Preface. Approach. About This Book

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1 blu03683_fm.qx 10/17/ :39 PM Pag xi Prfac Approach Elmtary Statistics: A Stp by Stp Approach was writt to hlp stuts i th bgiig statistics cours whos mathmatical backgrou is limit to basic algbra. Th book follows a othortical approach without formal proofs, xplaiig cocpts ituitivly a supportig thm with abuat xampls. Th applicatios spa a broa rag of topics crtai to appal to th itrsts of stuts of ivrs backgrous a iclu problms i busiss, sports, halth, architctur, ucatio, trtaimt, political scic, psychology, history, crimial justic, th viromt, trasportatio, physical scics, mographics, atig habits, a travl a lisur. About This Book Whil a umbr of importat chags hav b ma to th sixth itio, th larig systm rmais utouch a provis stuts with a usful framwork i which to lar a apply cocpts. Som of th rtai faturs iclu th followig: vr 1800 xrciss ar locat at th of major sctios withi ach chaptr. Hypothsis-Tstig Summaris ar fou at th of Chaptr 9 (z, t, x2, a F tsts for tstig mas, proportios, a variacs), Chaptr 12 (corrlatio, chi-squar, a ANVA), a Chaptr 13 (oparamtric tsts) to show stuts th iffrt typs of hypothss a th typs of tsts to us. A Data Bak listig various attributs (ucatioal lvl, cholstrol lvl, gr, tc.) for 100 popl a 13 aitioal ata sts usig ral ata ar iclu a rfrc i various xrciss a projcts throughout th book, icluig th projcts prst i Data Projcts sctios. A rfrc car cotaiig th formulas a th z, t, x2, a PPMC tabls is iclu with this txtbook. E-of-chaptr Summaris, Importat Trms, a Importat Formulas giv stuts a cocis summary of th chaptr topics a provi a goo sourc for quiz or tst prparatio. Rviw Exrciss ar fou at th of ach chaptr. Spcial sctios call Data Aalysis rquir stuts to work with a ata st to prform various statistical tsts or procurs a th summariz th rsults. Th ata ar iclu i th Data Bak i Appix D a ca b owloa from th book s wbsit at Chaptr Quizzs, fou at th of ach chaptr, iclu multipl-choic, tru/fals, a compltio qustios alog with xrciss to tst stuts kowlg a comprhsio of chaptr cott. Th Appics provi stuts with a sstial algbra rviw, a outli for rport writig, Bays thorm, xtsiv rfrc tabls, a glossary, a aswrs to all quiz qustios, all o-umbr xrciss, slct v-umbr xrciss, a a altrat mtho for usig th staar ormal istributio. xi

2 xii Prfac Chags i th Sixth Eitio This itio of Elmtary Statistics is upat a improv for stuts a istructors i th followig ways: vr 300 w xrciss hav b a, most usig ral ata, a may qustios ow icorporat thought-provokig qustios rquirig stuts to itrprt thir rsults. Th txt is upat throughout with currt ata a statistics icluig 44 w Uusual Stats a Itrstig Facts; 7 w Spakig of Statistics; 5 w Critical Thikig Challgs; 2 w Statistics Toay oprs; 8 w work xampls; 14 w Data Aalysis Exrciss; a 5 w Data Sts. Aw fatur, Applyig th Cocpts, is a to ach sctio a givs stuts a opportuity to thik about th cocpts a to apply thm to hypothtical xampls a scarios similar to thos fou i wspaprs, magazis, a ws programs. Th txt layout a color paltt hav b rsig to icras th raability a as of us by stuts a istructors. Bas o usr suggstios a rviwr commts o th fifth itio, th followig improvmts wr ma: Chaptr 1 Chaptr 2 Chaptr 3 Chaptr 4 Chaptr 5 Chaptr 6 Chaptr 7 Chaptr 8 Chaptr 10 Aothr xampl of itrval-lvl ata has b a. Th xplaatio of raom samplig was xpa so stuts woul ot hav to rfr to Chaptr 14. Th xplaatio of class, frqucy, rlativ frqucy, a op- frqucy istributios was xpa. A xplaatio was giv o how to aalyz frqucy istributios. A gratr xplaatio was giv of th mo, icluig bimoal a multimoal ata sts. Also a wr th rag rul of thumb a a xrcis o fiig th mia for group ata. Mor tail xplaatio was a o th us of th wors a a or i classical probability. A tr iagram was iclu to hlp trmi th sampl spac for Exrcis Covrag of iscrt variabls was xpa. A xplaatio was iclu o how th ara ur a cotiuous curv rlats to a probability by usig a uiform istributio. Mor iformatio o th istributio of sampl mas was giv. A brif xplaatio of th samplig istributio of a sampl proportio was a. Th xplaatio o usig th P-valu is ow box. Th cocpts of ipt a pt variabls a simpl a multipl rlatioships wr xpa. Th topic of th rlatioship of th scattr plot to th strgth of th corrlatio cofficit was mov from Sctio 10 4 to Sctio 10 3.

3 Prfac xiii Ackowlgmts It is importat to ackowlg th may popl whos cotributios hav go ito th Sixth Eitio of Elmtary Statistics. Vry spcial thaks ar u to Jacki Millr of Th hio Stat Uivrsity for hr provisio of th Ix of Applicatios, hr xhaustiv accuracy chck of th pag proofs, a hr gral availability a avic cocrig all mattrs statistical. Th Tchology Stp by Stp sctios wr provi by Grry Moulti of Northwoo Uivrsity (MINITAB), Joh Thomas of Collg of Lak Couty (Excl), a Michal Kllr of St. Johs Rivr Commuity Collg (TI-83 Plus a TI-84 Plus). Fially, at McGraw-Hill Highr Eucatio, thaks to Stv Stmbrig, Sposorig Eitor; Davi Ditz, Dirctor of Dvlopmt; Ptr Galuari, Dvlopmtal Eitor; Vicki Krug, Sior Projct Maagr; Jff Huttma, La Mia Tchology Proucr; a Sara Sch, Sior Mia Projct Maagr. Alla G. Bluma Spcial thaks for thir avic a rcommatios for rvisios fou i th Sixth Eitio go to Rosali Abraham, Floria Commuity Collg-North A Albrt, Th Uivrsity of Filay Rai Ami, Uivrsity of Wst Floria Traia Aquio, Dl Mar Collg Joh J. Avioli, Christophr Nwport Uivrsity Roa Axlro, Eiso Commuity Collg Mark D. Bakr, M.S., Illiois Stat Uivrsity Sivaaa Balakumar, Licol Uivrsity Fra Btt, Massachustts Collg of Libral Arts Matthw Bogar, Uivrsity of Iowa Ara Boito, Psylvaia Stat Uivrsity Altooa Da Burbak, Gulf Coast Commuity Collg Christi Bush, Palm Bach Commuity Collg Palm Bach Gars Carlos Caas, Floria Mmorial Collg Grgory Daubmir, Las Positas Collg Josph Glaz, Uivrsity of Cocticut Rbkah A. Griffith, McNs Stat Uivrsity Ru A. Gupta, Louisiaa Stat Uivrsity Alxaria Harol S. Hayfor, Psylvaia Stat Uivrsity Altooa Hl Humphry, Sa Joaqui Dlta Collg Aa Katiyar, McNs Stat Uivrsity Brothr Doal Klly, Marist Collg Dr. Susa Klly, Uivrsity of Wiscosi La Cross Michal Kt, Borough of Mahatta Commuity Collg B. M. Golam Kibria, Floria Itratioal Uivrsity Miami Jog Sug Kim, Portla Stat Uivrsity Josph Kuicki, Uivrsity of Filay Mari Lagsto, Palm Bach Commuity Collg Lakworth Susa S. Lkr, Ctral Michiga Uivrsity Juith McCrory, Uivrsity of Filay Charls J. Millr, Jr., Cam Couty Collg Carla A. Moticlli, Cam Couty Collg Dr. Christia A Moria, Licol Uivrsity K Mulzt, Floria Commuity Collg Jacksovill Ir Palacios, Grossmot Collg Elai Paris, Mrcy Collg Samul Park, Log Isla Uivrsity Brookly Chstr Piascik, Bryat Uivrsity Lla Raksh, Ctral Michiga Uivrsity Do R. Robiso, Illiois Stat Uivrsity Kathy Rogotzk, North Iowa Ara Commuity Collg Maso City Dr. J. N. Sigh, Barry Uivrsity Gorg Smltzr, Psylvaia Stat Uivrsity Abigto Diaa Staats, Dutchss Commuity Collg Richar Stockbrig, Uivrsity of Wiscosi Milwauk Lia Sturgs, SUNY Maritim Collg Klmt Tixira, Borough of Mahatta Commuity Collg Christia Vrtullo, Marist Collg Cassara L. Vict, Plattsburgh Stat Uivrsity Chg Wag, Nova Southastr Uivrsity Gl Wbr, Christophr Nwport Uivrsity

4 xiv Prfac Also, spcial thaks for thir hlp with th Fifth Eitio go to Nav K. Basal, Marqutt Uivrsity Jams Coor, Maat Commuity Collg Brato Dia Cop, Washigto & Jffrso Collg Mloy E. Elr, Stat Uivrsity Collg ota Abul Elfssi, Uivrsity of Wiscosi LaCross Gholamhoss Gharhgozlo Hamai, Marqutt Uivrsity Liliaa Gozalz, Uivrsity of Rho Isla Kigsto Shahryar Hyari, Pimot Collg Patricia Humphry, Gorgia Southr Uivrsity Charls W. Johso, Colli Couty Commuity Collg Plao Jffry C. Jos, Couty Collg of Morris Aa S. Katiyar, McNs Stat Uivrsity Hyu-Joo Kim, Truma Stat Uivrsity By Lo, DVry Uivrsity Chip Maso, Blhav Collg Juith McCrory, Filay Uivrsity Lytt Mslisky, Eri Commuity Collg Lisay Packr, Collg of Charlsto Frao Ricó, Pimot Tchical Collg Db Rumsy, Th hio Stat Uivrsity Salvator Sciara, Jr., Niagara Couty Commuity Collg Sabor Caroly Shaly, Pimot Tchical Collg Jgaatha Sriskaarajah, Maiso Ara Tchical Collg Richar Stvs, Uivrsity of Alaska Fairbaks Shrry Taylor, Pimot Tchical Collg Dia Va Dus, Napa Vally Collg Davi Wallach, Filay Uivrsity

