Current Projects: PARD HVA HEV Architectures

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1 PARD HVA HEV Architectures A Micro HEV uses a combined starter / alternator system, to enable the engine to be turned off when the vehicle stops (e.g. at traffic lights), and to restart the engine. The electric machine can also act as a generator allowing some of the energy normally lost as heat during braking to be recovered and used to power auxiliary loads. This is known as regenerative braking. If the electric machine is used to assist the engine during periods of acceleration this is a Mild HEV Micro/Mild Hybrid train A Full Parallel HEV is capable of driving on electric power, engine power or a combination of the two. Full Parallel Hybrid train TTR Hybrid train A TTR HEV has two separate powertrains, only connected by the vehicle s kinetic energy (Through-The- Road).

2 PARD HVA HEV Architectures A Series HEV uses the electric drive to drive the vehicle, and the engine to either charge the batteries or to directly power the electric machine(s). It is capable of regenerative braking. Series Hybrid train HEV Generator Combined Hybrid train Generator A Combined HEV is capable of operating as a series HEV or a parallel HEV. Input split Hybrid train An Input split HEV uses a planetary gearset to split the engine s power between an electrical path and a direct mechanical linkage to the wheels. PS A more complex derivative of this is the Compound Coupled split HEV, which uses two planetary gearsets, improving efficiency and packaging of smaller electric machines. Generator

3 PARD HVA Hybrid vehicle database Many Comparisons possible Number of models split Architecture Peak motor power (kw) Number of models Full Parallel Architecture Peak motor power (kw) Over 350 different vehicles including over 200 passenger cars (as of 31/01/06) Data recorded includes: Vehicle Manufacturer Component suppliers Hybrid Projects Database Manufacturer Daimler Chrysler Toyota Toyota Data sourced from suppliers, Internet, and literature survey Vehicle segment Current status Vehicle weight train architecture Component power ratings Electric drive voltages Geographical location of development Year of vehicle introduction Car Company Mitsubishi Subaru Lexus Name of Model ESR Elten RX 400h Date Introduced Architecture Series Combined Input split Vehicle Segment D B SUV Status Concept Prototype Commercial Timelines of HEV development easily demonstrated Cumulative number of new models Timeline of Commercially released HEVs Year of model introduction Testing Commercial

4 PARD HVA Hybrid Vehicle Model The screenshot below shows a Mild Parallel HEV configuration in the hybrid vehicle model. Release 1 of software is now available to suppliers. Drive Cycles (e.g. NEDC) Fuel Consumption (g/s) Gear Shifts (e.g. 5-spd) SoC (State-of-charge)

5 Some PARD HVA & HVI suppliers SCU (Supervisory Control Unit): : Transmission: Clutch: Demand: : :

6 Completed Projects: HERO (Hybrid-Electric Realised Off-road) The HERO project designed, built, developed and evaluated a parallel hybrid drivetrain and its control strategies for an offroad vehicle. DTI Link ForesightVehicle funded project WMG s Contribution VMU (Vehicle Management Unit) design for operation both on and off-road software design and rapid prototyping tool for the controller code generation for the VMU implementation on an embedded platform Partners Land Rover provided the vehicle platform a Wolf (the military-specification Land Rover Defender) Rover Group provided powertrain design and systems build MST supplied the electrical machines and drives DERA evaluated and tested the finished vehicle WMG

7 Completed Projects: RHOLAB (Reliable Highly Optimised PB-acid battery) The RHOLAB project developed a lead acid traction battery suitable for use in full hybrid electric passenger car vehicles. A new traction battery was designed, built and fitted into a Honda Insight, with the performance compared to that of a standard baseline battery. WMG s Contribution A new battery management system (BMS). Partners University of Sheffield Hawker Energy Provector European Advanced Lead Acid Consortium WMG

8 Completed Projects: Hylander (Hybrid Electric 4-wheel4 wheel-drive) Based on a 2.0l petrol Land Rover Discovery Electric 4-wheel drive Four individual electric motors and controller developed by Marconi Two operating modes: electric and hybrid Two prototype vehicles built Regenerative braking enabled Controlled by a Vehicle Management Unit (VMU) developed in-house (based on a Siemens C167CR microcontroller) Partners Land Rover WMG

9 Completed Projects: TETLEI (Turbine Electric Taxi for Low Environmental Impact) Funded by the European Commission, as a study of the feasibility of a low-emissions taxi Two main operating modes: Zero emissions vehicle (ZEV) and Hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) Series Hybrid architecture based on a Range Rover as proof of concept for a taxi Main Components: gas turbine genset, traction battery, electric motors Two 45kW electric motors (one on each axle) Regenerative braking enabled Tested at NTUA in Greece Partners Rover WMG Turboenergie OPRA Generator Renault Imperial College, London NTUA Series Hybrid train

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