Biology Slide 1 of 38

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Biology Slide 1 of 38"

Transcription

1 Biology 1 of 38

2 2 of 38

3 35-2 The Nervous System What are the functions of the nervous system? 3 of 38

4 35-2 The Nervous System 1. Nervous system: a. controls and coordinates functions throughout the body b. responds to internal and external stimuli. c. Carry impulses (electrical signals) throughout body d. Contains neurons (nerve cells that carry the impulses) 4 of 38

5 Neurons 2. 3 Types of Neurons: a. Sensory neurons: carry impulses from the sense organs to the spinal cord and brain. b. Motor neurons: carry impulses from the brain and spinal cord to muscles and glands. c. Interneurons: connect sensory and motor neurons and carry impulses between them. 5 of 38

6 Neurons 3. Structures of a Neuron Axon terminals Cell body Nucleus Dendrites Myelin sheath Nodes Axon 6 of 38

7 Neurons a. cell body: *largest part of neuron * contains nucleus and cytoplasm. Cell body 7 of 38

8 Neurons b. Dendrites: * extend from the cell body * carry impulses toward the cell body. Dendrites 8 of 38

9 Neurons c. axon: long fiber that carries impulses away from the cell body. Axon terminals Axon 9 of 38

10 Neurons d. axon terminals: bulbs at end of axon Axon terminals Axon 10 of 38

11 Neurons e. myelin sheath: *an insulating membrane *allows impulses to skip from node to node f. Nodes: *gaps in the myelin sheath. Myelin sheath Nodes 11 of 38

12 Activity ----unmyelinated vs myelinated neurons. 12 of 38

13 The Nerve Impulse 4. The Nerve Impulse (pg 899) a. Resting Neuron outside of the neuron has a + charge. inside of the neuron has a - charge. (The cell membrane is electrically charged because there is a difference in electrical charge between its outer and inner surfaces.) 13 of 38

14 The Nerve Impulse (The sodium-potassium pump in the nerve cell membrane pumps sodium (Na + ) ions out of the cell and potassium (K + ) ions into the cell by means of active transport. As a result, the inside of the cell contains more K + ions and fewer Na + ions than the outside. More K + ions leak across the membrane than Na + ions. This produces a negative charge on the inside and a positive charge on the outside. ) 14 of 38

15 The Nerve Impulse Sodium-Potassium Pump 15 of 38

16 The Nerve Impulse b. resting potential: The electrical charge across the cell membrane of a neuron at rest 16 of 38

17 The Nerve Impulse How is a nerve impulse transmitted? 17 of 38

18 The Nerve Impulse c. The Moving Impulse 1. An impulse begins when a neuron is stimulated by another neuron or by the environment. 18 of 38

19 The Nerve Impulse 2. sodium channels open allowing Na + ions to flow inside the axon. 19 of 38

20 The Nerve Impulse (The inside of the membrane temporarily becomes more positive than the outside) 20 of 38

21 The Nerve Impulse 3. action potential: reversal of charges inside axon *continues along axon 21 of 38

22 The Nerve Impulse out 4. As action potential passes, potassium channels open (allowing K + ions to flow restoring the negative potential inside the axon) 22 of 38

23 The Nerve Impulse 5. Neuron returns to rest. 23 of 38

24 The Nerve Impulse D. Threshold: *minimum level of a stimulus that is required to activate a neuron 24 of 38

25 The Nerve Impulse (A stimulus must be of adequate strength to cause a neuron to transmit an impulse. A stimulus that is stronger than the threshold produces an impulse. A stimulus that is weaker than the threshold produces no impulse.) 25 of 38

26 The Synapse E. Synapse: *location at which a neuron can transfer an impulse to another cell 26 of 38

27 The Synapse A Synapse 27 of 38

28 The Synapse (The synaptic cleft separates the axon terminal from the dendrites of the adjacent cell. ) Synaptic cleft 28 of 38

29 The Synapse (Terminals contain vesicles filled with neurotransmitters). Vesicle 1. Neurotransmitters: chemicals used by a neuron to transmit an impulse across a synapse Neurotransmitter 29 of 38

30 The Synapse (As an impulse reaches a terminal, vesicles send neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft. These diffuse across the cleft and attach to membrane receptors on the next cell.) Receptor 30 of 38

31 The Synapse (Sodium ions then rush across the membrane, stimulating the next cell.) 2. If the stimulation exceeds the cell s threshold, a new impulse begins. 31 of 38

32 The Synapse (after binding to receptors, neurotransmitters are released from the cell surface. The neurotransmitters may then be broken down by enzymes, or taken up and recycled by the axon terminal.) 32 of 38

33 35-2 Continue to: - or - Click to Launch: 33 of 38

34 35-2 Neurons that carry impulses from the brain and spinal cord to the muscles are a. interneurons. b. sensory neurons. c. resting neurons. d. motor neurons. 34 of 38