5 blu03683_fm.qx 10/17/ :39 PM Pag xv Gui Tour: Faturs a Supplmts Each chaptr bgis with a outli a a list of larig objctivs. Th objctivs ar rpat at th bgiig of ach sctio to hlp stuts focus o th cocpts prst withi that sctio. 584 r 11 Chapt Tsts quar Chi-S thr tics Statis ay To C H A P T E Th Normal Distributio bjctivs utli Aftr compltig this chaptr, you shoul b abl to 6 1 Itrouctio 1 Itify istributios as symmtric or skw. 2 3 Itify th proprtis of a ormal istributio. 4 Fi probabilitis for a ormally istribut variabl by trasformig it ito a staar ormal variabl. 5 Fi spcific ata valus for giv prctags, usig th staar ormal istributio. 6 Us th ctral limit thorm to solv problms ivolvig sampl mas for larg sampls. 7 Us th ormal approximatio to comput probabilitis for a biomial variabl. Fi th ara ur th staar ormal istributio, giv various z valus. ar cipls is pri of pas a h ty tics, row a vari that ha g ui s pas to g 884) st spar tim brig at th rsult ity his th ross m Hrrgor Mcls.(1Ml usts ivolvcs. H oticllow ss, so a s c r g ti Statis stria mok, Gor gti ay xprimkl gr sha smooth yha wriklm to m m A Au atio for of his that ha wri offsprig s, a som ach typ s mptio u th u th fo moastry. s with pas, som of yllow s tags of o th ass r his b is at th yllow s larity. That a wrikl ts, th prc thory bas th cross h u t his rsults. H smooth with rg s, som l xprim ory la u rm ra s his th is if occurr ooth gr, aftr sv. Ml fo prict th to i th lts to s. ha sm Furthrmor ly th sam s a tri gratio rtical rsu is xplai t t it o ss. approxima cssiv tra vr th x ith th th tst, which w o, w-hill rmai iat a r 556 ss tual rsults chi-squar McGra c York: of om xami par th a a simpl s (Nw atistic to St io ct pas a ally, h com this, h us visit. u l Itro R Fi pirica To o s Toay A Em ic at Lab, orrct. l, St was c S Statist rutchfi r. R. C t a p, a. rch ch issio., D. K rm gs, Jr s with p U : J. Ho Sourc pp 1975), R for trval c i or stacofi c fi a gl varia to 8 si rs 7 a bout a sampl Chapt ypothsis a s If a ith th h us i io such a w uct tributio waos a to tst a utios, b slct c of o ib r tr t is I cy ach color ip ar is ar viati frqu hi-squ rig olors, will to tst th Th c c or sta coc s c a r tsts utomobil ca b u a vari viatio. fo us tio fa ar a also b a choic o r istribu a u It c sq giv hith c rs is of buy qucy? fr sam 6 2 Proprtis of a Normal Distributio 6 3 Th Staar Normal Distributio 6 4 Applicatios of th Normal Distributio 6 5 Th Ctral Limit Thorm 6 6 Th Normal Approximatio to th Biomial Distributio 6 7 Summary 6 1 Th outli a larig objctivs ar follow by a fatur titl Statistics Toay, i which a ral-lif problm shows stuts th rlvac of th matrial i th chaptr. This problm is subsqutly solv ar th of th chaptr by usig th statistical tchiqus prst i th chaptr xv

6 blu03683_fm.qx 10/17/ :40 PM Pag xvi 36 Chaptr 2 Frqu cy Distrib utios a Graphs Catgor ical Frq Th catg ucy Distrib utios catgoris orical frqucy, affiliatio such as omia istributio is us, rligiou l for a istributio s affiliatio or orial-lvl ta that ca ata. Fo s. b pla, or ma r c jor fil of stuy xampl, ata su i spcific Exampl woul us ch 2 1 catgor as political ical frqu Twtycy fiv arm y iuct ata st is s wr giv a blo o tst to A trmi B thir blo B o typ. AB Th B B AB B B A A AB A AB Costruct B a frqu A cy istri butio fo Solutio r th ata. vr 300 xampls with tail solutios srv as mols to hlp stuts solv problms o thir ow. Exampls ar solv by usig a stp-by-stp xplaatio, a illustratios provi a clar isplay of rsults for stuts. Sic th ata ar ca A, B,, a AB. tgorical, iscr Ths typ t class Th pr s ca b s us giv ocur for cos will b us as xt. th class. Thr ar four tructig a frqu s for th bloo typ cy istri Stp 1 s: butio fo istributio. Mak a tab r catgor l as show ical ata. is A B Class Tally C Frquc A D y Prct B AB Stp 2 Tally th ata a plac th Stp 3 Cout th rsults i colum tallis a Stp 4 B. plac th Fi th rsult prcta s i colum g of valu C. s i ach class by usig th formula % f 100% 414 Chaptr 8 Hypothsis Tstig whr f xampl frqucy of th, i th cla cla ss of typ ss a total A bloo u, th prc mbr of valu % 5 s. For tag is % 20% Prcta g s ar b a sic th ot ormally pa rt Also, th y cimal ar us i crta of a frqucy is Stp 5 quival i t of a p typs of graphs tributio, but th Fi th rct is ca y su totals fo r colums ll a rlat ch as pi graphs ca tabl is sh. C (frqu ow. iv frqu cy) a cy. D (prc t). Th co mplt Sourc: Bas o iformatio from th Natioal Isurac Crim Burau. Usig this iformatio, aswr ths qustios What ar th hypothss that you woul us? Is th sampl cosir small or larg? What assumptio must b mt bfor th hypothsis tst ca b couct? Which probability istributio woul you us? Woul you slct a o- or two-tail tst? Why? What critical valu(s) woul you us? Couct a hypothsis tst. What is your cisio? What is your coclusio? Writ a brif statmt summarizig your coclusio. If you liv i a city whos populatio was about 50,000, how may automobil thfts pr yar woul you xpct to occur? S pag 460 for th aswrs. Exrciss 8 3 For Exrciss 1 through 13, prform ach of th followig stps. a. Stat th hypothss a itify th claim. b. c... Fi th critical valu(s). Comput th tst valu. Mak th cisio. Summariz th rsults. Us iagrams to show th critical rgio (or rgios), a us th traitioal mtho of hypothsis tstig ulss othrwis spcifi. 1. A survy claims that th avrag cost of a hotl room i Atlata is $ To tst th claim, a rsarchr slcts a sampl of 30 hotl rooms a fis that th avrag cost is $ Th staar viatio of th populatio is $3.72. At a 0.05, is thr ough vic to rjct th claim? Sourc: USA TDAY. 2. It has b rport that th avrag crit car bt for collg siors is $3262. Th stut sat at a larg uivrsity fls that thir siors hav a bt much lss tha this, so it coucts a stuy of 50 raomly slct siors a fis that th avrag bt is $2995 with a sampl staar viatio of $1100. With a 0.05, is th stut sat corrct? Sourc: USA TDAY xvi 3. A rsarchr stimats that th avrag rvu of th largst busisss i th Uit Stats is gratr tha $24 billio. A sampl of 50 compais is slct, a th rvus (i billios of ollars) ar show. At a 0.05, is thr ough vic to support th rsarchr s claim? Sourc: N.Y. Tims Almaac. 4. Full-tim Ph.D. stuts rciv a avrag salary of $12,837 accorig to th U.S. Dpartmt of Eucatio. Th a of grauat stuis at a larg stat uivrsity fls that Ph.D. stuts i his stat ar mor tha this. H survys 44 raomly slct stuts a fis thir avrag salary is $14,445 with a staar viatio of $00. With a 0.05, is th a corrct? Sourc: U.S. Dpartmt of Eucatio/Chroicl of Highr Eucatio. 5. A rport i USA TDAY stat that th avrag ag of commrcial jts i th Uit Stats is 14 yars. A Numrous xampls a xrciss us ral ata. Th ico show hr iicats that th ata st for th xrcis is availabl i a varity of fil formats o th txt s li Larig Ctr a CD-RM.

7 blu03683_fm.qx 10/17/ :41 PM Pag xvii Sctio 9 5 Ts tig th Diffrc Btw Two Figur 9 12 Critical a Tst Valus for Exam pl 9 13 Numrous Procur Tabls summariz procsss for stuts quick rfrc. All us th stp-by-stp mtho. Mas: Sm. Fi all Dp th sta t Sam pls ar via tio of th iffrc s. D 2 D 2 sd Q 1 6 f. Fi Q th tst va lu. D md t sd Stp 4 Mak th tst valu cisio. Th cis is i th o io is ot to rjc critical rgio, as t th ull hypoth sis show i Figur 9, sic th Stp 5 0 Summari z th mi th rsults. Thr ral chag s a prso is ot ough v s chol ic to strol lv support th claim l. Th stps that for this t tst ar su mmariz i th Proc Procur ur Tabl Tabl. Tstig th Stp 1 Stp 2 Stp 3 Diffrc About 4% of Amrica s sp at last o ight i jail a ch yar. Sctio 14 2 Commo Samplig Tchiqus X1 X2 Sampls A D X 1 X B 2 D 2 (X 1 X )2 2 D b. Fi th iffr cs a 2 D plac th D X rsults i 1 X2 colum A. c. Fi th ma of th if frcs. D D. Squa r th if frcs a plac D 2 (X th rsult 1 X )2 s i colum 2 B. Comp lt th tab l. Uusual Stat Btw Mas for Stat th Dp hypothss t a iti Fi th fy th cla critical va im. lu(s). Comput th tst va lu. a. Mak a tabl, as show. 713 Spakig of Statistics 9 41 Shoul W B Afrai of Lightig? Th Natioal Wathr Srvic collcts various typs of ata about th wathr. For xampl, ach yar i th Uit Stats about 400 millio lightig striks occur. avrag, 400 popl ar struck by lightig, a 85% of thos struck ar m. About 100 of ths popl i. Th caus of most of ths aths is ot burs, v though tmpraturs as high as 54,000 F ar rach, but hart attacks. Th lightig strik short-circuits th boy s autoomic rvous systm, causig th hart to stop batig. I som istacs, th hart will rstart o its ow. I othr cass, th hart victim will mrgcy rsuscitatio. Th most agrous placs to b urig a thurstorm ar op fils, golf courss, ur trs, a ar watr, such as a lak or swimmig pool. It s bst to b isi a builig urig a thurstorm although thr s o guarat that th builig wo t b struck by lightig. Ar ths statistics scriptiv or ifrtial? Why o you thik mor m ar struck by lightig tha wom? Shoul you b afrai of lightig? Figur 14 4 Mtho for Slctig Thr-Digit Numbrs s Th Spakig of Statistics sctios ivit stuts to thik about poll rsults a othr statistics-rlat ws storis i aothr coctio btw statistics a th ral worl. Us o colum a part of th xt colum for thr igits, that is, 404. Systmatic Samplig A systmatic sampl is a sampl obtai by umbrig ach lmt i th populatio a th slctig vry thir or fifth or tth, tc., umbr from th populatio to b iclu i th sampl. This is o aftr th first umbr is slct at raom xvii

