1 Sponsored by: Reducing the impact of EV charging on the Reducing the impact of EV charging on the electric grid DATA SIM Summer School (Hasselt)
2 Who am I? Jesús Fraile-Ardanuy Associate Professor at Technical University of Madrid Main research lines: Renewable energies Control system applications Integration of EVs on the grid
3 Who is my audience?
4 Outline Fundamentals of electric grid Fundamentals of electric vehicles Electricity markets and EVs Analyzing and reducing the impact of EV charging on the electric grid (DATASIM results) Summary
5 Why electricity is held in low esteem? Because it is always there. Because it is cheap. Because we always ignore it unless The lights go out!
6 Blackouts! Location Million people affected Date India Jul 2012 Indonesia Ago 05 Brazil Mar 99 Brazil, Paraguay Nov 2009 USA, Canada Ago 2003 Italy, Switzerland, Austria, Slovenia, Croatia Sep 03 USA, Canada Nov 65
7 India Blackout 670 million people were without electricity. Roughly equivalent to the entire population of Europe.
8 Electric grid fundamentals 1 st part
9 Understanding power systems Generation Thermal power plant Transmission and distribution network Consumers Residential Customers (Low Voltage) Hydro power plant System Operator (SO) control center Distribution substation Transmission NETWORK Wind Energy Source: REE.es Transmission Substation Energy flows in one direction, from generation to consumer Industrial Customers (Medium or High Voltage)
10 Understanding electric generation
11 Understanding electric generation
12 Understanding electric generation
13 Understanding electric generator Electric Power Mechanical Power
14 Transmission stations Electric Generation (10-20 kv) Step up transformer Transmission substations Source: REE.es
15 Transmission substations Step down transformers Source: REE.es
16 Transmission substations Transfomers are essential in making largescale power transfer feasible over long distances.
18 No storage capacity in the grid Grid operators need to balance power supply and demand at all times Source: REE.es
19 Generation - demand Generation is continuously adapting to cover the variable demand. Source:
20 Generation - demand Different types of power plants are running during the day, covering the electric demand. Gas, diesel and hydro Thermal and hydro Nuclear and coal Renewable energies Source: /rp/rp0809/09rp09
21 Covering demand with renewable energy In order to promote renewable energies, the demand is first met from renewable sources. Source:
22 Problems with intermittent renewable energy Sometimes, disconnection of renewable energies are needed during low demand periods. Source: REE.es If Generation>Demand Wind generators are disconnected Renewable energy is lost (spilled wind energy) in this case, because it is not possible to store large amount of electrical energy during low demand periods
23 Balancing solutions New network interconnections Energy management: Demand response Energy storage Electric vehicles
24 Balancing solutions-new transmission lines New electricity highways (transmission network) A fully interconnected EU electricity market Developing the huge renewables potential North Europe: off-shore wind farms, tidal farms South Europe and Africa: PV and thermosolar plants
25 Balancing solutions-dsm Energy management (demand side management) Process of managing energy consumption to optimise available and planned resources for power generation. DSM incorporates all activities that influence customer use of electricity and results in the reduction of the electricity demand, which are mutually beneficial to the customers and the utility
26 Balancing solutions-dsm Energy management (DSM main techniques) Direct DSM: Load limiters Direct load control Indirect DSM: Time of use price DSO
27 Balancing solutions-dsm Peak Shaving. Reduction of customer loads during peak demand periods. This can delay the need for additional generation capacity. Peak clipping can be achieved by direct control of customers appliances. Conservation. Reduction in consumption by consumers. There is net reduction in both demand and total energy consumption. Strategic conservation can be implemented by motivating customers to use more energy-efficient appliances. Load Shifting. Shifting loads from on-peak to off-peak periods. The net effect is a decrease in peak demand, but not change in total energy consumption.
28 Balancing solutions-storage Recovering storaged energy during the peaks, avoids the connection of the most expensive power plants!
29 Balancing solutions-storage De Germany: Lead Market for Energy Storage & Fuel Cell Systems. Germany Trade and Invest
30 Balancing solutions Pumped hydro: At the times when enough power is available, water is pumped to and upper reservoir. When the electric energy is expensive, the water is fall down driving the generator, producing energy.
31 Balancing solutions. Storage CAES: At times when enough power is available, compressed air is injected into caverns. The pressure in such a storage facility can reach 100 bars. When the air escapes, it drives a generator via a turbine to produce electricity.
32 Balancing solutions - Storage Flywheels: A flywheel is a rotating mechanical device that is used to store rotational energy. Flywheels have a significant moment of inertia. The amount of energy stored in a flywheel is proportional to the square of its rotational speed.
