ELECTRIFICATION OF VEHICLE DRIVE TRAIN THE DIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING CHALLENGES

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1 ELECTRIFICATION OF VEHICLE DRIVE TRAIN THE DIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING CHALLENGES A3PS Conference, Vienna Dr. Frank Beste AVL List GmbH 1

2 Motivation for Powertrain Electrification Global Megatrends: Urbanization and mobilization Environmental Care Demographic Challenge Motivation for Powertrain Electrification: Replacement of energy generated by an ICE by regenerative electric energy supplied by the electric network Maximising the recovery of braking energy during vehicle deceleration Reduction of power consumption of auxiliaries by strictly demand oriented operation Shifting of engine operation points towards map areas of best BSFC or lowest specific pollutant emissions Customer oriented new vehicle package concepts New vehicle functions (automatic parking, turning on the spot, ) 2

3 Hybrid Types and Functionalities 3

4 Base Elements of the Powertrain Battery IC Engine Flexibility Complexity & Risk small medium high Cost, Transmission Electric Motor Control Strategy 4

5 Base Elements of the Powertrain Fully Variable SI Engine + Man. Transmission Battery Flexibility Electric Vehicle + Range Extender Battery IC Engine Flexibility Transmission Transmission Electric Motor Electric Motor Control Strategy Control Strategy Standard IC Engine + Autom. Transm. Battery IC Engine Flexibility SI Powersplit Hybrid Battery IC Engine Flexibility Transmission Transmission Electric Motor Electric Motor Control Strategy Control Strategy 10

6 Base Elements of the Powertrain E- Motors Battery ICE Battery ICE E- Motors Battery Electric Motor Internal Combustion Engine 11

7 Powertrain Electrification Challenges Typically non linear optimization task Often there is no single optimum Optimization methodology, development, production, operation boundaries and recycling bias the technical solutions Changing cost structure of electric components will redirect the technical solutions Legal requirements might influence the size of energy storage units 12

8 Demonstrator AVL electric vehicle Plug-in vehicle demonstrator designed for mega-city driving AVL Range Extender System for at least 250km driving range No passenger compartment restrictions Acceptable cost of energy storage system Competitive driving performance No performance restrictions with Range-Extender operation 15

9 Distribution of Daily Driving Distances in Germany 9% 8% 45% of vehicles do not exceed 30 km and account for 20% of total driving 7% 6% >70% of vehicles do not exceed 50 km (50% of annual mileage) 5% 4% 3% City Vehicle (EV) City Vehicle (EV) + RE 2% 1% All Purpose Vehicle 0% Drive Distance [km] 2,50 27,50 52,50 77,50 102,50 127,50 Reference: IVT, [km] 16

10 Battery Cost Comparison Battery Costs - based on energy consumption of 20 kwh / 100km AER = All Electric Range Saving AER pure EV 500 / kwh AER with RE 250 / kwh RE Cost RE Cost Saving Total Range with RE Range [km] >

11 AVL PURE RANGE EXTENDER Energy Reserve - Recharging Strategy 100 % State Of Charge Energy Reserve If RE starts here: performance according to max. configuration performance of E-Drive Technical Minimum Run time If RE starts here: RE performance according to E-Drive 18

12 AVL PURE RANGE EXTENDER System Targets 1. NVH, Comfort 2. Reliability 3. Package and Weight 4. Costs 5. Performance / Efficiency 19

13 Concept Study: Direct Drive 20

14 AVL PURE RANGE EXTENDER Core Module with Rotary Engine 21

15 AVL PURE RANGE EXTENDER Key Specifications Rotary Engine Engine configuration: Single disk rotary engine Displacement : 254 cc Power: rpm Fuel consumption: 260 g/kwh Generator concept: Permanent magnet synchronous machine Thermal management: Single circuit liquid cooling Controller: AVL rapid prototyping control unit Software: Module embedded SW and CAN interface Electric output: V (12 kw above 250 V) Max. performance scaling potential: up to 36 kw electric output (= 240%) 1m averaged sound pressure: 65 dba System box dimension (L x H x W): 490 mm x 400 mm x 980 mm Engine generator unit weight: 29 kg Module weight: 65 kg 22

16 AVL PURE RANGE EXTENDER Performance Scalability of Core Module 23

17 AVL PURE RANGE EXTENDER System Integration 29

18 AVL PURE RANGE EXTENDER Acoustic Optimization 65dB(A) 92dB(A) 65dB(A) 30

19 AVL PURE RANGE EXTENDER Vehicle Integration Range Extender integrated in vehicle back AVL Pure Range Extender Battery system in front of rear axle and in middle tunnel 75kW traction motor in vehicle front: - acceleration 0 60km/h: 6sec - top speed 130km/h Traction Motor High Voltage Li-Ion Battery 31

20 AVL BATTERY DEVELOPMENT Development Content Optimized, reliable and fully integrated battery system development to maximize vehicle fuel economy potential: BATTERY DESIGN AND SIMULATION Requirement development Design and integration of battery system Function and software development BATTERY INTEGRATION Robustness and safety Testing and validation AVL ELECTRIC VEHICLE with Range Extender Battery benchmarking BATTERY FUNCTION AND SOFTWARE BATTERY TESTING AND VALIDATION 32

21 Simulation Approach AVL REQUIREMENT ENGINEERING & SIMULATION From Cell-Level to Battery-Pack Simulation A key discipline within the requirement engineering process Input General material properties Cell performance specification Cell geometry Cell charge / discharge characteristics Vehicle simulation (AVL-CRUISE ) E-motor_mech_power <W> Velocity <m/s> Thermal-electric cell characterization Empirical Cell Model Thermal-Electric FE - Analysis Thermal performance analysis of battery modules Current and temperature distribution Identification of hot spots Definition of cooling requirements 30 Battery thermal management simulation (FLOWMASTER) Power [kw] Velocity [m/s] AC-Circuit Battery Circuit -10 Determination of load pattern Optimization of hybrid-/ electric-control strategy -20 Time [s] -20 Improved thermal management strategy Improved battery cooling system Improved battery performance and lifetime 33

22 WITH RANGE EXTENDER 36

23 Contact Dr. Frank Beste AVL List GmbH Address: Hans-List-Pl. 1 A-8020 Graz Tel: Fax: web:

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