8 10/17/ :41 PM Pag xviii 50 Figur Chaptr 2 Frqu cy Distrib utios a Histogr am Exampl for 2 4 Historical Nots, Uusual Stats, a Itrstig Facts, locat i th margis, mak statistics com aliv for th rar. Graphs 2 2 y 18 Historical Not h Tmpr aturs 12 9 Graphs origiat wh a 6 cit astroom rs rw 3 th positio of th sta rs i th hav 0 s. Roma survyo rs also us 99.5 cooria ts to loc at lamark s o th Stp 2 ir Tmpratu maps. x r ( F) Rprs t th frqu Th v Stp 3 cy o lopmt Usig th th y axis of statis tical gra frquci a th cla ph Fi s gur 2 2. ca b tra s as th h ss boua c to ights, r ris o th William aw vrti As th x axis. Playfair cal bars histogram show for ach ( s, class. S 819), a ata clust.5, follow by 13 th class with th gi r a ra rig arou gr for ftr Th atst umbr of it. who us ata graphs to graph als prst o has o valus (18) is coom p ak ic with th ata pic Th Frq torially. u cy Po Aothr lygo way to rp rst th sam Exampl Rcor Hig Frqucy blu03683_fm.qx Chaptr 8 Hypothsis Tstig th othr ha, suppos th rsarchr claims that th ma wight of th ault aimals is ot 42 pous. Th claim woul b th altrativ hypothsis H1: m 42. Furthrmor, suppos that th ull hypothsis is ot rjct. Th coclusio, th, woul b that thr is ot ough vic to support th claim that th ma wight of th ault aimals is ot 42 pous. S Figur 8 17(b). Agai, rmmbr that othig is big prov tru or fals. Th statisticia is oly statig that thr is or is ot ough vic to say that a claim is probably tru or fals. As ot prviously, th oly way to prov somthig woul b to us th tir populatio ur stuy, a usually this caot b o, spcially wh th populatio is larg P-Valu Mtho for Hypothsis Tstig Statisticias usually tst hypothss at th commo a lvls of 0.05 or 0.01 a somtims at Rcall that th choic of th lvl ps o th sriousss of th typ I rror. Bsis listig a a valu, may computr statistical packags giv a P-valu for hypothsis tsts. ata s Th frqu t is by us ig a fr poits plo cy polygo qucy po lygo. rprs tt for th frquis a graph that is t by th pla hights cis at th mip ys th ata by of th po us oits of th class ig lis that co its. s. Th Exampl fr quci ct 2 5 show s ar s th procur for cos tructig Usig th a frqu frqucy cy polyg o. istributio giv i Ex Solutio ampl 2 4, costru ct a frqu Stp 1 cy polyg Fi th mi o. th upp poits of ach r a low cla r boua ss. Rcall that mipoi ris a ts iviig ar fou 4.5 by by 2: a ig a so o Th mi poits ar Class bo uari s Mipoi ts Frquc y Th P-valu (or probability valu) is th probability of gttig a sampl statistic (such as th ma) or a mor xtrm sampl statistic i th irctio of th altrativ hypothsis wh th ull hypothsis is tru. I othr wors, th P-valu is th actual ara ur th staar ormal istributio curv (or othr curv, pig o what statistical tst is big us) rprstig th probability of a particular sampl statistic or a mor xtrm sampl statistic occurrig if th ull hypothsis is tru. For xampl, suppos that a ull hypothsis is H0: m 50 a th ma of a sampl is X 52. If th computr prit a P-valu of for a statistical tst, th th probability of gttig a sampl ma of 52 or gratr is if th tru populatio ma is 50 (for th giv sampl siz a staar viatio). Th rlatioship btw th P-valu a th a valu ca b xplai i this mar. For P , th ull hypothsis woul b rjct at a 0.05 but ot at a S Figur Wh th hypothsis tst is two-tail, th ara i o tail must b oubl. For a two-tail tst, if a is 0.05 a th ara i o tail is , th P-valu will b 2(0.0356) That is, th ull hypothsis shoul ot b rjct at a 0.05, sic is gratr tha I summary, th, if th P-valu is lss tha a, rjct th ull hypothsis. If th P-valu is gratr tha a, o ot rjct th ull hypothsis. Th P-valus for th z tst ca b fou by usig Tabl E i Appix C. First fi th ara ur th staar ormal istributio curv corrspoig to th z tst valu; th subtract this ara from to gt th P-valu for a right-tail or a lft-tail tst. To gt th P-valu for a two-tail tst, oubl this ara aftr subtractig. This procur is show i stp 3 of Exampls 8 6 a 8 7. Ruls a fiitios ar st off for asy rfrcig by th stut. 45. a luch 2 baaa coutr, thr ar s. probabili If 3 pics of fru 3 orags, 5 appl ty it s slct. that 1 orag, 1 ar slct, fi, a appl, a 1 baa th 46. A cr a ar uis i gams, a rctor schuls 4 coupl s 3 tis gams iffrt movis for a 2-a, 2 brig lcts 3 ac att 2 y tiv movis a itis, fi th pr prio. If a obability 1 ti s gam. that thy Critica l Thi Critical Thikig sctios at th of ach chaptr challg stuts to apply what thy hav lar to w situatios. Th problms prst ar sig to p cocptual urstaig a/or to xt topical covrag. xviii Critical Th ikig Ch all gs 47. At a 233 sororit 2 sophom y mtig, thr ar 6 si ors. If a th prob co or s, m mitt of 4 juiors, ability th 3 a is at to 1 of ach 48. For b form a baq will b s, fi lct. chick, ut, a committ or ca a pas val; bak potat slct bf, po or gr rk bas fo os or mash po, iagram ra fo tat a vgtab r all possibl ch vgtabl. Draw os; oics of l. a mat, a a tr potato, a kig C 1. Cosi hallg r this prob lm: A co s has b sp sco co cially ma a ma has 3 cois. coi i has b has a ha has a tail. Fially, a spcially ma, o ach si. A For x a All cois thir coi ar of th room. Th ampl, suppos has a ha o ach si it thr w placs th sa r woul b probability that 3 cois i m omiatio a a tail o it. ach ha 3 popl i th you o. si. It is his pockt, slc Th co ma a iffr t birtha h ts moy tha o, a as. H is y 36 t it is th sh 5 wi ow lli 36 s g that it ca P t b th two-ha coi. to bt you v tw Hi showig ; thrfor o-tail coi si s rasoig is 5 Hc, th, thr is c a ha th two-h a ch is a coi. hav th probability that (Hit: S ac of it at last 2 sam birth Exrcis Woul you tak big of th 3 ay will th 1 i Data 2. Chv popl wi b Projcts.) bt? alir M ll éré wo ususpc m oy wh ti Hc, fo h b gt at la g patros that i r k popl, t st o 6, 4 rolls of th fo bu rm 24 rolls 1 i, h t h lost ula is of coul P(at last th prob 2 ic, h coul moy wh h 2 popl ab b g hav th a xpl ility ruls, fi th t at last a oub t that i sam birth l 6. Usi ai why Pk ay) h wo th probability of g first gam ach v majorit 365 k t y of th th sco but lost th majo tim rit Usig yo ach gam gam. (Hit: Fi y of th tim wh o th ur calculat th pr playi a su th at fo or r at la obabiliti, co btract fro g 3. How s of losi m 1.) sam birth st a 50% cha mplt th tabl may g c of 2 p a ay, 23 or that 2 p popl o you th opl havi vrify mor p op ik g opl will ay)? Yo l will hav th b th sam birth to b i a room so u might Pr. obability thi guarat a Numbr it (xclu k it is 366. This y (moth a that at la woul ig lap wo of st yar), bu ul, of cours, popl 2 hav th 90% prob to b i a room t how m ay pop so that th ability th sam bi l sam a rthay y? What at 2 popl woul r woul b a 1 b bor about a 50 Actuall o th % may thi y, th umbr is probability? 5 k. For x much sm ampl, if room, th allr tha 10 probab you hav yo ility that 50 popl u birthay 2 p is i a is a 50% 97%. If you hav opl will hav 20 th pr sam a obability that 2 23 popl i a ro sam 21 y! popl w om r bor o, thr Th pr 22 th probabili oblm ca b so 23 lv by us ty ar qua ruls. It must b ig th 4. lly W kow as tha ffct o likly, but this as sum that all bi 100%, th t if th probabili th rth sumptio by usig aswrs. Th ty of a v will hav ays wa that if th th vt is a c th t happ rta r havig th complmtar y to fi th asw littl y vt ru commu is a 50% chac ity. Ca it b co ig is sam bi r is icabl is clu of cotrac birthays l as P (2 rthay) a p ). tig a p s 1 P (a rso, th through r ll hav i opl co wo ta ul ct with a isas if b a 100% ffrt ifct 2 cot ch