35 35-2 The part of the neuron that carries impulses toward the cell body is the a. axon. b. myelin sheath. c. dendrite. d. nodes. 35 of 38

36 35-2 The minimum level of a stimulus that is required to activate a neuron is called its a. action potential. b. resting potential. c. threshold. d. synapse. 36 of 38

37 35-2 Chemicals that are used by a neuron to transmit impulses are called a. neurotransmitters. b. synapses. c. axons. d. inhibitors. 37 of 38

38 35-2 An action potential begins when a. sodium ions flow into the neuron. b. potassium ions flow into the neuron. c. sodium and potassium ions flow into the neuron. d. sodium and potassium ions flow out of the neuron. 38 of 38

39 END OF SECTION

Ch. 7 Neurons: The Matter of the Mind

Ch. 7 Neurons: The Matter of the Mind Ch. 7 Neurons: The Matter of the Mind The nervous system: Controls, integrates and coordinates the body s activities Provides rapid and brief responses to stimuli Has 2 major divisions: 1. The central

More information

Anatomy & Physiology Neural Tissue Worksheet

Anatomy & Physiology Neural Tissue Worksheet Anatomy & Physiology Neural Tissue Worksheet 1. Name the two major subdivisions of the nervous system Nervous System Nervous System 2. Name the two parts (organs) of the CNS 3. What are the three functions

More information

Nerves and Nerve Impulse

Nerves and Nerve Impulse Nerves and Nerve Impulse Terms Absolute refractory period: Period following stimulation during which no additional action potential can be evoked. Acetylcholine: Chemical transmitter substance released

More information

Association neurons allow for integration of information, reflexes and associative functions (decision making)

Association neurons allow for integration of information, reflexes and associative functions (decision making) The Nervous System Nervous system links sensory receptors and motor effectors Sensory (afferent) neurons carry impulses from receptors Motor (efferent) neurons carry impulses to effectors - muscles and

More information

The Nervous System CH 28

The Nervous System CH 28 The Nervous System CH 28 Nervous system Structure and function Nerve signals and their transmission Nervous systems The human brain Giant Squid! Artituthus can be 30 ft+ The Giant Squid Nervous System

More information

Nerve Cell Flashcards

Nerve Cell Flashcards 1. What does the word innervates mean? Refers to a nerve supplying a muscle or organ. For example, The phrenic nerve innervates the diaphragm muscle. 2. 3 parts of the Nervous System 1. Central Nervous

More information

Neurons, Synapses, and Signaling

Neurons, Synapses, and Signaling Chapter 8 Neurons, Synapses, and Signaling Overview: Lines of Communication The cone snail kills prey with venom that disables neurons Neurons are nerve cells that transfer information within the body

More information

AP Biology I. Nervous System Notes

AP Biology I. Nervous System Notes AP Biology I. Nervous System Notes 1. General information: passage of information occurs in two ways: Nerves - process and send information fast (eg. stepping on a tack) Hormones - process and send information

More information

2. Regulator responses - controlling responses and directing them to the right place

2. Regulator responses - controlling responses and directing them to the right place Nervous Regulation A. Functions of the nervous system Maintain Regulator responses - controlling responses and directing them to the right place 3. Coordinate responses - B. Mechanisms for Nervous Regulation

More information

The Nervous System : communication

The Nervous System : communication The Nervous System : communication A. Neurons = masses of nerve cells that transmit information 1. Cell Body - contains the nucleus and two extensions 2. Dendrites shorter, more numerous, receive information

More information

HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY

HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY C H A P T E R 1 11 HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY THE HUMAN BODY: AN ORIENTATION FUNDAMENTALS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM & NERVOUS TISSUE C H A P T E R 1 PART I HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY FUNDAMENTALS OF THE NERVOUS

More information

Nerve Cell Communication

Nerve Cell Communication Nerve Cell Communication Part 1: What are the parts of a nerve cell? 1. Read the information in the Biology Brief: Neurons. As you read, circle the names of the structures (parts) of the neuron. 2. Obtain

More information

Figure: 11.2 ;pg 387 4

Figure: 11.2 ;pg 387 4 ANATOMY I; CHAPTER 11, NERVOUS SYSTEM Nervous system is the master control, 2 communication and coordinating system between the different body structures and systems Every activity, thought and emotion

More information

Resting membrane potential ~ -70mV - Membrane is polarized

Resting membrane potential ~ -70mV - Membrane is polarized Resting membrane potential ~ -70mV - Membrane is polarized (ie) Electrical charge on the outside of the membrane is positive while the electrical charge on the inside of the membrane is negative Changes

More information

Nervous Systems: Neuron Structure and Function

Nervous Systems: Neuron Structure and Function Nervous Systems: Neuron Structure and Function Integration An animal needs to function like a coherent organism, not like a loose collection of cells. Integration = refers to processes such as summation

More information

IV. Anatomy of a Neuron aka. A nerve cell: * various sizes; from < 1mm to 1 meter in length * various nerve impulse speeds; from 0.

