Into the Future WIth e-mobility ZF ProDuCtS For hybrid AnD electric VehICleS

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1 Into the Future With e-mobility ZF PRODUCTS FOR HYBRID AND ELECTRIC VEHICLES

2 Contents Electric mobility page 4 a megatrend with potential Diversity in efficiency: page 6 electrification of the driveline New features thanks to e-mobility page 8 Electric Motor page 10 Hybrid module page 11 Hybrid Transmission page 12 48V Hybrid system page 13 Power Unit page 14 Electric vehilce drive page 15 ELECTRIC TWIST BEAM AXLE page 16 Modular electric rear axle concept page 17 INNOVATIVE AND FIT FOR THE FUTURE. Millions of people around the entire world are driving with car driveline technology from ZF today and in the future. The products are designed for efficiency and are simultaneously setting standards when it comes to comfort and driving dynamics. Vehicles equipped with ZF technology successfully walk the challenging line between the need to shape individual mobility while also doing everything possible to preserve the environment and resources. It is impossible to imagine automobiles of the future without ZF driveline technology because, with its modern and reliable components, ZF is also paving the way for many trends, such as electrification of the driveline. This culture of innovation as well as the ability to produce components of the highest quality has made ZF a valuable partner in the international automotive industry. The ZF Group page 18 Research and development page 19 To secure mobility 2 3

3 Electric mobility a megatrend with potential Electric drives are an important element required to make sustainable mobility concepts possible. In this context, ZF provides innovative systems and components. Already more than 100 years ago, engineers experimented with electric drives for the early automobiles. The fact that, in the end, a drive concept based on liquid fuel gained from fossil fuels established itself and is still in use today could soon prove to be only a phase in automotive history. The past decades have shown us the limits of fossil fuels: Global oil reserves will not be available indefinitely, emissions caused by traffic damage the climate and the environment. In this context, the demand for individual mobility which is still increasing fast, particularly in emerging industrialized nations or emerging markets, can hardly be fulfilled based on combustion engine drive concepts. Legislators are also starting to play an increasingly bigger role in this matter: Globally, the automotive industry has to respect ever stricter fleet consumption and emission limits. Therefore, alternative drive concepts for passenger cars are now and will be in high demand in the future and for many of them, electricity as a power source plays an important role: Hybrid electric vehicles combine the advantages of electric and combustion-engine drives. Pure electric vehicles are already in use without causing any local emissions and as soon as their batteries are charged with green electricity their overall carbon footprint will improve considerably. Fuel cell vehicles are also purely electrically driven. In this case, advantages in terms of range result from the required energy generated on the road based on hydrogen or methanol stored in tanks. ZF: Solutions from a single source In the context of this electrification megatrend, automotive manufacturers can rely on the technology company ZF. After all, ZF has been developing electric drives for vehicles for more than 25 years. In 2008, the company inaugurated the first industrial production facility for electric motors for hybrid electric vehicles in Europe. Today electric drive components from ZF offer solutions for almost any passenger car manufacturer concept, starting with the development and production of electric motors with different power output figures for use in parallel hybrid concepts. The product portfolio ranges from integrated 48V solutions with 15 kw which can be used in mild hybrid systems and already offer a large number of advantages of electric drives to powerful electric motors with up to 120 kw for plug-in hybrid transmissions. Automotive manufacturers appreciate ZF s expertise in offering complete hybrid modules in which the electric motor, a separating clutch, and torsional dampers which balance out rotational irregularities of the combustion engine are integrated in very limited space. ZF uses these hybrid modules in its own systems, for instance in the plug-in hybrid transmission based on the 8-speed automatic transmission. For pure electric vehicles ZF supplies weight-saving electric axle drives which take up little installation space. These include the electric motor, a two-stage spur gear drive, as well as the power electronics system in one package. Its high speed design makes the system particularly efficient. Customers who buy electric drive systems from ZF benefit from the Group s overall expertise. After all, ZF has valuable system know-how about the entire driveline, including its functional and structural integration into the automobile. The Group s expertise in the area of mechanics derived from its well-established driveline technology product portfolio is equally valuable to ZF customers. It includes topics as complex as the damping of torsional engine vibrations or efficient torque transmission. 4 5