9 blu03683_fm.qx 10/17/ :41 PM Pag xix 38. A i struc Sctio th gra tor givs a 100-po 6 4 Appli s catios of i th sta ar ormally istr t xamiatio i th Norm al Distribu ar ib which tio F s, % viatio is 10 ut. Th ma 319. If thr is 60 a B s a 41. Th a ar that ivi ta sh th i % D s, a 60% 5% A s a 5% ow rvu rprs stributio C (i s, t m fi th illios of box of ito th th scor sampl of 39. Th fic os o s lla to ca th tgoris. a ormality. top-grossig rs) for a raom tal riv-i ta show rprs films i ly slct t th u m Ch prio. Ch ovis i th U mbr of ck for it out ck for o rmality. Stats for a 14-y oor a r Sourc: US 19 A TDA Y Sourc: Natioal 42. Th 51 Associati o of Th a atr w ma a ta show rprs 40. Th rs. ch yar u t th u ata show for orm m rig Bill (i cts) rprs ality. Mazros br of rus ki s car ormality. for 30 raomly t th cigartt tax r. Chc slct k stats. Ch ck for Sourc: 3 Grsbu rg Tribu Rviw Sourc: 36 Commrc Clarig 7 12 Hous. At th of appropriat sctios, Tchology Stp by Stp boxs show stuts how to us MINITAB, th TI-83 Plus a TI-84 Plus graphig calculators, a Excl to solv th typs of problms covr i th sctio. Istructios ar prst i umbr stps, usually i th cotxt of xampls icluig xampls from th mai part of th sctio. Numrous computr or calculator scrs ar isplay, showig itrmiat stps as wll as th fial aswr. Sctio 10 5 Cofficit of Dtrmiatio a Staar Error of th Estimat Tcho logy St p by M IN ITAB Stp by St p Stp Dtrm iig N ormality Thr ar s vral wa ys i wh Costru ich statis ct a Hist ticias ts ogram t a ata s Ispct th t for orm histogr ality. Fo am for sh ur ar sh 1. Etr ap. ow hr th ata. fo r Ex Ivtory. ampl 6 19 i th first colu 2. Us St m of a at w worksh th histo >Basic Statistic t. Nam gram. Is th colu it symm s>graphical Su m tric? Is thr a si mmary prs t i S gl pak ctio 3? 4 to cra t 565 Applyig th Cocpts 10 5 Itrprtig Simpl Liar Rgrssio Aswr th qustios about th followig computr-grat iformatio. Liar corrlatio cofficit r Cofficit of trmiatio Staar rror of stimat Explai variatio Uxplai variatio Total variatio y X Equatio of rgrssio li Lvl of sigificac 0.1 Tst statistic Critical valu Ar both variabls movig i th sam irctio? Which umbr masurs th istacs from th prictio li to th actual valus? Which umbr is th slop of th rgrssio li? Which umbr is th y itrcpt of th rgrssio li? Which umbr ca b fou i a tabl? Which umbr is th allowabl risk of makig a typ I rror? Which umbr masurs th variatio xplai by th rgrssio? Which umbr masurs th scattr of poits about th rgrssio li? What is th ull hypothsis? Which umbr is compar to th critical valu to s if th ull hypothsis shoul b rjct? 11. Shoul th ull hypothsis b rjct? S pag 581 for th aswrs. g Data Projcts Us MINITAB, th TI-83 Plus, th TI-84 Plus, or a computr program of your choic to complt ths xrciss. 1. Slct svral variabls, such as th umbr of poits a football tam scor i ach gam of a spcific saso, th umbr of passs complt, or th umbr of yars gai. Usig cofic itrvals for th ma, trmi th 90, 95, a 99% cofic itrvals. (Us z or t, whichvr is rlvat.) Dci which you thik is mor appropriat. Wh this is complt, writ a summary of your fiigs by aswrig th followig qustios. a. What was th purpos of th stuy? b. What was th populatio? c. How was th sampl slct?. What wr th rsults obtai by usig cofic itrvals?. Di you us z or t? Why? 2. Usig th sam ata or iffrt ata, costruct a cofic itrval for a proportio. For xampl, you might wat to fi th proportio of passs complt by th quartrback or th proportio of passs that wr itrcpt. Writ a short paragraph summarizig th rsults. You may us th followig wbsits to obtai raw ata: Visit th ata sts at th book s wbsit fou at Click o th 6th itio. Chck for ut lirs Ispct th th mil boxplot for outli rs. Thr of th ra skw istribut g, a th m ar o outlirs i io ith ia is i r. th mil this graph. Furth rmo of th A w fatur call Applyig th Cocpts has b a to th Sixth Eitio. Ths xrciss ar fou at th of ach sctio, a thir purpos is to riforc th cocpts xplai i th sctio. Thy giv th stut a opportuity to thik about th cocpts a apply thm to hypothtical xampls similar to ral-lif os fou i wspaprs, magazis, a profssioal jourals. Most cotai op- qustios qustios that rquir itrprtatio a may hav mor tha o corrct aswr. Ths xrciss ca also b us as classroom iscussio topics for istructors who lik to us this typ of tachig tchiqu. Th majority of ths xrciss wr writt a class-tst by Dr. Jams A. Coor a wr prviously publish i Critical Thikig Workbook. Th rst wr writt by th author Data Projcts furthr challg stuts urstaig a applicatio of th matrial prst i th chaptr. May of ths rquir th stut to gathr, aalyz, a rport o ral ata. Ths projcts, which appar at th of ach chaptr, may iclu a Worl Wi Wb ico of ata., iicatig that wbsits ar list as possibl sourcs xix

10 xx Gui Tour: Faturs a Supplmts Supplmts Multimia Supplmts MathZo McGraw-Hill s MathZo 3.0 is a complt wb-bas tutorial a cours maagmt systm for mathmatics a statistics, sig for gratr as of us tha ay othr systm availabl. Fr upo aoptio of a McGraw-Hill txtbook, th systm abls istructors to crat a shar courss a assigmts with collagus, ajuct faculty mmbrs, a tachig assistats with oly a fw mous clicks. All assigmts, xrciss, -Profssor multimia tutorials, vio lcturs, a NtTutor liv tutors follow th txtbook s larig objctivs a problm-solvig styl a otatio. Usig MathZo s assigmt builr, istructors ca it qustios a algorithms, import thir ow cott, a crat aoucmts a u ats for homwork a quizzs. MathZo s automat graig fuctio rports th rsults of asy-to-assig algorithmically grat homwork, quizzs, a tsts. All stut activity withi MathZo is rcor a availabl through a fully itgrat grabook that ca b owloa to Microsoft Excl. MathZo also is availabl o CD-RM. (S Supplmts for th Stut for scriptios of th lmts of MathZo.) ALEKS ALEKS (Assssmt a LEarig i Kowlg Spacs) is a artificial itlligcbas systm for mathmatics larig, availabl ovr th wb 24/7. Usig uiqu aaptiv qustioig, ALEKS accuratly asssss what topics ach stut kows a th trmis xactly what ach stut is ray to lar xt. ALEKS itracts with th stuts much as a skill huma tutor woul, movig btw xplaatio a practic as, corrctig a aalyzig rrors, fiig trms a chagig topics o rqust, a hlpig thm mastr th cours cott mor quickly a asily. Morovr, th w ALEKS 3.0 ow liks to txt-spcific vios, multimia tutorials, a txt book pags i PDF format. ALEKS also offrs a robust classroom maagmt systm that allows istructors to moitor a irct stut progrss towar mastry of curricular goals. S Istructor s Tstig a Rsourc CD-RM (istructors oly) Th computriz tst bak cotais a varity of qustios, icluig tru/fals, multiplchoic, short aswr, a short problms rquirig aalysis a writt aswrs. Th tstig matrial is co by typ of qustio a lvl of ifficulty. Th Browsto Diploma systm abls you to fficitly slct, a, a orgaiz qustios, such as by typ of qustio or lvl of ifficulty. It also allows for pritig tsts alog with aswr kys as wll as itig th origial qustios, a it is availabl for Wiows a Macitosh systms. Th CD-RM also cotais PowrPoit slis, pritabl tsts, a a prit vrsio of th tst bak. Txt-Spcific Vios Availabl with this itio ar txt-spcific DVDs that mostrat ky cocpts a work-out xrciss from th txt plus tutorials i usig th TI-83 Plus a TI-84 Plus calculators, Excl, a MINITAB, i a yamic, gagig format. NtTutor NtTutor is a rvolutioary systm that abls stuts to itract with a liv tutor ovr th Wb by usig NtTutor s Wb-bas, graphical chat capabilitis. Stuts ca also submit qustios a rciv aswrs, brows prviously aswr qustios, a viw prvious liv chat sssios. NtTutor ca b accss through MathZo.

