Two main classes: Epithelial Connective (synovial) Epithelial. Cutaneous Mucous Serous

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2 Two main classes: Epithelial Connective (synovial) Epithelial Cutaneous Mucous Serous

3 Epithelial Membranes = sheet of epithelia + connective tissue base 1. Cutaneous membrane: outer skin layer (stratified squamous), dense connective tissue base, only dry membrane, protection. 2. Mucous membrane (mucosa): lines body cavities exposed to the exterior (variety of epithelia), loose connective tissue base, absorption and secretion.

4 Epithelial Membranes 3. Serous Membranes (serosa): simple squamous on areolar connective tissue, line most body cavities not exposed to the exterior, cushion and protection. Parietal layer: outside (around body cavity) Visceral layer: inside (around organ) Serous fluid: thin, clear, slippery fluid between the layers to lower friction Peritoneum, pleura, pericardium

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6 Connective Tissue Membrane: AKA Synovial Membranes Just areolar tissue (no epi) Surround joints, bursae and tendon sheaths Cushion organs during activity

7 Would you be interested in a coat that is Waterproof Stretchable Washable Permanent-press Invisibly repairs small damage (cuts, tears, burns, ect) Guaranteed to last a lifetime with minimal care?

8 cutaneous membrane + sweat & oil glands, hair, nerves, nails = skin Functions of integument: Protection: bacteria, temperature, moisture, UV radiation, chemicals, contact Maintain body temperature (movement of blood vessels, sweat) Synthesizes vitamin D (sun) Waste removal (urea and uric acid)

9 Structure of the integument 1. epidermis 2. dermis 3. subcutaneous layer (hypodermis)

10 Structure of integument: Epidermis Made of 5 layers called strata Avascular Keratinocytes: cells that produce keratin

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12 Structure of the skin: epidermal layers Stratum corneum Strum lucidum Stratum granulosum Stratum spinosum Straum basale

13 Structure of the skin: epidermal layers Stratum basale: lowest layer, attached to dermis, most nutrients, most mitosis, very thin, has melanocytes (pigment generating cells) Stratum corneum: outermost layer, dead cells, full of keratin (most protection), very thick.

14 Structure of skin: dermis ( hide ) Two layers of dense connective tissue Papillary layer: top most layer, dermal papillae (give rise to finger prints), capillary loops, Meissner s corpuscles (pain/touch nerve receptors) Reticular layer: deeper layer with blood vessels, sweat & oil glands, Pacinian corpuscles (pressure nerve receptors), phagocytes (white blood cells), collagen & elastic fibers

15 Skin color 1. amount and type of melanin: red and yellow, black and white, they are precious in His sight. 2. amount and type of carotene eaten: carrots, mango, spinach, ect 3. amount of oxygen and placement of blood vessels in dermis

16 Appendages of the skin 1. cutaneous glands: A. Sebaceous glands: sebum (oil) producing glands, also makes antibacterial chemicals B. Eccrine Sudoriferous glands: produce sweat that contains water, salt, vitamin C, metabolic waste, lactic acid (skin ph = 4-6), heat regulating function C. Apocrine sudoriferous glands: produce sweat in axillary and genital areas, function?

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18 Appendages of the skin 2. hair & follicles: Hair grows from the follicle, root is in the follicle, shaft is above skin Stratum basale grows the new cells that are surrounded by melanocytes (color) Keratinization occurs in the shaft away from the blood Arrector pili: smooth muscle attached to follicle that erect hair and cause goose bumps

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20 Appendages of the skin 3. nails: New nail grows from stratum basale in nail bed and nail matrix Nail cells die and become keratinized like in epidermis and hair Why no color?

21 1. Burns: tissue damage of the integument Caused from intense temperature, electricity, UV radiation, chemicals Effects are infection, dehydration, electrolyte imbalance Classified according to depth of injury First degree: epidermal damage only Second degree: damage to upper dermis, blistering Third degree: damage to entire dermal layer, charring, scaring, grafting pain?

22 2. Skin cancer Major risk factors: exposure to UV light, frequent infections, chemicals, physical trauma, genetics Types: Basal cell carcinoma: least malignant, most common, cells of stratum basale grow into the dermis Squamous cell carcinoma: cells of stratum spinosum grow into an ulcer, mainly on head Malignant melanoma: melanocytes tumor, rare, but deadly

23 The ABCD rule for melanoma A. asymmetry B. border irregularity C. color D. diameter > 6mm

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