33 Balancing solutions-batteries Different types of electrochemical batteries Redox Batteries Solar Panels
36 A system model change is needed Actual electrical grid Demand is not flexible Generation is adapted continuously No storage Future electrical grid Demand will be flexible Generation won t be managed due to its intermittence Key elements 1. STORAGE at different levels 2. Active Demand Management (ADM) 3. Communication infrastructure Source: IEA.org
37 What is a smart grid? The Smart Grid is a bi-directional electric and communication network that improves the reliability, security, and efficiency of the electric system for small to large-scale generation, transmission, distribution, and storage. First Annual Review Meeting, Brussels
38 Electric vehicle fundamentals 2 nd part
39 Electric vehicles First IDEA
40 Electric vehicles EV were clean and easier to use (compared to ICE one) Lower maintenance and available infrastructure (no fuel station was available) Motors had high power-to-weight ratio. Main drawback: Limited range. Source:
41 Hybrid Electric Vehicles
42 Hybrid electric vehicles 1900 Porsche hybrid HEV can deliver energy for long time Retain the ease-of-use advantages of EV Source:
43 Why did gasoline cars win? Ford made cars affordable (model T) Gasoline was a waste product of oil refining ICE cars were improving continuosly while the EV technology were not (overtake in 1920s). Source: ICE cars evolution through the decades
44 Revival Energy crisis 1970s-1980s Advance in power electronics (80s-90s) Advance in battery technology (NiMH and Liion battery). California Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) Mandate Requires 2%of the state's vehicles to have no emissions by 1998 and 10% by Source:
45 Who kill the EV? Who Killed the Electric Car? is a 2006 documentary film that explores the creation, limited commercialization, and subsequent destruction of the General Motors EV1
46 Nowadays Environmental problems EU targets: Reduction EU greenhouse gas emission by 20% below 1990 levels 20% of renewable energy sources 20% reduction of primary energy Oil supply problems Demand increased (China and India) Lack of cheap oil
47 EVs solution Energy efficiency Cleaner vehicles Emission can be avoided of moved to a power plant where large-scale control is possible Quieter vehicles (important to reduce stress in the cities!) Can help the electric grid! Source:
48 EVs classification Hybrid Electric Vehicles ICE+Electric motor-generator Small battery, gets recharged from regenerative breaking; very limited all-electric range (2-3 km) No plug Different drivetrain configurations Series: ICE turns generator which charges battery which runs electric motor Parallel: ICE and electric motor both run the car simultaneously Mix
49 EV classification HEV Power Electronics Battery Fuel Tank
50 EVs classification Plug in hybrid Electric Vehicles ICE+Electric motor-generator Larger battery; gets charged by plugging Limited all-electric range (25 km)
51 EVs classification E-REV: Extended Range Electric Vehicle A PHEV with a bigger battery for driving ranges of km using only the battery (all-electric driving); after which the gas engine starts
52 EVs classification BEV: Battery Electric Vehicles Pure electric vehicles; only has an electric drivetrain Range: Leaf (170 km), Tesla (>300 km), i-miev (150 km) When your out of battery, you don t have any option. You need to recharge it!
53 EVs classification Electric Motor+Battery ICE motor HEV PHEV E-REV BEV
54 Battery configuration
55 Understanding the recharge process Times for recharging and power levels: Source:
56 Understanding the recharge process Recharge modes: Mode 1. Household socket and extension cord Mode 2. Domestic socket and cable with a protection device Mode 3. Specific socket on a dedicated circuit Mode 4. Direct current (DC) connection for fast recharging Source:
57 Understanding the recharge process Charging sockets: Source:
58 What is an EV.. When driving? It must perform as a motor vehicle It must meet all safety standards It must meet driver expectations for mobility and performance Source: The Grid-Integrated EV by Willet Kempton
59 What is an EV.. When Plugged in? A load A smart load A distributed storage resource
60 EVs and their interaction with the power system EV is a new energy consumer, increasing the total electricity consumption and, more important, the peak demand. No controlled charging Effects: Need to connect peak power plants Higher electricity prices Grid constraints
61 EVs and their interaction with the power system EVs can be also a smart load, defferring in a voluntary way their need for electricity. Its consumption can be controlled to charge when the marginal cost of production is lowest.
62 EVs and their interaction with the power system (Vehicle 2 grid) Ancillary Services In longer term, EVs can be used as distributed storage devices, feeding back the electricity stored in their batteries. This can help to reduce electricity system costs, providing: Regulation services. Spinning reserves. Peak-shaving capacity. There are still several technical, practical and economic barriers.
63 V2G Special bidirectional chargers are needed to charge the battery and also deliver power from vehicle to grid
64 Some numbers to understand V2G Assuming: US cars are used 1 hour/day and parked 23 h/day. Battery 24 kwh. Daily travel: 30 km Real consumption (Nissan Leaf): 6.43 km/kwh Storage unused: 19 kwh Power connection: US kw Europe kw Sources: SF EN.PDF, and
65 How much power are in cars? Denmark UK USA Light Vehicles (10 6 ) Vehicle GW kw each) ,865 Avg. Electric Load (GW) Total Generation capacity USA: 1000 GW Total Generation capacity vehicles: 3,000 GW 6x average load!
