Volvo Cars, Plug-In Hybrid Concept Development

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1 Volvo Cars, Plug-In Hybrid Concept Development The background of V60 Plug-In Hybrid Concept as presented internally at Volvo Car Corporation in May 2008 Klas Niste Project leader for Advanced Project for HEV/PHEV Volvo Car Corporation Research & Development Director, Vehicle Concept Engineering and Electrification Strategy

2 Why Hybrids & Electrification? And Why Now? (2008) Global Warming climate change Energy Security fuel availability delivery conditions Political and market forces limiting CO2 emissions and usage of fossil fuels Electricity as a main track for cars and light trucks - Efficiency - Infrastructure and conversion flexibility Volvo need to come out of this as a winner

3 Choice of Electrification Level Electrification levels (electric power, battery power/energy, functionality etc) Conventional vehicle w/ added electrification BEV w/ added aux power device Stop/ start Mild HEV Medium HEV Full HEV Plug-In HEV BEV + Range Extender BEV ISG Volvo S40/V50 (S80 mules) Mild hybrid, parallel, 4-cyl petrol Desiree- 2000, V40 Full hybrid, powersplit, 3-cyl petrol HEV , 850 Plug-in hybrid, series 3-cyl petrol ~Honda ~Toyota, Lexus, Ford ~GM Volt

4 Choice of Hybrid Transmission Layout POWERSPLIT SERIES PARALLEL (basic single mode) (Range Extender) (several options) Combustion engine power transfer to the wheels both mechanically (~2/3) and electrically (~1/3). Toyota, Lexus, Ford The electrical motor propels the wheels. The combustion engine feeds energy to the electric propulsion or the battery. GM Volt Combustion engine and electrical motor can propel the wheels either separately or in combination. ISAC ISAC HVG GENERATOR Engine GENERATOR Engine Trans Engine MOTOR Modified Transmission Trans Engine ERAD MOTOR MOTOR VCC PREFERRED LAYOUT: Cycle & Real world efficiency Performance Base P/T installation flexibility Commonality/volume flexibility w/ base during change over

5 Battery Technology Development, from NiHM to Li-Ion Specific Power (W/kg) Hybrid Battery Technology Comparison Hitachi Li-Ion HEV LG Li-Ion HEV AESC Li-Ion HEV GYC Li-Ion HEV JCS Li-Ion HEV Sanyo NiMH HEV NIMH NiMH HEV PEVE NiMH HEV JCS NiMH HEV Li-Ion HEV Sanyo Li-Ion HEV Samsung Li-Ion HEV Toyota Li-Ion HEV Sanyo Li-Ion PHEV LG Li-Ion PHEV Li-Ion PHEV JCS Li-Ion PHEV 500 Kokam Li-Ion PHEV Specific Energy (Wh/kg) Specific Energy [Wh/kg] Even Li-Ion battery systems are critical for package in existing and future platforms

6 Decision History Q1 2006: - Full HEV - Parallell - Diesel - Top of the line power position Q4 2008: - Plug-In HEV - Parallell - Diesel - V60 Top of the line power position

7 Plug-in Hybrid Base Concept Regenerative Brakes Blending friction and electric braking HV Battery & On-board Charger Energy storage, Power buffer 11,2kWh nominal, 8kWh usable 60kW peak, 20kW continous 400V nominal Electric A/C HV Battery HVG -> C-ISG ERAD (Electric Rear Axel Drive) Electric drive, electric boost, brake energy regeneration and el. AWD 50kW/200Nm peak 20kW 80Nm continous Complete Vehicle Controls Updated controls architecture for HEV, conv. Incl S/S (and BEV) Belt-ISG (Integrated Starter Generator) Warm starts stop/start function Supports el. loads, el. A/C and el. AWD 7,5kW continous, 11kW peak Other systems Low temp cooling circuit for ERAD HV Battery cooling system

8 PHEV systems On Board Charger AC plug High-voltage Traction battery Electric motor Control unit Combustion engine P/T HV Generator Issue date:

9 Charging the Traction Battery from 230V/10A-16A grid High-voltage Traction battery On Board Charger Climate AC plug Electric motor Control unit Combustion engine P/T HV Generator Charging Disconnect cable Issue date:

10 Driving PHEV on charged electrical energy(charge depletion mode) High-voltage battery On Board Charger SOC Climate 100 % Electric motor Control unit Combustion engine P/T 30 % HV Generator 0 % time EV drive Parallel Issue date:

11 Driving PHEV on fuel energy (Charge sustaining mode) High-voltage battery On Board Charger SOC Climate 100 % Electric motor Control unit Combustion engine P/T 30 % HV Generator 0 % time Drive Limited EV drive Parallel Brake Issue date:

12 AWD traction support High-voltage battery On Board Charger Climate Electric motor Control unit Combustion engine P/T AWD Press button HV Generator AWD drive Issue date:

13 PHEV Challenge Multiple dependant solutions to be found E-Drive performance B 1 V/ A 1 kw => 2 1 V/ A 2 kw E-Drive performance SUV ~ A 1 kw(peak el) Car ~ A 2 kw(peak el) Cumulative Population [%] Customer driving pattern (distance/day) Japan N:o battery cells energy-voltage Traction Power [kw] Assumption 1 Practical e-drive Acceleration requirements 2m/s2 PHEV Electric traction needs for EuCD + Acceleration levels to be able to follow the traffic flow EU US Japan Eu US Vehicle speed [km/h] km 0,6m/s2 Battery vehicle installation, packaging & weight SUV ~ max W 1 kwh nom Car ~ max W 2 kwh nom 0m/s2 (Constant speed) Base vehicle CO 2 Assumption 3 Practical e-range assumption 25-50km for all vehicles Assumption 2 CO 2 target assumption < 50g PHEV CO 2 regulation (Eu) NEDC e-range needed SUV ~ Z 1 km Car ~ Z 2 km Battery energy needed for 50km NEDC e-range SUV X 1 Wh/km -> X 2 kwh usable-> X 2 kwh nom Car Y 1 Wh/km -> Y 2 kwh usable-> Y 3 kwh nomy Energy optimised Li-Ion Battery Technology Available from suppliers starting ~ 2009

14 e-range Dimensioning vs. Customer Driving Patterns (Source VMCC) Cumulative Population [%] Japa n EU US Japan Eu US Daily Driving Distance [km] e-range of 25-50km seems to be close to an optimum where more than 1/2-2/3 of the customer needs are met with a minimum battery size/cost. Charging twice a day will double the practical e-range.

15 Certified Average Fuel Consumption vs. Driving Distance [NEDC] as a function of charging (~10-30 C, 50km e-range) [% of ref] NEDC Average Fuel Consumption 1,0 0,85 0,3 PHEV 1 charging PHEV certification Stop/start vehicle= Ref PHEV not charged PHEV 2:nd charging after km Corresponding to certification process assumptions De= 50km Dav = 25km [km, NEDC] Driving distance 75km = Total driving distance corresponding to certification process assumptions (at De = 50km)

16 Max Acceleration Performance Comparison (V60 PHEV data is estimated) Combined > 200kW and Nm as a function of gear selection at low rpm PHEV has potential to replace todays top of the line petrol performance offers!

17 Competition (Europe) and Window of Opportunity: /later post 2012 Mild HEV Medium HEV C-sized Petrol CR S 400 Petrol 7 series Petrol E 300 Bluetec, Diesel S 300 Bluetec, Diesel X 5, Diesel Jetta Full HEV Already available: ML 450, Petrol A4 C 300 Bluetec, Diesel S 400 Bluetec, Diesel Full HEV RX, Petrol GS, Petrol LS, Petrol Prius, Petrol Civic, Petrol Touareg, Petrol Q7 petrol X1 / X3 X6, Petrol Cayenne, Petrol Panamera, Petrol Prius Next Generation, Petrol n.s., Petrol Infiniti 9-X Hypos, diesel till 2020: all models with hybrid technology Rio, Petrol Prologue, diesel Accent, Petrol Golf, Diesel Fleet Trial Golf, Diesel Small series Golf, Diesel 2015 Series Plug-In Plug-in HEV Prius 2 PHV Fleet Trial Prius 2 PHV Volt, Petrol Flextreme, Diesel BEV BEV REVAi Roadster i MiEV Test stage City? A1 Up e 500 Limited Numbers Ze-O Mini Polo Kango, Megane Denmark only! A-Class Cube = deleted or postponed Status: Nov 04, 2008 There is an opportunity for Volvo leadership in Europe (US) with a larger diesel based PHEV vehicle! The V60 PHEV vehicle will have great performance and ability for almost zero fossil fuel consumption, certified below 2l/100km.

18 Thank You!

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