IV. Anatomy of a Neuron aka. A nerve cell: * various sizes; from < 1mm to 1 meter in length * various nerve impulse speeds; from 0. IV. Anatomy of a Neuron aka. A nerve cell: * various sizes; from < 1mm to 1 meter in length * various nerve impulse speeds; from 0.5 to 395 meters/sec [1to280 miles/hour] How do Neurons communicate? Neurons

More information

Nerve Cell Physiology

Nerve Cell Physiology Nerve Cell Physiology body is electrically neutral there are small differences in electrical charge between inside and outside of cell membranes due to differences in + and ions on inside and outside of

More information

How is the Nervous System Organized? Class Objectives: What is the Nervous System? The Biology of the Mind Module 3: Neural and Hormonal Systems

How is the Nervous System Organized? Class Objectives: What is the Nervous System? The Biology of the Mind Module 3: Neural and Hormonal Systems How is the Nervous System Organized? The Biology of the Mind Module 3: Neural and Hormonal Systems 1 Class Objectives: Understand the function and purpose of the nervous system Identify and define the

More information

11.1: The Role of the Nervous System pg

11.1: The Role of the Nervous System pg UNIT 4: Homeostasis Chapter 11: The Nervous System pg. 514 11.1: The Role of the Nervous System pg 516-521 Organisms need to senses heir environments to make appropriate adjustments and survive. The nervous

More information

Functions of the Nervous System

Functions of the Nervous System NAME PERIOD MY TEST DATE: STUDY GUIDE UNIT 9 The Human Body NERVOUS SYSTEM TEST FORMAT: 10 Fill-Ins (using word bank) 20 Multiple choice DIAGRAMS: Neuron Brain DIAGRAMS + OPEN RESPONSE: Label the diagram

More information

Go to the following web site and follow the instructions below:

Go to the following web site and follow the instructions below: The nervous system consists of three parts: the Brain, the Central Nervous System, and the Peripheral Nervous System. The Brain is the command center, the Central Nervous System is the brain and the spinal

More information

12. Nervous System: Nervous Tissue

12. Nervous System: Nervous Tissue 12. Nervous System: Nervous Tissue I. Introduction to the Nervous System General functions of the nervous system The nervous system has three basic functions: 1. Gather sensory input from the environment

More information

PART I: Neurons and the Nerve Impulse

PART I: Neurons and the Nerve Impulse PART I: Neurons and the Nerve Impulse Identify each of the labeled structures of the neuron below. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. Identify each of the labeled structures of the neuron below. A. dendrites B. nucleus

More information

Essay Question for exam 3

Essay Question for exam 3 Essay Question for exam 3 Describe how action potentials are generated and propagated along neurons. Include in your description how intracellular voltage changes during the action potential by labeling

More information

Chapter 7: The Nervous System

Chapter 7: The Nervous System Chapter 7: The Nervous System Objectives Discuss the general organization of the nervous system Describe the structure & function of a nerve Draw and label the pathways involved in a withdraw reflex Define

More information

Nerve Cell Communication

Nerve Cell Communication Nerve Cell Communication Core Concept: Nerve cells communicate using electrical and chemical signals. Class time required: Approximately 2 forty minute class periods Teacher Provides: For each student

More information

Name: Teacher: Olsen Hour:

Name: Teacher: Olsen Hour: Name: Teacher: Olsen Hour: The Nervous System: Part 1 Textbook p216-225 41 In all exercises, quizzes and tests in this class, always answer in your own words. That is the only way that you can show that

More information

Neuron cell structure Dendrites: Soma: Axon hillock: Axon: Myelin sheath: Nodes of Ranvier: Axon terminal / Terminal buttons:

Neuron cell structure Dendrites: Soma: Axon hillock: Axon: Myelin sheath: Nodes of Ranvier: Axon terminal / Terminal buttons: Neuron cell structure s: Contain neuroreceptors that respond when exposed to neurotransmitters. : Body of neuron cell. DNA in the nucleus in the soma code for all the proteins of the neuron. Axon hillock:

More information

Nervous system. Figure 1 The nervous system.

Nervous system. Figure 1 The nervous system. Nervous system Components The nervous system is the central nervous system (CNS) - the brain and spinal cord, and the peripheral nervous system (PNS) - nerves connecting to the CNS and serving the body.

More information

Activity 5: The Action Potential: Measuring Its Absolute and Relative Refractory Periods. 250 20 Yes. 125 20 Yes. 60 20 No. 60 25 No.

Activity 5: The Action Potential: Measuring Its Absolute and Relative Refractory Periods. 250 20 Yes. 125 20 Yes. 60 20 No. 60 25 No. 3: Neurophysiology of Nerve Impulses (Part 2) Activity 5: The Action Potential: Measuring Its Absolute and Relative Refractory Periods Interval between stimuli Stimulus voltage (mv) Second action potential?