11 Gui Tour: Faturs a Supplmts xxi MINITAB Stut Rlas 14 Th stut vrsio of MINITAB statistical softwar is availabl with copis of th txt. Ask your McGraw-Hill rprstativ for tails. SPSS Stut Vrsio 13 for Wiows A stut vrsio of SPSS statistical softwar is availabl with copis of this txt. Cosult your McGraw-Hill rprstativ for tails. Visual Statistics Visual Statistics is a asy-to-us itractiv multimia tool that is us to tach a lar statistical cocpts graphically. It provis complt a thorough covrag of major statistical cocpts, givig both stut a istructor a visually orit tachig a larig packag to complmt his or hr txt. It s availabl i two formats: CD with Stut Workbook, ISBN-13: (ISBN-10: ); CD oly, ISBN-13: (ISBN-10: ). A rmmbr, too, that th CD actually cotais a pritabl, pf-formatt vrsio of th tir workbook! Aitioal Vios Sris (istructors oly) Agaist All s a Dcisios through Data ar vio sris availabl to qualifi aoptrs. Plas cotact your local sals rprstativ for mor iformatio about ths programs. Prit Supplmts Aotat Istructors Eitio (istructors oly) Th Aotat Istructor s Eitio cotais aswrs to all xrciss a tsts. Th aswrs to most qustios ar prit i r xt to ach problm. Aswrs ot apparig o th pag ca b fou i th Aswr Appix at th of th book. Istructor s Solutios Maual (istructors oly) By Sally Robiso of South Plais Collg, this maual iclus work-out solutios to all th xrciss i th txt a aswrs to all quiz qustios. Stut Stuy Gui By Pat Foar of South Plais Collg, this stuy gui will assist stuts i urstaig a rviwig ky cocpts a prparig for xams. It mphasizs all importat cocpts cotai i ach chaptr, iclus xplaatios, a provis opportuitis for stuts to tst thir urstaig by compltig rlat xrciss a problms. Stut Solutios Maual By Sally Robiso of South Plais Collg, this maual cotais tail solutios to all o-umbr txt problms a aswrs to all quiz qustios. MINITAB 14 Maual This maual provis th stut with how-to iformatio o ata a fil maagmt, couctig various statistical aalyss, a cratig prstatio-styl graphics whil followig ach txt chaptr.

12 xxii Gui Tour: Faturs a Supplmts TI-83 Plus a TI-84 Plus Graphig Calculator Maual This frily, practical maual tachs stuts to lar about statistics a solv problms by usig ths calculators whil followig ach txt chaptr. Excl Maual This workbook, spcially sig to accompay th txt, provis aitioal practic i applyig th chaptr cocpts whil usig Excl.

13 blu03683_fm.qx 10/17/ :42 PM Pag xxiii Ix of Applicatios Elmtary Statistics: A Stp by Stp Approach cotais a larg umbr of applicatios i th txt s Exampls, Exrciss, a Critical Thikig Challgs to illumiat stuts urstaig of how statistical cocpts ar practic a icorporat ito may ivrs prsoal, profssioal, a acamic fils. You will fi ths applicatios o th pags list. CHAPTE R 1 Th Natur of Probability a Statistics Eucatio, Larig, a Tstig Piao Lssos Improv Math Ability, 30 Mici, Cliical Stuis, a Exprimts Agr a Sap Jugmts, 30 Bficial Bactria, 27 Caffi a Halth, 28 Hostil Chilr Fight Umploymt, 30 Smokig a Crimial Bhavior, 30 Umploymt Rats, 79 Workrs Switch Jobs Wh Ecoomy Improvs, 78 Workig Woma, 88 Dmographics, Populatio Charactristics, a Survys Distributio of Bloo Typs, 36 How Popl Gt Thir Nws, 87 Itrt Coctios, 77 Laig Caus of Dath, 76 Tobacco Cosumptio, 78 Walthist Popl i th U.S., 44 Ecoomics a Ivstmt Distributio of Assts, 78 Sllig Prics of Homs, 57 Eucatio, Larig, a Tstig Do Stuts N Summr Dvlopmt?, 58 GRE Scors at Top-Rak Egirig Schools, 44 Makig th Gra, 59 Eviromtal Scics, th Earth, a Spac Builigs a Structurs Air Quality, 58 Chargig Elphat Sps, 44 Compots of th Earth s Crust, 78 Ergy Cosumptio, 44 Hights of Alaska Volcaos, 45 Nuclar Powr Ractors, 78 Rcor High Tmpraturs, 39, 48 Succssful Spac Lauchs, 79 Th Grat Laks, 91 U.S. Natioal Park Acrag, 45 Uhalthy Days i Citis, 44 Worl Ergy Us, 78 Hights of Tall Builigs, 76 Foo, Diig, a Rstaurats Busiss, Maagmt, a Work Supr Bowl Sack Foos, 67 Sports, Exrcis, a Fitss ACL Tars i Collgiat Soccr Playrs, 30 CHAPTE R 2 Frqucy Distributios a Graphs Amusmt Park Jobs, 88 Bak Failurs i th Uit Stats, 88 Carr Chags, 88 Job Aptitu Tst, 88 Lgth of Employ Srvic, 58 Miimum Wag, 87 Trust i Itrt Iformatio, 43 Law a rr: Crimial Justic Car Thfts i Larg Citis, 75, 79 Fral Priso Populatios, 77 Homicis, 77, 87 Trial-Ray Cass, 87 Maufacturig a Prouct Dvlopmt Mat Prouctio, 79 Marktig, Sals, a Cosumr Bhavior Chags i Music Sals, 91 Mici, Cliical Stuis, a Exprimts How Quick Ar Dogs?, 58, 59 How Srious Ar Hospital Ifctios?, 34 utpatit Cariograms, 73 Public Halth a Nutritio Cral Caloris, 59 Proti Grams i Fast Foo, 59 Sports, Exrcis, a Fitss Ball Sals, 87 Hom Ru Rcor Brakrs, 45 LPGA Scors, 58 NFL Frachis Valus, 87 NFL Salaris, 58 Th Scics BUN Cout?, 87 Commo Hrb Hights, 44 Nobl Prizs i Physiology or Mici, 80 Pumpki Prouctio, 91 Twty Days of Plat Growth, 79 Do Votrs Vot?, 78, 88 Prsitial Dbats, 88 Automobil Ful Efficicy, 58 Cost of Ba Roas, 87 MPGs for SUVs, 41 Mils Employs Driv to Work, 35 Sp Limits a Fatalitis, 44 Turpik Costs, 64 Turpik Us, 65 History Travl a Lisur Ags of Dclaratio of Ipc Sigrs, 44 Prsit Ags at Iauguratio, 43, 79 Airli Dparturs, 78 Musum Visitors, 88 Govrmt, Taxs, Politics, Public Policy, a Votig xxiii

14 xxiv Ix of Applicatios Nostop Flights, 79 Rasos W Travl, 78 Rollr Coastr Maia, 77 Top 10 Airlis, 79 C HAPTER 3 Data Dscriptio Builigs a Structurs Dficit Brigs i U.S. Stats, 130 Hights of Tall Builigs, 129 Suspsio Brigs, 131 Watr-Li Braks, 106 Busiss, Maagmt, a Work Aual Chocolat Sals, 99 Coal Employs i Psylvaia, 104 Commissios Ear, 112 Hours Work, 165 Nt Worth of Corporatios, 111 Noisy Workplac, 6 Top-Pai CES, 110 Dmographics, Populatio Charactristics, a Survys Ags of U.S. Rsits, 169 Walthist Popl, 110 Wights of Fifth-Gra Boys, 145 Ecoomics a Ivstmt Ivstmt Earigs, 164 Eucatio, Larig, a Tstig Achivmt Tst Scors, 145 Exam Scors, 111, 130 Gra-Poit Avrags, 110 Itrt Ifo, 163 Public School Suspsios, 110 Stut Majors, 105 Tachr Salaris, 109 Work Hours for Collg Faculty, 132 Etrtaimt Broaway Prouctios, 8 Eviromtal Scics, th Earth, a Spac Clouy Days, 102 Earthquak Strgths, 110 Hights of th Highst Watrfalls, 110 Hurrica Damag, 146 Ichs of Sow, 8 Lics Nuclar Ractors, 104 Prcipitatio a High Tmpraturs, 129 Ris i Tis, 163 Siz of Dams, 8 Siz of Islas, 163 Siz of U.S. Stats, 129 Spac Shuttl Voyags, 103 Toraos 102, 8 Uhalthy Days i Citis, 8 Foo, Diig, a Rstaurats Citrus Fruit Cosumptio, 132 Govrmt, Taxs, Politics, Public Policy, a Votig Cigartt Taxs, 129 Cogrssioal Bills, 7 Law a rr: Crimial Justic Burglaris at Psylvaia Uivrsitis, 110 Itity Thft, 110 Murr Rats, 130 Murrs i Citis, 111, 130 Polic Forc Sizs, 7 Maufacturig a Prouct Dvlopmt Battry Livs, 130, 131, 163 Compariso of utoor Pait, 1 Copir Srvic Calls, 112 Lightbulb Liftims, 111, 130 Marktig, Sals, a Cosumr Bhavior Ags of Cosumrs, 132 Avrag Cost of Smokig, 168 Avrag Cost of Wigs, 168 Cost pr Loa of Laury Dtrgts, 112, 130 Europa Auto Sals, 121 Harcovr Bstsllrs, 129 Raio Listrs, 163 Mici, Cliical Stuis, a Exprimts HDL Dosags, 144 Psychology a Huma Bhavior Ractio Tims, 130 Public Halth a Nutritio Bloo Prssur i lr Aults, 128 Fat Grams, 112 Numbr of Cavitis, 164 Srum Cholstrol Lvls, 132 Soium Cott of Chs, 4 Systolic Bloo Prssur, 137 Sports, Exrcis, a Fitss LPGA Scors, 111 NFL Salaris, 164 Airpla Sps, 145 Automobil Ful Efficicy, 111, 130 Ful Capacity, 164 Ful Costs, 129 Traffic Fatalitis, 111 Travl a Lisur Days ff Pr Yar, 98 How May Hotl Rooms Ar Thr?, 101 Vacatio Days, 8 C HAPTER 4 Probability a Coutig Ruls Busiss, Maagmt, a Work Postal Workrs Bitt by Dogs, 187 Postcollg Plas, 186 Dmographics, Populatio Charactristics, a Survys Distributio of Bloo Typs, 182, 213 Distributio of CE Ags, 188 Eucatio Lvl a Smokig, 230 Eucatio of Wag Earrs, 210 Family Structurs, 186 Halth Isurac Covrag for Chilr, 209 Mal Color Bliss, 201 Marital Status of Wom, 211 Survy o Spac Exploratio Expiturs, 187 Survy o Wom i th Military, 205 Eucatio, Larig, a Tstig Collg Courss, 210 Collg Dgrs, 186 Doctoral Assistatships, 211 Raig to Chilr, 211 Etrtaimt Cabl Chal Programmig, 195 Eviromtal Scics, th Earth, a Spac Eagr Spcis, 194 Foo, Diig, a Rstaurats Pizza a Salas, 210 Govrmt, Taxs, Politics, Public Policy, a Votig Fral Govrmt Rvu, 187 Povrty a th Fral Govrmt, 209 Sat Partisaship, 227 History Sigrs of th Dclaratio of Ipc, 227 Law a rr: Crimial Justic Automobil Thfts, 210 Guilty or Ioct?, 208 Gu Licsig, 186 Murr Cass a Wapos, 209 Priso Populatios, 187, 209, 210 Maufacturig a Prouct Dvlopmt Garag Door prs, 220 Typs of Pait, 213 Utility Patts, 211 Marktig, Sals, a Cosumr Bhavior Automobil Isurac, 210 Door-to-Door Sals, 195

