in large ducts and glands 13. Transitional Epithelium a. Highly modified, stratified Squamous epithelium i. Forms the lining of only a few organs Examples: Urinary Bladder, Ureters, and part of Urethra b. Cells of the basal layer are cuboidal or columnar c. Cells of the free surface vary in appearance d. Cells can change shape and slide past one another i. Allows the bladder to stretch, thin, and flatten for increased volume 14. Glandular Epithelium a. Gland: one or more cells that make and secrete a particular product b. Secretion: typically a protein molecule in an aqueous fluid i. Secretion also indicates an active process c. Two types of glands develop from epithelial sheets: endocrine and exocrine d. Endocrine Glands: (ductless) secretions are all hormones i. Diffuse directly into the blood vessels that weave through glands e. Exocrine Glands: (have ducts) secretions empty through ducts to the epithelial surface Example: sweat glands C. Connective Tissue 1. Connective Tissue: connects body parts and performs the following functions: a. Protecting b. Supporting

5 c. Binding together other tissues 2. Characteristics a. Well vascularized (good blood supply) Exceptions: ligaments, tendons, cartilage (don t heal well) b. Have an extracellular matrix 3. Extracellular Matrix: is produced by connective tissue cells and secreted to their exterior a. Has two main elements: ground substance and fibers b. Ground Substance: composed largely of water, some adhesion proteins, and large, charged polysaccharide molecules i. Adhesion proteins act as glue to attach connective tissue cells to the matrix fibers c. Fibers are deposited in the matrix and form part of it i. Collagen fibers (white) has high tensile strength ii. Elastic fibers (yellow) has ability to be stretched and then recoil iii. Reticular fibers form internal skeleton of soft organs (like the spleen) d. Extracellular matrix allows connective tissues to: i. Form soft packing around other organs ii. Bear Weight iii. Withstand stretching and other abuses (like abrasion) e. Varying amounts of extracellular matrix allows a wide range of types of connective tissues 4. Types of connective tissues from most rigid to softest: Bone, Cartilage, Dense Connective Tissue, Loose Connective Tissue, and Blood 5. Bone: is composed of bone cells sitting cavities called lacunae and surrounded by layers of a very hard matrix that contains calcium salts and collage fibers

6 a. Also called osseous tissue 6. Cartilage: is less hard and more flexible than bone a. Hyaline Cartilage: abundant collagen fibers hidden by a rubbery matrix with a glassy appearance i. Hyalin = glass ii. Locations: --supporting structure of larynx --attaches ribs to sternum --covers ends of bones where they form joints iii. Most abundant type of cartilage b. Fibrocartilage: highly compressible and forms the cushion-like disks between the vertebrae of the spinal column. c. Elastic Cartilage: found elastic structures Example: external ear 7. Dense Connective Tissue: has a collagen fiber as its main matrix with rows of fibroblasts a. Also called Dense Fibrous Tissue b. Fibroblasts: fiber-forming cells c. Form strong, rope-like structures i. Tendons: attach muscles to bones ii. Ligaments: attach bones to bones --more stretchy --contain more elastic fibers than tendons iii. Lower layers of the skin (dermis) 8. Loose Connective Tissues: softer and have more cells and fewer fibers than any other connective tissue except blood

7 a. Has three main types: areolar tissue, adipose tissue, and reticular connective tissue b. Areolar Tissue: is soft, pliable, cobwebby tissue that cushions and protects the body organs it wraps i. Most widely distributed connective tissue ii. Acts as universal glue to hold internal organs together and in their proper positions iii. Lamina Propria: a soft layer of areolar connective tissue that underlies all mucous membranes iv. Acts as a reserve for water and salts of surrounding tissues v. Edema: condition when a body region is inflamed and the areolar tissue soaks up the excess fluid like sponge becoming swollen and puffy c. Adipose Tissue: is commonly called fat i. Areolar tissue in which fat cells predominate ii. Forms the subcutaneous tissue beneath the skin --insulates and protects from extremes of heat and cold iii. Cushions organs (like eyeballs in their sockets) iv. Acts as energy reserve d. Reticular Connective Tissue: consists of a delicate interwoven reticular fibers that support many free blood cells in lymphoid organs such as lymph nodes, the spleen, and bone marrow. 9. Blood: is considered a connective tissue because it consists of blood cells surround by plasma (the non-living, fluid matrix). a. Fibers of the blood are protein fibers that become visible during clotting D. Muscle Tissue 1. Muscle Tissues are highly specialized to contract to produce movement 2. There are three types: skeletal, cardiac, and smooth

8 3. Skeletal Muscle Tissue: is packaged by connective tissue into skeletal muscles a. Attach to the skeleton b. Are under voluntary control c. Contract to pull on bones or skin i. For gross body movements ii. For facial expressions d. Skeletal Muscle Cells: are long, cylindrical, multinucleate, and have striations i. Skeletal Muscle Cells are also called muscle fibers 4. Cardiac Muscle is found only in the heart a. Cardiac Muscle Cells: are short, uninucleate, branching cells that fit tightly together i. Intercalated Disks: junctions where cardiac cells join tightly together ii. Contain gap junctions --allows ions to pass freely from cell-to-cell --rapid conduction of electrical impulse across the heart b. Under involuntary control 5. Smooth Muscle has no visible striations a. Also called visceral muscle b. Found in walls of hallow organs Examples: stomach, bladder, uterus, blood vessels c. Contracts more slowly than the other types of muscle d. Cells have spindle shape and a single nucleus E. Nervous Tissue

9 1. Nervous tissue is made up of cells called neurons a. Neurons receive and conduct electrochemical impulses from one part of the body to another b. Functional characteristics: irritability and conductivity c. Have cytoplasmic extensions that can be up to 3 or more feet long (in the legs) d. Make up the nervous system: brain, spinal cord, and nerves F. Tissue Repair 1. If tissue is damaged it stimulates the body s inflammatory and immune responses a. Inflammation Response: a generalized (nonspecific) response that attempts to prevent further injury b. Immune Response: extremely specific and mounts attack against recognized invaders 2. Tissue Repair occurs in two major ways: regeneration and fibrosis a. Regeneration: replacement of destroyed tissue with same type of cells b. Fibrosis: repair by dense (fibrous) connective tissue that forms a scar 3. Which type of repair depends on: a. The type of tissue damages b. The severity of the damage 4. Clean cuts generally heal successfully than ragged rears of the tissue 5. Events of tissue repair a. Capillaries become very permeable i. Allows fluid rich in clotting proteins to seep into the injured area ii. Clot forms to stop blood loss and hold edges of wound together b. Granulation tissue forms --Scab: clot exposed to air that quickly dries and hardens

10 i. Granulation tissue is a delicate pink tissue composed largely of new capillaries that grow into the damaged area from undamaged blood vessels nearby ii. Contains phagocytes that eventually dispose of the blood clot c. Surface epithelium regenerates i. New epithelium grows beneath the scab until detaches and falls off 6. Different tissues regenerate better than others a. Cardiac and nervous tissue are largely replaced by scar tissue b. Scar tissue lacks ability to perform the normal functions of the tissue it replaces G. Developmental Aspects of Cells and Tissues 1. Neoplasm: cells multiply wildly forming an abnormal mass of cells a. May be benign b. May be malignant (cancerous) 2. Hyperplasia: body tissues or organs enlarge because of a local irritant or condition that stimulates the cells Example: enlarged breasts during pregnancy in response to hormones --temporary condition 3. Atrophy: decrease in size or an organ or body area that loses its normal stimulation Example: muscle loss due to lack of exercise or loss of nerve supply

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