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Chapter 2 The Neural Impulse Name Period Date MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The cell body is enclosed by the. A) cell membrane

More information

Student Academic Learning Services Page 1 of 8 Nervous System Quiz

Student Academic Learning Services Page 1 of 8 Nervous System Quiz Student Academic Learning Services Page 1 of 8 Nervous System Quiz 1. The term central nervous system refers to the: A) autonomic and peripheral nervous systems B) brain, spinal cord, and cranial nerves

More information

NERVOUS SYSTEM IN HUMAN BEINGS

NERVOUS SYSTEM IN HUMAN BEINGS Class X Episode 4 A P State NERVOUS SYSTEM IN HUMAN BEINGS You all must have seen a Computer and most of you also use the computer. What are the parts in a computer? The C P U Monitor, Keyboard, and the

More information

Nerves and Conduction of Nerve Impulses

Nerves and Conduction of Nerve Impulses A. Introduction 1. Innovation in Cnidaria - Nerve net a. We need to talk more about nerves b. Cnidaria have simple nerve net - 2 way conduction c. Basis for more complex system in Vertebrates B. Vertebrate

More information

REVIEW SHEET EXERCISE 3 Neurophysiology of Nerve Impulses Name Lab Time/Date. The Resting Membrane Potential

REVIEW SHEET EXERCISE 3 Neurophysiology of Nerve Impulses Name Lab Time/Date. The Resting Membrane Potential REVIEW SHEET EXERCISE 3 Neurophysiology of Nerve Impulses Name Lab Time/Date ACTIVITY 1 The Resting Membrane Potential 1. Explain why increasing extracellular K + reduces the net diffusion of K + out of

More information

ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY. Part 1: The Nervous System

ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY. Part 1: The Nervous System ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY Part 1: The Nervous System Please watch the following video. - Click the link below. - Adjust volume on speaker (far right on teacher desk). - Increase picture size by clicking bottom

More information

Major Structures of the Nervous System

Major Structures of the Nervous System Major Structures of the Nervous System Brain, cranial nerves, spinal cord, spinal nerves, ganglia, enteric plexuses and sensory receptors Tortora & Grabowski 9/e ã2000 JWS 12-1 Nervous System Divisions

More information

Nervous System Section 35 1 Human Body Systems (pages )

Nervous System Section 35 1 Human Body Systems (pages ) Name Period Chap 35.1, 35.2, 35.3, 36.1, 36.2, 36.3, and 38.3 A look at cells, tissues, organs, organ systems of humans as well as the role of passive and active transport in nerve and muscle conduction

More information

Histology of Nervous Tissue Nervous system consists mostly of nervous tissue, which is highly cellular. Less than 20% of the CNS is extracellular

Histology of Nervous Tissue Nervous system consists mostly of nervous tissue, which is highly cellular. Less than 20% of the CNS is extracellular The Nervous System Overview The nervous system is the master controlling and communicating system of the body. Every thought, action and emotion reflects its activity. Its cells communicate by electrical

More information

11 Fundamentals of the Nervous System and Nervous Tissue: Part A

11 Fundamentals of the Nervous System and Nervous Tissue: Part A 11 Fundamentals of the Nervous System and Nervous Tissue: Part A Functions of the Nervous System 1.Sensory input Information gathered by sensory receptors about internal and external changes 2.Integration

More information

Ion Channels. Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.com)

Ion Channels. Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.com) Ion Channels Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.com) ** There are a number of ion channels introducted in this topic which you

More information

NEURON AND NEURAL TRAMSMISSION: ANATOMY OF A NEURON. created by Dr. Joanne Hsu

NEURON AND NEURAL TRAMSMISSION: ANATOMY OF A NEURON. created by Dr. Joanne Hsu NEURON AND NEURAL TRAMSMISSION: ANATOMY OF A NEURON NEURON AND NEURAL TRAMSMISSION: MICROSCOPIC VIEW OF NEURONS A photograph taken through a light microscope (500x) of neurons in the spinal cord. NEURON

More information

Vocab Term Definition of Term Example An individual nerve cell. Carries and processes information.

Vocab Term Definition of Term Example An individual nerve cell. Carries and processes information. Chapter and Topic of this Review Guide: Chapter 2 the Brain pages 52-62 and the Psychology in Action Vocab Term Definition of Term Example Neuron An individual nerve cell. Carries and processes information.

More information

Animal Systems: The Nervous System

Animal Systems: The Nervous System Animal Systems: The Nervous System Your joys and your sorrows, your memories and your ambitions, your sense of personal identity and free will are, in fact, no more than the behaviour of a vast assembly

More information

What is the basic component of the brain and spinal cord communication system?

What is the basic component of the brain and spinal cord communication system? EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY David Myers The Biology of Mind Chapter 2 Neural Communication Neurons How Neurons Communicate How Neurotransmitters Influence Us The Nervous System The Peripheral Nervous System The

More information

CHAPTER 10: NERVOUS SYSTEM I. 1. Name the two major divisions of the nervous system and list the organs within each.