15 Ix of Applicatios xxv Homowr s a Automobil Isurac, 203 Ti Sals, 208 Mici, Cliical Stuis, a Exprimts Effctivss of Vacci, 229 Hospital Stays for Matrity Patits, 182 Lgth of Hospital Stays, 195 Mical Tsts o Emrgcy Patits, 195 Pai Rlivrs, 193 Tolr Immuizatios, 211 Psychology a Huma Bhavior Druk Drivig, 192 Part Flattry, 187 Survy o Strss, 201 Public Halth a Nutritio Chroic Siusitis, 230 Quality a Halthfulss of Dit, 229 Sports, Exrcis, a Fitss Bicycl Hlmts, 230 Distributio of Mals at th 2000 Summr lympics, 211 Lics Sports Apparl, 209 MLS Playrs, 209 Fatal Accits, 211 Sat Blt Us, 209 Travl a Lisur Borrowig Books, 229 Coutry Club Activitis, 210 Halth Club Mmbrships, 230 C HAPTER 5 Discrt Probability Distributios Busiss, Maagmt, a Work Bo Ivstmt, 251 Fral Govrmt Employ Us, 264 Job Elimiatio, 264 Numbr of Crit Cars, 253 Dmographics, Populatio Charactristics, a Survys Drivig Ags, 280 Numbr of Brooms, 253 Social Scurity Rcipits, 264 Survy of High School Siors, 264 Survy o Aswrig Machi wrship, 264 Survy o Bathig Pts, 264 Survy o Doctor Visits, 258 Survy o Far of Big Hom Alo at Night, 260 Survy o Itrt Awarss, 264 Survy o T Employmt, 259 Eucatio, Larig, a Tstig Collg Eucatios a Busiss Worl Succss, 263 Commrcials Durig Chilr s TV Programs, 253 Droppig Collg Courss, 243 Drug Calculatio Tst, 280 Etrtaimt CD Playrs, 264 Itrt Accss, 264 Numbr of Raios pr Houshol, 279 Numbr of Tlvisios pr Houshol, 253 Hol for Talk Raio, 249 Eviromtal Scics, th Earth, a Spac Houshol Woo Burig, 280 Foo, Diig, a Rstaurats Pizza Dlivris, 253 Pizza for Brakfast, 280 Rstaurat Smokig, 264 Usaitary Rstaurats, 262 Govrmt, Taxs, Politics, Public Policy, a Votig Povrty a th Fral Govrmt, 264 Law a rr: Crimial Justic Burglar Alarms, 263 Emrgcy Calls, 279 Halth Car Frau, 263 Numbr of Robbris, 276 Survy o Cocr for Crimials, 263 U.S. Polic Chifs a th Dath Palty, 280 Victims of Violt Crim, 264 Maufacturig a Prouct Dvlopmt Dfctiv Battris, 276 Dfctiv Calculators, 277 Dfctiv Kyboars, 277 Dfctiv Trasistors, 253 Dfctiv Typwritrs, 277 VCR Quality Cotrol, 277, 280 Marktig, Sals, a Cosumr Bhavior Book Purchass, 263 Chai Saw Rtal, 241 Mail-rr Sals, 277 Numbr of Prscriptios Fill, 276 Rfrigrator Sals, 253 Suit Sals, 253 Mici, Cliical Stuis, a Exprimts CPR Erollmt, 253 Drug Dizziss, 280 Liklihoo of Twis, 262 Public Halth a Nutritio Halthy Wight a Strok Risk Ructio, 263 Kiy Problms a Thr Mil Isla, 252 Poiso Cotrol Ctr Calls, 277 Th Scics Gtic Traits, 280 Ml s Thory, 276 Boatig Accits, 280 Druk Drivig, 260 Emissios Ispctios, 277 Safty Violatios for 18-Whlrs, 276 Trai Ris to Work, 280 Travl a Lisur Numbr of Trips of Fiv Nights or Mor, 247 utoor Rgatta, 279 Watchig Firworks, 264 C HAPTER 6 Th Normal Distributio Busiss, Maagmt, a Work Aual Salaris i Psylvaia, 330 Salaris for Actuaris, 339 Salaris for Auto Mchaics, 339 Workig o a Computr, 308 Dmographics, Populatio Charactristics, a Survys Amout of Laury Wash Each Yar, 330 CE Ags, 316 Fmal Elmtary School Tachrs, 338 Fmal Scitists a Egirs, 338 Lif Expctacis, 331 lr Amricas i Floria, 340 Prsoal Computrs, 337 Tlpho Aswrig Machis, 338 U.S. Populatio, 340 Watr Us, 330 Workr Ags, 330, 331 Eucatio, Larig, a Tstig Collg Eucatio, 337, 338 Collg Erollmt, 340 Doctoral Stut Salaris, 316 Erollmt i Prsoal Fiac Cours, 340 Exam Scors, 319 High School Comptcy Tst, 318 Msa Qualificatio, 316 Profssors Salaris, 316 Raig Improvmt Program, 317 SAT Scors, 316, 318, 330 School Erollmt, 330, 337 Tachr Salaris, 316, 330 Tim to Complt a Exam, 330 Etrtaimt Amissio Chargs for Movis, 316 Box ffic Rvus, 319 Driv-i Movis, 319

16 xxvi Ix of Applicatios Hours that Chilr Watch Tlvisio, 325 Library Brachs, 302 Thatr No-Shows, 337 Eviromtal Scics, th Earth, a Spac Avrag Prcipitatio, 340 Glass Garbag Gratio, 329 Hights of Activ Volcaos, 340 Lak Tmpraturs, 317 Mothly Nwspapr Rcyclig, 308 Foo, Diig, a Rstaurats Mat Cosumptio, 327 Pric of Baco, 330 Soium i Froz Foo, 330 Waitig to b Sat, 317 Govrmt, Taxs, Politics, Public Policy, a Votig Cigartt Taxs, 319 Itmiz Charitabl Cotributios, 317 Law a rr: Crimial Justic Polic Acamy Qualificatio, 311 Populatio i U.S. Jails, 316 Scurity fficr Strss Tolrac, 318 Maufacturig a Prouct Dvlopmt Brakig Strgth of Stl Cabl, 331 Microwav v Livs, 316 Portabl CD Playr Liftims, 340 Tchology Ivtoris, 313 Wristwatch Liftims, 318 Marktig, Sals, a Cosumr Bhavior Cost of Dog wrship, 329 Cost of Grocris, 318 Cost of Prsoal Computrs, 317 Crit Car Dbt, 317 Family Icoms, 297 Hom Valus, 331 Nw Hom Prics, 317 Nw Hom Sizs, 317 Prouct Marktig, 318 Mici, Cliical Stuis, a Exprimts Emrgcy Call Rspos Tim, 310 Lgth of Hospital Stays, 318 Public Halth a Nutritio Chocolat Bar Caloris, 316 Cholstrol Cott, 331 Systolic Bloo Prssur, 312, 331 Wights of -Yar-l M, 330 Youth Smokig, 337 Sports, Exrcis, a Fitss Battig Avrags, 335 Numbr of Basball Gams Play, 314 Numbr of Rus Ma, 319 Rac Tims, 317 Ags of Amtrak Passgr Cars, 318 Ags of Automobils, 326 Car Loa Rats, 340 Commut Tim to Work, 317 Raig Whil Drivig, 334 Sp Limits, 339 Us Car Prics, 318 Travl a Lisur Moutai Climbig, 337 Musum Visits, 317 Suitcas Wights, 340 Us Boat Prics, 317 Wiow Bowlrs, 334 C HAPTER 7 Cofic Itrvals a Sampl Siz Busiss, Maagmt, a Work Dog Bits for Postal Workrs, 385 Salaris for Actuaris, 358 Dmographics, Populatio Charactristics, a Survys Crmatio Costs, 385 Da Prsits, 381 Hights of M, 375 Hights of Polic, 386 Hom Computrs, 372 Hom Firs Start by Cals, 364 Numbr of Farms, 358 Wiows, 375 Work Itrruptios, 374 Ecoomics a Ivstmt Crit Uio Assts, 354 Crit Uio Icoms, 358 Fiacial Wll-Big, 374 Stock Prics, 382 Eucatio, Larig, a Tstig Ags of Collg Stuts, 356, 382 Day Car Ctr Tuitios, 359 Privat Schools, 374 Raig Scors, 358 Tachrs Salaris, 366, 367, 385 Tim o Homwork, 359 Tim to Corrct Trm Paprs, 358 Etrtaimt DVD Playrs, 374 Tlvisio Viwig, 359 Eviromtal Scics, th Earth, a Spac Lgth of Growig Sasos, 359 Thurstorm Sps, 366 Toraos i th Uit Stats, 374 Travl to utr Spac, 374 Uhalthy Days i Citis, 367 Govrmt, Taxs, Politics, Public Policy, a Votig Cigartt Taxs, 366 Fightig U.S. Hugr, 374 Postag Costs, 385 Prsitial Travl, 385 Satisfactio with Elct fficials, 386 Wom Rprstativs i Stat Lgislatur, 366 Maufacturig a Prouct Dvlopmt Battry Livs, 382, 386 Klx Cout, 357 il Prouctio, 366 Marktig, Sals, a Cosumr Bhavior Lottry Tickts, 352 Tlpho rrs, 382 Mici, Cliical Stuis, a Exprimts Halth Isurac Covrag for Chilr, 386 Hospital Nois Lvls, 359, 366 Ifluza, 373 Mal Nurss, 370 Strss Tst, 366 Public Halth a Nutritio Caloris i Chs, 382 Carbohyrats i Soft Driks, 367 Dit Habits, 375 Nicoti Cott, 380 bsity, 374, 375 School Luchs, 374 Sugar Cott i Applsauc, 382 Vitamis for Wom, 375 Youth Smokig, 374 Sports, Exrcis, a Fitss Basball Diamtrs, 386 Collg Wrstlr Wights, 366 Football Playr Hart Rats, 367 Golf Avrags, 358 Maratho Rurs, 385 Pai Basball Attac, 358 Sport Driks, 365 Ags of Automobils, 352 Gasoli Costs, 366 il Chags, 382 Tra Dpth, 364 Travl a Lisur Cost of Ski-Lift Tickts, 381 Plasur Boat Nams, 371 Vacatio Days, 374, 385 Vacatio Sits, 385 C HAPTER 8 Hypothsis Tstig Builigs a Structurs Hights of Tall Builigs, 427