4 Diversity in efficiency: electrification of the driveline overview of electrified drive configurations HEV Hybrid Electric Vehicles EV Electric Vehicles Nowadays, e-mobility covers a very broad range of drive system types for which ZF is optimally prepared today and in the future. rear-wheel drive Mild hybrid, parallel rear-wheel drive 48 V or high voltage Battery electric vehicle More cost-effectiveness and less or no emissions: This is the objective when it comes to implementing almost all electrified passenger car drives. This goal can be achieved in different ways. serial hybrid drives are integrated according to a different model: In most cases, the combustion engine drives a generator which supplies energy for one or more electric motors for the axle or wheel drive. Twice as powerful In hybrid electric vehicles or HEV, the conventional combustion engine is supported by at least one electric motor. Its respective capacity can be used for an initial classification: A micro hybrid can, for example, switch off the combustion engine in a stationary vehicle (start/stop) as well as recuperate braking energy to a limited extent but does not actively drive the vehicle. The latter is possible starting with the mild hybrid in which an electric motor for instance complements the gasoline or diesel engine via the boost mode; it can, however, not drive the car independently. This is possible in the full hybrid which, as a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV), can also be charged using any power outlet. It already tackles many everyday challenges purely electrically: A PHEV equipped with the ZF plug-in hybrid transmission even reaches speeds of up to 120 km/h and a range of up to 50 kilometers without generating any local emissions. As an alternative, HEVs can also be categorized based on the interplay between the conventional combustion engine and the electric motor: A hybrid in which both can influence the same driveline simultaneously and directly, as is the case for the mild hybrid or PHEV, is a parallel hybrid. And this is exactly the type of hybrid ZF focuses on for passenger cars. By contrast, the electric motors in Simply great Finally, in pure electric vehicles or EV, no combustion engine is installed at all. The energy for the electric motor or motors is either supplied by a battery, as is the case for battery electric vehicles or BEV; or a fuel cell on board generates the electric energy by means of a chemical reaction, as is the case for fuel-cell vehicles (fuel cell (electric) vehicle FC(E)V). ZF works intensively on electric vehicle innovations, particularly with its complete electric axle drive systems. Cost-effective at 48 V A more powerful on-board supply system in passenger cars had already been a topic in the automotive industry before hybrid vehicles were introduced: After all, electrics and electronics mean more and more consumers in the passenger car, taxing the classical 12 V network to the limits of its capacity. An additional 48 V on-board supply system is also a less costly step toward hybridization. A mild hybrid system based on 48 Volts already makes a large number of hybrid functions possible sailing, boost mode, recuperation, electric starting, crawling, as well as start/stop. Thanks to the low-voltage system, the electronic components can, however, be integrated in the vehicle at low cost. This results in fuel savings of 10 to 15 percent. Full hybrid with electric motor electric 4-wheel drive Overview of hybrid categories Hybrid categories Micro Mild 48V Full (HEV) Plug-in (PHEV) Main functions Mild hybrid, parallel 48 V or high voltage (Boost mode) (Recuperation) Serial hybrid or range extender Boost mode Recuperation (Electric maneuvering) Boost mode Recuperation Limited electric driving Sailing Fuel Cell Fuel-cell (electric) vehicle Boost mode Recuperation Electric driving Sailing Max. performance level 3-5 kw kw kw kw 6 7

5 New features thanks to e-mobility Functions of the hybrid system The electric drive starts the combustion engine and stops it comfortably if required. Recuperation Braking energy is converted into electric energy. Hybrid or pure electric drives offer a number of functions which make driving more efficient. Boost mode While starting or accelerating, the torque of the combustion engine is increased by the additional torque of the electric motor. Switching off the combustion engine whenever it is not required reduces consumption. This is above all the case when the vehicle is at a standstill. Today start/stop systems are therefore even integrated in vehicles without hybrid drive. Recuperation When the vehicle decelerates, the electric motor is used as a generator to convert the braking energy into electric energy and to charge the battery. Boost mode When full power is required in the hybrid vehicle, the electric motor supports the combustion engine. Advantage: For this reason, the latter can already be designed to be smaller and more fuel-efficient in hybrid vehicles keyword: downsizing. Electric driving As soon as electric motors drive the passenger car independently, no more emissions are caused locally while driving and hardly any noise is generated. These are huge advantages, not least in inner city areas where strict access restrictions for vehicles with conventional drives are becoming more and more common. Electric maneuvering Combustion engine vehicles consume a lot of fuel when starting from a standstill or maneuvering at walking speed. When the electric motor takes over this task, the vehicles use considerably less fuel. Sailing In driving situations requiring little power input, such as when driving at constant speed or slightly downhill, the combustion engine is switched off and the electric motor takes over vehicle propulsion if required. Electric driving / electric maneuvering The electric drive unit drives the vehicle independently. Sailing Switching off and decoupling the combustion engine while driving, for instance when letting the vehicle coast to a stop. If required, the engine is switched on again by a tap on the accelerator pedal. 8 9