CHAPTER 10: NERVOUS SYSTEM I. 1. Name the two major divisions of the nervous system and list the organs within each. OBJECTIVES: 1. Name the two major divisions of the nervous system and list the organs within each. 2. Fully discuss the three general functions of the nervous system, and draw a figure that summarizes

More information

Structural Classification of the Nervous System

Structural Classification of the Nervous System Structural Classification of the Nervous System Central nervous system (CNS) Brain and spinal cord Activates nerve responses Interprets sensations Peripheral nervous system (PNS) Composed of all the nerves

More information

The connection between adjacent neurons.

The connection between adjacent neurons. 1. The diagram below is of a nerve cell or neuron. i. Add the following labels to the diagram. Axon; Myelin sheath; Cell body; Dendrites; Muscle fibres; ii. Now indicate the direction that the nerve impulse

More information

U N IT 10 NE RVOUS SYS TE M REVIEW 1. Which of the following is controlled by the somatic nervous system? A. rate of heartbeat B.

U N IT 10 NE RVOUS SYS TE M REVIEW 1. Which of the following is controlled by the somatic nervous system? A. rate of heartbeat B. U N IT 10 NE RVOUS SYS TE M REVIEW 1. Which of the following is controlled by the somatic nervous system? A. rate of heartbeat B. contraction of skeletal muscles C. increased blood flow to muscle tissue

More information

Things You Will Need r u l e r, 30 cm or longe r 8 standa rd do m i no e s ma s k i ng tape s c i s s o r s paper for re c o rd i ng observatio ns

Things You Will Need r u l e r, 30 cm or longe r 8 standa rd do m i no e s ma s k i ng tape s c i s s o r s paper for re c o rd i ng observatio ns Explorer s Guide The Domino Effect THE DOMINO EFFECT 75 Use dominoes to model a nerve cell s transmission of a signal Your nervous system does its job by transmitting information through the long bodies

More information

Biopsychology Chapter 2: Structure and Functions of Cells of the Nervous System. Neuron Structure. Neuron Classification Schemes

Biopsychology Chapter 2: Structure and Functions of Cells of the Nervous System. Neuron Structure. Neuron Classification Schemes Biopsychology Chapter 2: Structure and Functions of Cells of the Nervous System Neuron Structure 2.2 Neuron Classification Schemes Neurons can be classified according to Number of axon processes: Unipolar:

More information

Andrew Rosen - Chapter 3: The Brain and Nervous System Intro:

Andrew Rosen - Chapter 3: The Brain and Nervous System Intro: Intro: Brain is made up of numerous, complex parts Frontal lobes by forehead are the brain s executive center Parietal lobes wave sensory information together (maps feeling on body) Temporal lobes interpret

More information

31.1 The Neuron. BUILD Vocabulary. Lesson Objectives

31.1 The Neuron. BUILD Vocabulary. Lesson Objectives Name Class Date 31.1 The Neuron Lesson Objectives Identify the functions of the nervous system. Describe the function of neurons. Describe how a nerve impulse is transmitted. BUILD Vocabulary A. The chart

More information

Anatomy Review Graphics are used with permission of: adam.com (http://www.adam.com/) Benjamin Cummings Publishing Co (http://www.awl.com/bc).

Anatomy Review Graphics are used with permission of: adam.com (http://www.adam.com/) Benjamin Cummings Publishing Co (http://www.awl.com/bc). Page 1. Introduction The structure of neurons reflects their function. One part of the cell receives incoming signals. Another part generates outgoing signals. Anatomy Review Graphics are used with permission

More information

Chapter 9 Nervous System

Chapter 9 Nervous System Chapter 9 Nervous System Nervous System function: The nervous system is composed of neurons and neuroglia. at the ends of peripheral nerves gather information and convert it into nerve impulses. When sensory

More information

Topic 1: Introduction to the Nervous System

Topic 1: Introduction to the Nervous System Topic 1: Introduction to the Nervous System v Name the parts of a generalised neuron & indicate the input, output and integration areas of the neuron. Ø Neurons are the functional cell of the nervous system

More information

Parts of the Nerve Cell and Their Functions

Parts of the Nerve Cell and Their Functions Parts of the Nerve Cell and Their Functions Silvia Helena Cardoso, PhD [ 1. Cell body] [2. Neuronal membrane] [3. Dendrites] [4. Axon] [5. Nerve ending] 1. Cell body The cell body (soma) is the factory

More information

Anatomy Review. Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.

Anatomy Review. Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc. Anatomy Review Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.com) Page 1. Introduction The structure of neurons reflects their function.

More information

FUNCTIONS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 1. Sensory input. Sensory receptors detects external and internal stimuli.