17 Ix of Applicatios xxvii Busiss, Maagmt, a Work Commut Tim to Work, 426 Numbr of Jobs, 427 ffic Spac Rt, 427 Rvu of Larg Busisss, 414 Salaris for Actuaris, 426, 455 Sick Days, 416 Ski Shop Sals, 453 Startig Salaris for Nurss, 421 Trasfrrig Pho Calls, 446 Dmographics, Populatio Charactristics, a Survys Ag of Lifguars, 411 Avrag Family Siz, 427 Fiacial Wll Big, 435 Hights of 1-Yar-ls, 4 Hom wrship, 434 Rplacig $1 Bills with $1 Cois, 431 Soft Drik Cosumptio, 4 Survy o Aswrig Machi wrship, 434 Survy o Call-Waitig Srvic, 431 Watr Cosumptio, 427 Workig Wom, 456 Ecoomics a Ivstmt Stockholigs, 434 Stock Traig, 455 Eucatio, Larig, a Tstig Cost of Collg, 4, 427 Doctoral Stuts Salaris, 414, 435 Dropout Rats for High School Siors, 430 Icom of Collg Parts, 4, 427 Profssors Salaris, 406 Stuyig Habits of Frshm, 453 Substitut Tachrs Salaris, 421 Tachig Assistats Stips, 427 Variatio of Tst Scors, 440 Etrtaimt Attac of Musicals, 434 Broaway Prouctios, 427 Cost of Makig a Movi, 427 Eviromtal Scics, th Earth, a Spac Avrag Summr Tmpraturs, 456 Farm Sizs, 416 Forst Firs, 445 High Tmpraturs i Psylvaia, 446 High Tmpraturs i th Uit Stats, 455 Natural Gas Hat, 434 Park Acrag, 426 Summr Raifall i th Uit Stats, 426 Torao Daths, 446 Wi Sp, 412 Law a rr: Crimial Justic Car Thfts, 413 Fral Priso Populatios, 456 Spig Tickts, 416 Stol Aircraft, 445 Maufacturig a Prouct Dvlopmt Brakig Strgth of Cabl, 416 Nicoti Cott of Cigartts, 425, 442 Pait Dryig Tims, 456 Soa Bottl Cott, 446 Sugar Prouctio, 449 Marktig, Sals, a Cosumr Bhavior Cost of M s Athltic Shos, 407 Cost of Wigs, 4 Crit Car Dbt, 414 Crit Car Usag, 435 Hom Prics i Psylvaia, 4 Portabl Raio wrship, 456 Shoppig Expiturs, 4 Tim Util Iigstio Rlif, 456 Mici, Cliical Stuis, a Exprimts Cost of Rhabilitatio, 408 Doctor Visits, 427 Fmal Physicias, 434 utpatit Surgry, 441 Public Halth a Nutritio Aftr-School Sacks, 434 Caloris i Doughuts, 446 Caloris i Pacak Syrup, 445 Chocolat Chip Cooki Caloris, 427 Eggs a Halth, 404 Fat Cott of Frch Fris, 446 Quittig Smokig, 433 Youth Smokig, 435 Sports, Exrcis, a Fitss Burig Caloris Playig Tis, 416 Exrcis to Ruc Strss, 434 Football Ijuris, 435 Hom Ru Totals, 446 Joggrs xyg Uptak, 424 Tis Fas, 456 Wights of Football Playrs, 446, 456 Th Scics Hog Wights, 450 Paut Prouctio i Virgiia, 4 Plat Laf Lgths, 456 Car Ispctio Tims, 444 Fatal Accits, 434 Gas Milag, 445, 452 Stoppig Distacs, 4 Tir Iflatio, 456 Trasmissio Srvic, 416 Travl a Lisur Ag of Commrcial Jts, 414 Borrowig Library Books, 435 Bus Trips to Niagara Falls, 453 Computr Hobbis, 434 Ful Cosumptio, 456 Hotl Room Cost, 414 Natioal Park Attac, 456 Rivr Cours Cao Tims, 453 Tim Raig th Daily Nwspapr, 453 C HAPTER 9 Tstig th Diffrc Btw Two Mas, Two Variabls, a Two Proportios Builigs a Structurs Hights of Tall Builigs, 484 Busiss, Maagmt, a Work Dog Bits for Postal Workrs, 5 Prctag of Fmal Workrs, 5 Pho Calls at Work, 492 Sick Days, 506, 519 Dmographics, Populatio Charactristics, a Survys Bir wrship, 520 Couty Siz i Iiaa a Iowa, 484 Dsir to B Rich, 5 Dog wrship, 5 Farm Sizs, 488 Fmal Cashirs a Srvrs, 5 Hights of 9-Yar-ls, 472 Hom Prics, 472 Survy o Ivitability of War, 5 Volutr Work of Collg Stuts, 493 Eucatio, Larig, a Tstig ACT Scors, 472 Ags of Collg Stuts, 473 Collg Eucatio, 5 Cybr School Erollmt, 493 Elmtary School Tachr Salaris, 484 Exam Scors at Privat a Public Schools, 474 Fmal Scic Majors, 472, 473 Improvmt of Vocabulary, 520 Improvig Stuy Habits, 506 Lctur vrsus Computr-Assist Istructio, 5 Mical School Erollmts, 493 Pr Pupil Expiturs, 519 Rucig Errors i Grammar, 506 Skippig School, 519 Soft Driks i School, 519 Tachrs Salaris, 519 Tuitio Costs for Mical School, 484 Tuitio Costs i Nw Egla, 493 Urgrauat Fiacial Ai, 514 Eviromtal Scics, th Earth, a Spac Air Quality, 505 Avrag Tmpraturs, 519

18 xxviii Ix of Applicatios Foggy Days, 520 Lgths of Major U.S. Rivrs, 471 Govrmt, Taxs, Politics, Public Policy, a Votig Assss La Valus, 492, 507 IRS Tax Rtur Hlp, 493 Partisa Support of Salary Icras Bill, 5 Tax-Exmpt Proprtis, 483 Law a rr: Crimial Justic Dath Palty, 5 Lgal Costs, 506 Missig Prsos, 493 Maufacturig a Prouct Dvlopmt Automobil Part Prouctio, 520 Battry Voltag, 473 Nicoti Cott of Cigartts, 473 Vacuum Clar Wights, 485 Marktig, Sals, a Cosumr Bhavior Crit Car Dbt, 473 Crit Car Us, 5 Mici, Cliical Stuis, a Exprimts Copig with MS, 472 Day Car Ctrs, 493 Hart Rats of Smokrs, 480 Hospital Stays for Matrity Patits, 493 Improvig Attitus About Exrcis, 472 Mic i a Maz, 493 Nois Lvls i Hospitals, 472, 484, 519 Puls Rats of Itical Twis, 506 Puls Rats of Smokrs a Nosmokrs, 472 Salaris of Nurss, 490, 492 Slpig Brai?, 523 Strss Hormos a Halth, 523 Vacciatio Rats i Nursig Homs, 511 Waitig Tim to S a Doctor, 480 Public Halth a Nutritio Caloris i Ic Cram, 484 Carbohyrats i Cay, 484 Cholstrol Lvls, 501 Govrmt Cotrol of Halth Car, 512 Smokig a Halth Car, 514 Sports, Exrcis, a Fitss Collg Sports ffrigs, 468 Exrcis Attitus, 506 Hights of Basball Playrs, 519 Moy Spt o Collg Sports, 472 NFL Salaris, 493 Vitami for Icras Strgth, 499 Wights of Ruig Shos, 485 Automatic Trasmissios, 482 Sat Blt Us, 5 Spig o th Itrstat, 519 Stut Cars, 5 Taxi Mils, 473 Turpik a Exprssway Travl, 484 Travl a Lisur Airport Passgrs, 481 Drivig for Plasur, 519 Fictio Bstsllrs, 483 Hotl Room Cost, 467 Lisur Tim, 5 Movi Tickt Costs, 493 Playig th Slots, 484 Visitig Disy Worl a Disyla, 5 C HAPTER 10 Corrlatio a Rgrssio Builigs a Structurs Tall Builigs, 544, 552 Busiss, Maagmt, a Work Employ Ag a Sick Days, 543, 552, 577 Typig Sp a Wor Procssig, 577 Dmographics, Populatio Charactristics, a Survys Ag a Chilr, 577 Distributio of Populatio i U.S. Citis, 543, 552 Ecoomics a Ivstmt Ag a Nt Worth, 553 Mothly Rt, 543, 552 Eucatio, Larig, a Tstig Abscs a Fial Gras, 531, 553 Alumi Cotributios, 543, 552 Icom of Collg Grauats, 572 Math a Moy, 571 Stat Boars for Nurss, 568 Eviromtal Scics, th Earth, a Spac Avrag Tmpratur a Prcipitatio, 543, 552 Emrgcy Calls a Tmpratur, 543, 552 Forst Firs, 543, 551 Torao Daths, 543, 552 Law a rr: Crimial Justic Larcy a Vaalism, 543, 552 Maufacturig a Prouct Dvlopmt Assmbly Li Prouctio, 572 Coal Prouctio, 553 Copy Machi Costs, 562 Cows a Milk Prouctio, 577 Marktig, Sals, a Cosumr Bhavior Prouct Sals, 579 Sllig Pric of Farms, 572 Mici, Cliical Stuis, a Exprimts Day Car Ctrs, 577 Drug Prics, 542, 551, 552 Fathrs a Sos Wights, 553 Firworks a Ijuris, 552 Hospital Bs, 544, 552 Systolic Bloo Prssur, 530, 572 Public Halth a Nutritio Caloris a Cholstrol, 544, 552 Proti a Diastolic Bloo Prssur, 577 Smokig a Lug Damag, 552 Sports, Exrcis, a Fitss Ag a Exrcis, 542, 551 Exrcis a Milk, 532 Hall of Fam Pitchrs Wis a Strikouts, 544, 552 Hits a Strikouts, 577 Pass Attmpts, 543, 552 Drivr s Ag a Accits, 577 Stoppig Distacs, 541 Travl a Lisur Tlvisio Viwrs, 553 C HAPTER 11 thr Chi-Squar Tsts Busiss, Maagmt, a Work Combattig Miay Drowsiss, 593 Mothrs Workig utsi th Hom, 607 Rtir Sior Excutivs Rtur to Work, 588 Work Forc Distributio, 607 Dmographics, Populatio Charactristics, a Survys Alcohol a Gr, 601 Collg Eucatio a Plac of Rsic, 600 Distributio of Ag i Psylvaia a hio, 606 Fmal Stuts Workig, 614 High School Siors Drivig to School, 603 Marital Status of U.S. Aults, 613 rga Doatio, 607 Pt wrship a Aual Icom, 606 Parts i th Hom, 593 Wom i th Military, 606 Ecoomics a Ivstmt Crit Uio Loas, 594 Lump-Sum Psio Ivstmt, 613 Eucatio, Larig, a Tstig Ecology Club Mmbrship, 589 Eucatio Lvl a Halth Isurac, 594 Iformatio Gathrig a Eucatioal Backgrou, 606 Etrtaimt Movi Rtal a Ag, 606