66 EVs aggregators The impact of a single EV on the power grid is negligible An aggregator need to emerge, where many EVs are pooled as a one unit. EV Aggregator System Operator
67 Electricity markets 3 rd part 23/10/2012
68 Electricity markets Electricity can be treated as a commodity that can be separated from transmission as a service and it can be bought, sold and traded in a special market, named electricity market. Producers submit supply bids and traders and larger consumers submit hourly demand bids for the 24 hours of the following day during the trading session. The financial market operator combines the production and consumption bids for each hour and finds the marginal price and volume.
69 Electricity market-day ahead gen 3 gen 1 gen 2 Price /MWh Demand BIDS Supply BIDS Ret 3 Ret 1 Ret 2 Final Price EV 1 EV 2 MWh EV 1 EV 2 EV 3 EV Aggregator EV 3 EV Aggregator
70 Vehicle as other generation plant Source: EVs = 1 MW VIRTUAL POWER PLANT concept EV Aggregator
71 EV Aggregators Load aggregators are not a new actor in the electricity market. They buy electrical energy in the market representing several customers. EV aggregators are more advanced: They can offer more services. They can offer more technical flexibility. The need to collect a large amount of information about drivers behaviour and electricity prices.
72 Electricity Market-Ancillary services Ancillary services are used to avoid short-term imbalances in electricty markets by dispatching resources within seconds or minutes. Different services: Spinning reserve: Extra online generation Meet system failures (loss of a transmission line, generator) 20 times a year, 10 min- 1 hour duration Regulation: Online generation to ensure steady system frequency 400 times a day, few minutes duration Source: Vehicle-to-Grid: Integrating Electric Drive Vehicles with the Power Grid
73 Electricity Market-Ancillary Services In both markets (spinning reserves and regulation reserve) the EV aggregator could present bids for having available: Capacity ( /MW) Additional payments for energy sold to the network ( /MWh)
74 Regulation Ancillary service Regulation is the continuous matching of supply with demand. Generation>Demand, system frequency Generation<Demand, system frequency Power plants provide regulation today, but they have slow response. Grid operator controls in real time the output of the power plant Source: Vehicle-to-Grid: Integrating Electric Drive Vehicles with the Power Grid
75 Regulation Ancillary service EVs could regulate the frequency error by sourcing or sinking power according to grid operator real time commands 50,000 to 100,000 connected EVs could perform all of California s regulation - with faster response than power plants Battery state of charge would be maintained above a driver-selected minimum level Regulation doesn t require net energy - just energy back and forth at the right time Source: Vehicle-to-Grid: Integrating Electric Drive Vehicles with the Power Grid
76 Regulation Ancillary Service Frequency Variation Error signal
77 Regulation Ancillary Services using EVs slow charge and regulation Drive Drive charge and regulation regulation regulation regulation
78 V2G help to reduce costs With V2G applications, generates two value streams: Transportation Drivers pays for use of battery for driving. Grid support Utilities pay for ancillary services Generators pay for buffering PV and wind Load pay for peak shaving
79 V2G Key aspects Aggregation Thousands of cars One entity to the grid (aggregator) Comunication and control Grig to aggregator to car Car to aggregator and car to driver Forecast Arrival/departure times, connection duration, trip duration, electricity prices
80 V2G Real applications Prof. Willett Kempton s pioneering work in V2G makes UDel the nexus of the Grid on Wheels Project - a business/academic collaboration Source: Electric Vehicles: Assets on the Grid
81 V2G Real Applications Grid on Wheels participate in PJM s hourahead reg-up and regdown markets. PJM: 164,000 MW peak 60 mil population 214,000 sq mi
82 V2G Real Applications University of Delaware (Prof. W. Kempton) EV Grid supply 15 MINI EV modifed for V2G and J1772, to operate in fleet service and provide grid regulation as part of Grid on Wheels.
83 Information needed by the EV aggregator PERSONAL INFO ID Minimum SoC when the car is disconnected OTHER INFO Total capacity of the battery Connection power Other restriction for the battery (maximum charging rate) Electricity prices EV Aggregator TEMPORAL INFO Departure time instant Arrival time instant SPATIAL INFO Traveled distance Connection location Transmission node location
84 Why mobility information is important for EV and SG? In order to present bids for buying and selling energy (and earn money!), EV aggegator must reduce the uncertainty in: Electricity market prices EV owner s behaviour and preferences The aggregator must associate the bid to a transmission network node, therefore it must produce this forecasts by each network node
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