FUNCTIONS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 1. Sensory input. Sensory receptors detects external and internal stimuli. FUNCTIONS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 1. Sensory input. Sensory receptors detects external and internal stimuli. 2. Integration. The brain and spinal cord process sensory input and produce responses. 3. Homeostasis.

More information

Chapter 11: Functional Organization of Nervous Tissue

Chapter 11: Functional Organization of Nervous Tissue Chapter 11: Functional Organization of Nervous Tissue Multiple Choice 1. The nervous system A) monitors internal and external stimuli. B) transmits information in the form of action potentials. C) interprets

More information

The Action Potential Graphics are used with permission of: adam.com (http://www.adam.com/) Benjamin Cummings Publishing Co (http://www.awl.

The Action Potential Graphics are used with permission of: adam.com (http://www.adam.com/) Benjamin Cummings Publishing Co (http://www.awl. The Action Potential Graphics are used with permission of: adam.com (http://www.adam.com/) Benjamin Cummings Publishing Co (http://www.awl.com/bc) ** If this is not printed in color, it is suggested you

More information

CHAPTER 5 SIGNALLING IN NEURONS

CHAPTER 5 SIGNALLING IN NEURONS 5.1. SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION CHAPTER 5 SIGNALLING IN NEURONS One of the main functions of neurons is to communicate with other neurons. An individual neuron may receive information from many different sources.

More information

The Neuron and the Synapse. The Neuron. Parts of the Neuron. Functions of the neuron:

The Neuron and the Synapse. The Neuron. Parts of the Neuron. Functions of the neuron: The Neuron and the Synapse The Neuron Functions of the neuron: Transmit information from one point in the body to another. Process the information in various ways (that is, compute). The neuron has a specialized

More information

Brain & Mind. Bicester Community College Science Department

Brain & Mind. Bicester Community College Science Department B6 Brain & Mind B6 Key Questions How do animals respond to changes in their environment? How is information passed through the nervous system? What can we learn through conditioning? How do humans develop

More information

Explore the Neuroscience for Kids Web Site (ANSWERS) Start at: http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/neurok.html

Explore the Neuroscience for Kids Web Site (ANSWERS) Start at: http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/neurok.html NAME Explore the Neuroscience for Kids Web Site (ANSWERS) Start at: http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/neurok.html On the left side, click on Explore, then click on The Neuron, then click on Millions

More information

EXCITABILITY & ACTION POTENTIALS page 1

EXCITABILITY & ACTION POTENTIALS page 1 page 1 INTRODUCTION A. Excitable Tissue: able to generate Action Potentials (APs) (e.g. neurons, muscle cells) B. Neurons (nerve cells) a. components 1) soma (cell body): metabolic center (vital, always

More information

48a A&P: Nervous System -! Introduction, Physiology, and Cells

48a A&P: Nervous System -! Introduction, Physiology, and Cells 48a A&P: Nervous System -! Introduction, Physiology, and Cells 48a A&P: Nervous System -! Introduction, Physiology, and Cells! Class Outline" 5 minutes" "Attendance, Breath of Arrival, and Reminders "

More information

Neurophysiology. 2.1 Equilibrium Potential

Neurophysiology. 2.1 Equilibrium Potential 2 Neurophysiology 2.1 Equilibrium Potential An understanding of the concepts of electrical and chemical forces that act on ions, electrochemical equilibrium, and equilibrium potential is a powerful tool

More information

Medfamily team Medfamily team 1) The resting membrane potential: a. Is much closer to the equilibrium for Na+ than to the equilibrium potential for

Medfamily team Medfamily team 1) The resting membrane potential: a. Is much closer to the equilibrium for Na+ than to the equilibrium potential for 1) The resting membrane potential: a. Is much closer to the equilibrium for Na+ than to the equilibrium potential for K+. b. Is much closer to the equilibrium for K+ than to the equilibrium potential for

More information

UNIT 7 NOTES. STIMULI ê RECEPTOR CELL SENSORY NEURON INTERNEURON (CNS)

UNIT 7 NOTES. STIMULI ê RECEPTOR CELL SENSORY NEURON INTERNEURON (CNS) UNIT 7 NOTES NERVOUS SYSTEM Nervous System (NS) has 3 functions: 1. Sensory Input Conduction of electrical signals from sensory receptors 2. Integration Information is interpreted and response generated

More information

ANIMATED NEUROSCIENCE

ANIMATED NEUROSCIENCE ANIMATED NEUROSCIENCE and the Action of Nicotine, Cocaine, and Marijuana in the Brain Te a c h e r s G u i d e Films for the Humanities & Sciences Background Information This program, made entirely of

More information

The Anatomy and Physiology of Animals/Nervous System Worksheet/Worksheet Answers

The Anatomy and Physiology of Animals/Nervous System Worksheet/Worksheet Answers The Anatomy and Physiology of Animals/Nervous System Worksheet/Worksheet Answers From WikiEducator < The Anatomy and Physiology of Animals Nervous System Worksheet 1. The diagram below is of a nerve cell

More information

Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 3: Brain s Building Blocks. Module 3. Brain s Building Blocks

Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 3: Brain s Building Blocks. Module 3. Brain s Building Blocks Module 3 Brain s Building Blocks Structure of the Brain Genes chains of chemicals that are arranged like rungs on a twisting ladder there are about 100,000 genes that contain chemical instructions that

More information

Neural Communication by Richard H. Hall, 1998

Neural Communication by Richard H. Hall, 1998 Neural Communication by Richard H. Hall, 1998 Forces and Membranes Now that we've considered the structure of the cells of the nervous system it is important to address their principal function, communication.