19 Ix of Applicatios xxix Eviromtal Scics, th Earth, a Spac Carbo Emissios, 594 Govrmt Fuig of NASA, 594 Satllit Dishs i Rstrict Aras, 605 Foo, Diig, a Rstaurats Ballpark Sacks a Gr, 607 M&M Color Distributio, 617 Skittls Color Distributio, 592 Govrmt, Taxs, Politics, Public Policy, a Votig Compositio of Stat Lgislaturs, 606 Law a rr: Crimial Justic Attory Practics, 606 Fral Priso Populatios, 594 Gu Sals, 613 Pro Boo Work for Lawyrs, 608 Stat Priso Populatios, 594 Maufacturig a Prouct Dvlopmt Ijuris o Moky Bars, 608 Marktig, Sals, a Cosumr Bhavior Favorit Day to Shop?, 613 Grocry Lists, 608 Numbr of As i Mia, 606 Participatio i Markt Rsarch Survy, 607 Payig for Prscriptios, 594 Paymt Prfrcs, 594, 614 U.S. Car Sals, 593, 613 Mici, Cliical Stuis, a Exprimts Agr Cotrol, 614 Effctivss of Nw Drug, 607 Fathrs i th Dlivry Room, 608 Risk of Ijury for Mals a Fmals, 614 Public Halth a Nutritio Gtically Moifi Foo, 594 Sports, Exrcis, a Fitss Joggrs a Nutritioal Supplmts, 606 Youth Physical Fitss, 607 Automobil Ags, 593 Lablig Tirs by Ful Efficicy, 613 Spig a Stat of Rsic, 606 Travl a Lisur Rcratioal Raig a Gr, 607 Thaksgivig Travl, 608 C HAPTER 12 Aalysis of Variac Builigs a Structurs Lgths of Suspsio Brigs, 634 Lgths of U.S. Brigs, 652 Dmographics, Populatio Charactristics, a Survys Numbr of Farms, 635 Prcptios of Color a Itlligc, 633 U.S. City Populatios, 635 Eucatio, Larig, a Tstig Altrativ Eucatio, 636 Erollmt i Public Postscoary Istitutios, 634 Expiturs Pr Pupil, 635 Math Axity, 653 Polic a School Icits, 653 Foo, Diig, a Rstaurats Wi Prics, 652 Maufacturig a Prouct Dvlopmt Digital Camra Wights, 652 Microwav v Prics, 635 Pait Liftims, 646 Tim to Buil Homs, 646 Marktig, Sals, a Cosumr Bhavior Automobil Sals Tchiqus, 644 Effctivss of Avrtisig, 645 Sals of Pools, Spas, a Sauas, 646 Mici, Cliical Stuis, a Exprimts Effcts of Dit a Exrcis o Glucos Lvl, 653 Effcts of Dit a Tim of Day o Soium Lvl, 646 Tchiqus to Lowr Bloo Prssur, 622 Public Halth a Nutritio Ault Chilr of Alcoholics, 655, 656 Carbohyrat Cott of Crals, 652 Fat Cott of Pizza, 652 Fibr Cott of Foos, 634 Iro Cott of Foos, 652 Soium Cott of Foos, 634 Sports, Exrcis, a Fitss utoor Survival Traiig Programs, 646 Wight Gais of Athlts, 634 Commutig Tims, 635 Gasoli Typ a Cosumptio, 639 Toll Roa Employs, 622 C HAPTER 13 Noparamtric Statistics Busiss, Maagmt, a Work Bright Lightig a Sick Days, 700 Employ Abscs, 696 Employ Prouctivity, 675 Job Satisfactio, 675 Job ffrs for Chmical Egirs, 685 Rtir Employs, 695 Salaris for M a Wom, 680 Umploy Popl Activly Skig Employmt, 686 Ecoomics a Ivstmt Mia Cost pr Pou of Bf, 668 Natural Gas Costs, 669 Eucatio, Larig, a Tstig Cost of Txtbooks, 700 Cybr School Erollmt, 668, 695 Evaluatig Rasoig Skills, 669 Exam Scors, 701 Homwork Exrciss a Exam Scor, 700 IQ Exam, 696 Raom Exam Aswrs?, 696 Ratig of Txtbooks, 688 Stuts piios o Lgthig th School Yar, 669 Workig Stuts, 701 Etrtaimt Music Vio Rakigs, 695 Summr Thatr Actors, 695 Tlvisio Viwrs, 669, 700 Eviromtal Scics, th Earth, a Spac Cla Air Staars, 668 Daths i th Uit Stats Du to Svr Wathr, 669, 695 Hights of Tall Trs, 694 Hights of Watrfalls, 684 Mia Hight of Wavs, 668 Rcor High Tmpraturs, 700 Toraos a High Tmpraturs i th U.S., 695 Wt Days i Yosmit Natioal Park, 699 Govrmt, Taxs, Politics, Public Policy, a Votig Prsitial a Vic Prsitial Dbats, 680 Law a rr: Crimial Justic Lgth of Priso Stcs, 674 Maximum Stc Lgth a Tim Srv, 695 Numbr of Crims pr Wk, 686 Shopliftig a Scurity fficrs, 676 Maufacturig a Prouct Dvlopmt Assmbly Tims, 675 Brakig Strgth of Rop, 700 Dfctiv Itms Maufactur, 696 Liftim of Rubbr Washrs, 665 Liftim of Truck Tirs, 700 Routi Maitac a Dfctiv Parts, 669 Vio Gam Liftims, 675

20 xxx Ix of Applicatios Marktig, Sals, a Cosumr Bhavior Grocry Stor Shopprs, 696 Law Mowr Costs, 685 Pritr Costs, 685 Prouct Avrtismt a Sals, 648 Sow Co Sals, 664 Mici, Cliical Stuis, a Exprimts Ags of Popl Eroll i a Drug Abus Program, 693 Dit a Larig i Rats, 700 Dit Micatio a Wight, 669 Drug Prics, 680, 681, 695 Drug Si Effcts, 663 Ear Ifctios i Swimmrs, 666 Effcts of Pill o Apptit, 669 First Ai Istructio, 686 Hormos a Wight Gai i Hogs, 700 Masurig Soium Cott i Bloo, 669 Pai Micatio Effctivss, 680 Psychology a Huma Bhavior Marital Compatibility, 681 Slf-Estm a Birth rr, 685 Public Halth a Nutritio Caloris i Crals, 685 Carbohyrats i Foo, 685 Numbr of Cavitis, 696 Potassium i Brakfast Driks, 682 Soium Cott of Microwav Dirs, 685 School Luch Caloris, 674 Sports, Exrcis, a Fitss Distributio of Mals at th 2000 Summr lympics, 703 Gam Attac, 668 Hutig Accits, 675 bstacl Cours Compltio Tims, 672 Skiig Coitios, 696 Wight Loss a Exrcis, 669 Automobil Stoppig Distacs, 675 Commutr Trai Passgrs, 692 Ful Efficicy of Automobils, 700 Gasoli Costs, 695 Jtpla Storag a Rpair, 674 Subway a Commutr Rail Passgrs, 695 C HAPTER 14 Samplig a Simulatio Law a rr: Crimial Justic Stat Govrors o Capital Puishmt, 711 Mici, Cliical Stuis, a Exprimts Bra a Wight Gai, 718 Govrmt, Taxs, Politics, Public Policy, a Votig Elctoral Vots, 719, 720 Foo, Diig, a Rstaurats Smokig i Rstaurats, 725

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