6 ELECTRIC MOTOR HYBRID MODULE Specification Permanent-field synchronous machine (PSM) Unit Drive configuration Specification Permanent-field synchronous machine (PSM) Unit Drive configuration AL AL Outer diameter 280 mm Outer diameter 280 mm Active length 32 mm Active length 80 mm Axial length module approx. 150 mm Axial length module approx. 240 mm Voltage range Vdc Voltage range Vdc Max. power 55 kw Max. power 90 kw Max. torque 250 Nm Max. torque 400 Nm Max. speed 7,000 rpm Mild hybrid, parallel 48 V or high voltage Max. speed 7,000 rpm Max. torque separarting clutch 800 Nm rear-wheel drive Rotor position sensor Separating clutch Separating clutch actuation Rotor position sensor Separating clutch Interface to transmission Interface to transmission Interface to combustion engine Interface to combustion engine Separating clutch actuation 10 11

7 HYBRID TRANSMISSION 48V HYBRID SYSTEM Specification Permanent-field synchronous machine (PSM) Unit Drive configuration Specification Permanent-field synchronous machine (PSM) Unit Drive configuration IL IL Outer diameter 269 mm Outer diameter 292 mm Active length 70 mm Active length 51 mm Axial length module approx. 150 mm Axial length module approx. 145 mm Voltage range Vdc Voltage range Vdc Max. power 90 kw Max. power 15 kw Max. torque 250 Nm Max. torque 200 Nm Max. speed 7,000 rpm rear-wheel drive Max. speed 7,000 rpm Max. torque separating element (optional) 800 Nm Mild hybrid, parallel 48 V or high voltage Mild hybrid, parallel rear-wheel drive 48 V or high voltage Separating clutch Separating clutch Power unit incl. rotor position sensor Optional: torsional vibration damper Optional: separating element Interface to transmission Interface to combustion engine Interface to optional torsional vibration damper Power unit incl. rotor position sensor 12 13

8 POWER UNIT ELECTRIC VEHICLE DRIVE PRODUCT DETAILS Specification Power unit Unit Drive configuration Specification Asynchronous machine (ASM) Unit Drive configuration PUM evd2 Volume 8 l Max. voltage 440 Vdc Max. current 510 Arms Continuous current 240 Arms Dimensions incl. housing 450 x 510 x 380 mm Active length 150 mm Axial length module approx. 450 mm Voltage range Vdc Fuel Cell Safety level C ASIL Max. speed 7,000 rpm Fuel Cell Max. power 150 kw Max. torque at axle 3,500 Nm Max. speed 13,000 rpm Full hybrid with electric motor electric 4-wheel drive Battery electric vehicle Fuel-cell (electric) vehicle Two-stage spur gear drive Power unit Parking lock Differential Power unit Parking lock Two-stage spur gear drive Differential 14 15