More information

The vocabulary of nerve cells and the senses. Resting and action potentials: the transduction and coding of stimuli

The vocabulary of nerve cells and the senses. Resting and action potentials: the transduction and coding of stimuli The vocabulary of nerve cells and the senses Resting and action potentials: the transduction and coding of stimuli The Bottom Line For any external or internal signal to be recognized by the brain it must

More information

Anatomy & Physiology Bio 2401 Lecture. Instructor: Daryl Beatty Nervous System Introduction Part 1

Anatomy & Physiology Bio 2401 Lecture. Instructor: Daryl Beatty Nervous System Introduction Part 1 Anatomy & Physiology Bio 2401 Lecture Instructor: Daryl Beatty Nervous System Introduction Part 1 Nervous System Introduction Chapter 11 Section A Sequence 4.1 DB Nervous system 1 Intro Presentations 4.2,

More information

Neuron Structure and Function

Neuron Structure and Function C H A P T E R 4 Neuron Structure and Function PowerPoint Lecture Slides prepared by Stephen Gehnrich, Salisbury University Neurons Vary in structure and properties Use same basic mechanisms to send signals

More information

NERVOUS SYSTEM B 1. Which of the following is controlled by the somatic nervous system? A. rate of heartbeat B. contraction of skeletal muscles C.

NERVOUS SYSTEM B 1. Which of the following is controlled by the somatic nervous system? A. rate of heartbeat B. contraction of skeletal muscles C. NERVOUS SYSTEM B 1. Which of the following is controlled by the somatic nervous system? A. rate of heartbeat B. contraction of skeletal muscles C. increased blood flow to muscle tissue D. movement of food

More information

Bi 360: Midterm Review

Bi 360: Midterm Review Bi 360: Midterm Review Basic Neurobiology 1) Many axons are surrounded by a fatty insulating sheath called myelin, which is interrupted at regular intervals at the Nodes of Ranvier, where the action potential

More information

Origin of Electrical Membrane Potential

Origin of Electrical Membrane Potential Origin of Electrical Membrane Potential parti This book is about the physiological characteristics of nerve and muscle cells. As we shall see, the ability of these cells to generate and conduct electricity

More information

Nervous System: Part I

Nervous System: Part I Nervous System: Part I The Nervous System Your body s communication s network & control center Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)-gathers info from inside & outside the body Central Nervous System (CNS)-receives

More information

Nervous Tissue Dr. Archana Rani Associate Professor Department of Anatomy KGMU UP, Lucknow

Nervous Tissue Dr. Archana Rani Associate Professor Department of Anatomy KGMU UP, Lucknow 13.01.2015 Nervous Tissue Dr. Archana Rani Associate Professor Department of Anatomy KGMU UP, Lucknow Introduction Property of irritability and conductivity Respond to various types of stimuli Distributed

More information

Integration and Coordination of the Human Body. Nervous System

Integration and Coordination of the Human Body. Nervous System I. General Info Integration and Coordination of the Human Body A. Both the and system are responsible for maintaining 1. Homeostasis is the process by which organisms keep internal conditions despite changes

More information

The Nervous System, Part I.Unlecture

The Nervous System, Part I.Unlecture The Nervous System, Part I.Unlecture Review basic nervous system anatomy before you begin this lecture. The lecture touches on a few of the major characteristics, but you are expected to have already been

More information

Name Date Period Human Body Systems Review

Name Date Period Human Body Systems Review Name Date Period Human Body Systems Review Immune System: 1. What are pathogens? Why do we need to prevent them from colonizing our bodies? If pathogens do manage to colonize, what effects can they have?

