Plug-in Hybrid & Battery Electric Vehicles for Grid Integration of Renewables

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1 Plug-in Hybrid & Battery Electric Vehicles for Grid Integration of Renewables Presented at Utility Wind Integration Group Radisson Hotel Reagan National Airport, Arlington, VA April 5-7, March 2006 Willett Kempton University of Delaware

2 High Penetration Wind: An imperative Global climate change. Evidence in the past two years suggest far more risk than before. Peak oil production; demand from China and India soaring; $200B/year in Middle East wars. US economy extraordinarily vulnerable to external supply and distant politics. Wind energy plentiful at competitive prices, but penetration limited by fluctuating supply.

3 Wind Resources of US Mid-Atlantic m Excl GW Total 330 End-use GWavg Elec. load 73 Lt. veh 35

4 Rethinking the basics There will be lots of no-co2 electricity at per kwh (energy) prices lower than today, especially off-peak Electricity storage or backup (e.g. ancillary services markets) will be in much greater demand than today (but hopefully also cheaper per MW-h) Where can we find storage in the energy system? How can we use lots of cheap electricity at times dictated by the grid operator (ISO or TSO)?

5 What energy carrier for light vehicles? Liquid fuel densities needed for heavy equipment, aviation, high duty-cycle vehicles (e.g. taxi) -- the bulk of liquid fuel can be replaced with electricity gasoline & H2 are low efficiency for well-to-wheels, e- very high (e.g. 30% versus 80%) e- as carrier, Li- based batteries as storage for most applications

6 An Unexpected Synergy Wind as the energy source and electricity as the carrier for vehicles No new transportation corridors or fuel infrastructure needed Smart interaction between vehicle fleet, grid and intermittent renewables Very large, low-cost storage for renewables Vehicle to Grid power ( V2G ) as a bridging technology.

7 Vehicle to Grid Arrows indicate direction of power flow

8 V2G Basic Math Average car driven 1 hour/day --> time parked is 23 hours/day Daily average travel: 32 miles Practical power draw from car: kw US power generation=811 GW; load=417 GW US 191 million cars x 15 kw = 2,865 GW

9 How Much Power? Denmark UK USA Avg. Electric Load (GW) Light vehicles (10 6 ) Vehicle GW (if electric 15 kw each) ,865

10 How Much Power? Denmark UK USA Avg. Electric Load (GW) Light vehicles (10 6 ) Vehicle GW (if electric 15 kw each) , power in cars >> generation or load

11 Calculating V2G power V2G power is the lowest of 3 factors: Wiring & plug at parking location, prepare for mass markets by assuming residential, say, 80A 20 kw Internal Power Electronics to motor (typical 100 kw) Stored energy time Note: our equations are general to all: battery, hybrid/batt, hybrid/moto-gen, FC

12 Value is high A/S $12 B in US in 1996, 80% regulation Average PJM regulation contract price in 2003 was $38.33 $/MW-h Single vehicle, 15 kw, available 18 h/d, A/S reg -> $3777 revenue/year PJM contracts 1 MW, so, need an aggregator (e.g., Delmarva Power, Verizon Cellular or...)

13 What vehicles? Business model demonstration: sets of cars Reassembly vs. OEM Need an appropriate plug-in vehicle (battery or PHEV) Next, compare some vehicles...

14 Revolution in Battery Technology Today s automotive starter batteries: Leadacid RAV4 EV (and Toyota Prius hybrid battery): Nickel Metal-hydride New batteries based on Lithium, Li-ion or Lipolymer: 5x lighter for same energy! These advances make possible large battery storage for vehicles.

15 Which atom would you schlep?

16 Which atom would you schlep? Pb=207.2

17 Which atom would you schlep? Pb=207.2 Ni=58.9

18 Which atom would you schlep? Pb=207.2 Ni=58.9 Li=6.9

19 3 battery vehicles, 2 with V2G built-in

20

21 Venturi Fetish 58 kwh Li-ion 180 kw 400 km range standard: WiMax Intel chips Oracle 10G ipod V2G km/h in 4.5 sec, max 170 km/h 19 Sep 05 press release:

22 Mitsubishi Colt platform In-wheel motor 13 kwh Li-ion, 2 x 20kW in-wheel motors; goes on sale in Japan 2007

23 Toyota Scion conversion by AC Propulsion We plan to manufacture safetycertified electric vehicle conversions and sell them to retail and fleet customers. The conversions will be based on the Scion xa and xb, the new sport compact vehicles built by Toyota...

24 Toyota Scion conversion by AC Propulsion We plan to manufacture safetycertified electric vehicle conversions and sell them to retail and fleet customers. The conversions will be based on the Scion xa and xb, the new sport compact vehicles built by Toyota... We plan two models, a base model, and a premium with a larger battery. The base model will outperform the RAV4 EV and is expected to sell for about the same price.

25 Regulation from hydro

26 Regulation from V2G (drive, charge & A/S)

27 But, don t we need to wait for the big OEMs?

28 Transition Strategy Start simple: Battery now, e-hybrid later Small fleets: 100 car V2G fleet = 1 MW; demonstrate V2G business models Production in several regions, develop technology, drive down component costs Develop standards for V2G (e.g. response time, metering, at least 10 kw/car, drawdown limits, etc) THEN we need the OEMs, low-cost production at > 50,000 cars/year

29 A sequence of markets High value regulation great for buying down initially high vehicle cost About 1-3% of the vehicle fleet saturates regulation, up to perhaps 4-5% saturates other A/S, then start selling peak power As V2G costs drop and A/S & peak saturate, start selling storage for intermittent renewables (8-38% of fleet enables 50% wind!) Next, busineses: 1 car A/S, fleet, assembly

30 Effect of EVs with V2G on Grid Infrastructure Requirements 50% of cars as EVs increase electric load? 100 Million cars x 15,000 Miles per year / 4.8 Miles per kwh = 312 Billion kwh per year at off-peak times = 7 % of 2020 total national load With V2G, these EVs also provide a huge power resource: 100 M cars * 15 kw * 0.5 avail. = 750 GW of DG > 70% of 2020 national electric power capacity! Conclusion: Even 50% of cars as EV, IF they have V2G, probably REDUCE grid infrastructure requirements (Using back of the envelope method from W. Short, NREL, 2005) From Tomic & Kempton, 2005

31 Vision One-half vehicle fleet is electric drive: battery plus plug-in hybrid One-half of electric energy from wind, eventually other renewables Climate change is greatly slowed down; US can survive (a while) without foreign oil CO2-free electricity, high-penetration intermittent renewables, and CO2-free transportation: an unexpected and dramatic synergy

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