9 ELECTRIC TWIST BEAM AXLE Modular electric rear axle concept Specification Permanent-field synchronous machine (PSM) Unit Drive configuration Dimensions incl. damper and top mount etb approx. 595 x 1500 x 250 (560) Active length 90 mm mm An electric drive system integrated into the axle According to the customers, supplying driveline and chassis technology from a single source has always been ZF s strength. This advantage also remains in times of e-mobility. For instance, ZF offers the electric drive integrated into a complete axle system. For ZF customers, this considerably reduces development costs because ZF handles the coordination of internal interfaces. PRODUCT DETAILS Drive configuration Voltage range Vdc Max. power 75 kw Max. torque at axle 1,400 Nm Max. speed 21,000 rpm Two-stage spur gear drive Aluminum housing Integrated mounting of damper & spring Twist-beam axle Full hybrid with electric motor electric 4-wheel drive Battery electric vehicle Fuel Cell Fuel-cell (electric) vehicle ZF develops, fine-tunes, and tests the axle including the electric drive, in accordance with the requirement specification. In the process, different axle types can be used depending on the application. For this purpose, ZF provides a modular rear axle concept which is based on essential customer requirements. Since ZF can implement its experience with passenger car axle systems in the process, the electric drive is integrated seamlessly and according to the requirements. Full hybrid with electric motor electric 4-wheel drive Battery electric vehicle Fuel Cell Fuel-cell (electric) vehicle 16 17

10 The ZF Group Research and development to secure mobility Innovations are not an end in themselves, they must pay off: For manufacturers, fleet owners, and drivers, but also for the environment and society. Each new development must prove itself among the conflicting priorities of these criteria. Shaping the future responsibly Our enthusiasm for innovative products and processes and our uncompromising pursuit of quality have made us a global leader in driveline and chassis as well as active and passive safety technology. We are contributing towards a sustainable future by producing advanced technology solutions with the goal of improving mobility, increasing the efficiency of our products and systems, and conserving resources. Our customers in the automotive and industrial sectors welcome our systematic orientation towards products and services which provide great customer value. Improvements in energy efficiency, cost-effectiveness, dynamics, safety, and comfort are key to our work. Simultaneously, we are aiming for continuous improvement in our business processes and the services we provide.as a globally active company, we react quickly and flexibly to changing regional market demands with the goal of always providing a competitive price/performance ratio. Our independence and financial security form the basis of our long-term business success. Our profitability enables us to make the necessary investments in new products, technologies, and markets and we thus secure the future of our company on behalf of our customers, market affiliates, employees, and ZF owners. Our tradition and values strengthen our managerial decisions. Together, they are both an obligation and an incentive to maintain a reliable and respectful relationship with customers, market affiliates, and employees. Our worldwide compliance organization ensures that locally applicable laws and regulations are adhered to. We accept our responsibility towards society and will protect the environment at all of our locations. Our employees worldwide recognize us as a fair employer, focusing on the future and offering attractive career prospects. We value the varied cultural backgrounds of our employees, their competencies, and their diligence and motivation. Their goal-oriented dedication to ZF, beyond the borders of their own field of work and location, shapes our company culture and is the key to our success. The ZF Group draws upon an international network of development centers. Each year, ZF invests approximately five percent of its sales in R&D. With success, because innovative products from ZF set the standards for state-of-the-art technology again and again. Development work at ZF is organized according to decentralized and corporate functions. The divisions and business units focus on markets and product expertise, ensuring customer-centered, competitive technological product development. Corporate R&D works with a strong emphasis on basic research and theory, and supports the operational development departments in the divisions. Groundbreaking innovations Over the past years, this partnership has produced product innovations that have since become benchmarks in the industry: Just some examples are the 8-speed automatic transmission for cars as well as hybrid transmissions and hybrid management for cars and commercial vehicles, or the modular TraXon transmission system for commercial vehicles. Groundbreaking innovations from ZF are in use today not just in passenger cars and commercial vehicles on the road, but also in all kinds of craft on the water and in the air. What s more, the innovative power of ZF is set to increase in the future. Proof of this is already provided by the number of patents pending: A look at the statistics of the German Patent and Trademark Register shows that ZF is among the top ten applicants for patents at eye level with many large automotive manufacturers. Each year, the research departments successfully complete more than projects, covering the full range from basic research to product applications. This high project volume is necessary to ensure mobility in the future. The trend toward hybrid solutions already shows that green drive technology is very complex. The same goes for pure electric drives and lightweight design engineering. Currently, ZF engineers are conducting pioneering work on alternative materials, broader approaches in design and testing, and new production processes

11 ZF Friedrichshafen AG Ernst-Sachs-Strasse 62 D Schweinfurt Germany Phone Fax twitter.com/zf_group facebook.com/zffriedrichshafen youtube.com/zffriedrichshafenag ZF Friedrichshafen AG - E-Mobility Cars Electric Drive Technology - 09/2015 (EN )

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