More information

Nerve tissue. Development and function of the nervous system Neuron Membrane potentials Synaptic communication

Nerve tissue. Development and function of the nervous system Neuron Membrane potentials Synaptic communication Nerve tissue Development and function of the nervous system Neuron Membrane potentials Synaptic communication Development neuroectoderm neural plate neural tube: brain vesicles spinal cord neural crest

More information

Chapter 17 Nervous Tissue

Chapter 17 Nervous Tissue Chapter 17 Nervous Tissue Introduction The nervous system and the endocrine system are the body s major control and integrating centers. Neurology is the study of the normal functioning and disorders of

More information

Neurophysiology. Study of the cellular properties of nerve cells and how these properties give rise to behaviors from simple to complex

Neurophysiology. Study of the cellular properties of nerve cells and how these properties give rise to behaviors from simple to complex Neurophysiology Study of the cellular properties of nerve cells and how these properties give rise to behaviors from simple to complex Levels of organization of the nervous system From Shepherd Neurobiology,

More information

Nervous Tissue (NT) NEURON

Nervous Tissue (NT) NEURON Nervous Tissue (NT) - highly specialized tissue - forms, receives and sorts signals (irritability) - transmits electrical impulses (conductivity) Functions of Nerve Tissue Nervous tissue allows an organism

More information

NERVOUS SYSTEM. Academic Resource Center

NERVOUS SYSTEM. Academic Resource Center NERVOUS SYSTEM Academic Resource Center Overview of the Nervous System Peripheral nervous system-pns cranial nerves spinal nerves ganglia peripheral nerves enteric plexuses sensory receptors Overview of

More information

Neurotransmission: Muscle Messages

Neurotransmission: Muscle Messages 2 Neurotransmission: Muscle Messages GOAL The goal of this unit is to reinforce the process of neuromuscular transmission with hands-on materials. Set-up: -Reaction Time poster -Nerve-muscle poster -Synapse

More information

HUMAN BODY IN CONTEXT: THE NERVOUS SYSTEM AND THE BRAIN TEACHERS NOTES AND REFERENCES

HUMAN BODY IN CONTEXT: THE NERVOUS SYSTEM AND THE BRAIN TEACHERS NOTES AND REFERENCES HUMAN BODY IN CONTEXT: THE NERVOUS SYSTEM AND THE BRAIN TEACHERS NOTES AND REFERENCES 1 Main teaching objectives about the nervous system 1. outline the need for communication systems within humans to

More information

Involuntary muscle, ie., not under voluntary control Not striated under microscope Not multinucleated. IE 665Applied Industrial Ergonomics

Involuntary muscle, ie., not under voluntary control Not striated under microscope Not multinucleated. IE 665Applied Industrial Ergonomics IE 665Applied Industrial Ergonomics Suggested external links: http://people.eku.edu/ritchisong/301notes3.htm http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0_ihc26yxn4&nr=1 Three types of muscle tissues: Skeletal, Smooth

More information

Lab #6: Neurophysiology Simulation

Lab #6: Neurophysiology Simulation Lab #6: Neurophysiology Simulation Background Neurons (Fig 6.1) are cells in the nervous system that are used conduct signals at high speed from one part of the body to another. This enables rapid, precise

More information

Physiologic Anatomy of Neuron

Physiologic Anatomy of Neuron Physiologic Anatomy of Neuron Basic parts of neuron (nerve cell) Cell body Dendrites Axon Axon hillock Axon terminals Action potentials are initiated at the axon hillock, and conducted throughout a nerve

More information

Name Date Hour. Nerve Histology Microscope Lab

Name Date Hour. Nerve Histology Microscope Lab Name Date Hour Nerve Histology Microscope Lab PRE-LAB: Answer the following questions using your reading and class notes before starting the microscope lab. 1. What is the difference between the functions

More information

NEUROSCIENCE EXAM 1 FALL 2011 KEY

NEUROSCIENCE EXAM 1 FALL 2011 KEY NEUROSCIENCE EXAM 1 FALL 2011 KEY Multiple Choice: Read the entire question and all answers before choosing (circle the letter ) the one best answer. Each question is worth 2 point 1. Which of the following

More information

1. Identify the functions of the nervous system and relate nervous system function to homeostasis and to other organ system previously studied.

1. Identify the functions of the nervous system and relate nervous system function to homeostasis and to other organ system previously studied. Nervous System - Chapter 41 1. Identify the functions of the nervous system and relate nervous system function to homeostasis and to other organ system previously studied. 2. Distinguish between the central

More information

MOUNTING EVIDENCE RAIN SUGGESTS THAT GLIAL CELLS, OVERLOOKED FOR HALF A CENTURY, MAY BE NEARLY AS CRITICAL TO THINKING AND LEARNING AS NEURONS ARE

MOUNTING EVIDENCE RAIN SUGGESTS THAT GLIAL CELLS, OVERLOOKED FOR HALF A CENTURY, MAY BE NEARLY AS CRITICAL TO THINKING AND LEARNING AS NEURONS ARE RAIN MOUNTING EVIDENCE SUGGESTS THAT GLIAL CELLS, OVERLOOKED FOR HALF A CENTURY, MAY BE NEARLY AS CRITICAL TO THINKING AND LEARNING AS NEURONS ARE By R.Douglas Fields GLIAL CELLS [red] outnumber neurons

More information

Nervous System Histology

Nervous System Histology Nervous System Histology Week 9 Expanded Studies OBJECTIVES Identify the portions of a multipolar neuron using models & slides Differentiate between pseudounipolar, bipolar & multipolar neurons from slides

More information