Analysis of fuel cell

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1 Analysis of fuel cell commuter rail vehicles Stuart Hillmansen*1 1, D Meegahawatte1, C Roberts, P Jennings2, A McGordon2; 1University of Birmingham, United Kingdom, 2University of Warwick, United Kingdom ac ac

2 Contents Bi Brief fbackground on potential ti luk rail market tfor fuel cells vehicles Overview of railway a traction systemsstems Fuel cell battery hybrid analysis including control strategy Results Summary

3 Scope for novel lforms of traction Total of about 2000 vehicles in UK are low/medium power diesel multiple units Pacers will be out of service by 2018 (ish) Other Diesel Multiple Units (150, 158 and 165) due to retire between 2020 and 2030 Novel forms of traction may be applied to those routes where electrification is not cost effective, and are lightly used Small market Uncertain diesel fuel future

4 Birmingham routes

5

6

7 Typical railway applications for fuel cells Also note stationary applications UPS Stations Signalling systemsstems

8 Options for alternative traction power Energy storage On board hybrids and EMUs Wayside Other prime movers Fuel cell

9 Options for energy storage 1 Onboard storage Diesel electric multiple units Diesel multiple units Locomotives Shunting locomotives Electric multiple units

10 Options for energy storage 2 Wayside storage (fixed installations) DC railways Load levelling Regeneration capture and reuse AC railways not such an important issue

11 hybrid potential distance km speed limit m/s 60

12 Conventional DEMU Diesel engine G V DC M Inverter Brake chopper Brake resistor bank

13 Hybrid DEMU Diesel engine G V DC M Inverter DC/DC converter Energy storage device

14 Hybrid Fuel Cell EMU Fuel cell V DC M Inverter DC/DC converter

15 Hybrid study in collaboration with University of Warwick HST hybrid 8-16% saving (depending on route) DMU saving up to 26% saving (depending on route) See for full reports ncept_final_5.pdf il_report_dmu_v1.pdf pdf

16 Fuel Cell Vehicle Modelling Snow Hill Line Stratford Upon Avon to Birmingham Moore Street (and back) Class 150 (two car) 374kW of power at wheels (max)

17 Measured vs Simulated Journey

18 Hybrid Drivetrain Model

19 Supervisory Control Strategies Load Levelling Control Strategy Primary power for propulsion is supplied by the fuel cell system. Battery pack is used to supplement the peak power demand and absorb braking energy. Ti Trickle Charge Control lstrategyt Battery pack provides the primary power for the vehicle propulsion p while absorbing the braking energy. Fuel cell stack operates at its optimum efficiency point when the hybrid energy drive is accelerating, maintaining vehicle speed or stationary (e.g, idling at station). When decelerating fuel cell stack is switched off.

20 Component models Power Flow Model PEM Fuel Cell Static Model of a 30kWh battery pack 300V) Connected in parallel for higher capacities

21 Results CS Load Levelling

22 Results CS Trickle Charge

23 Fuel cell train results (80km Journey) Pure fuel cell: 38 kg Hydrogen Fuel cell hybrid: 27 kg Hydrogen Pure diesel 102 litres Hybrid diesel 82 litres

24 Summary Energy storage and novel forms of traction (Fuel Cells) are being seriously considered for some parts of the railway for traction, APU and Lineside Much of the technology, skills and techniques already exist within the industry to deploy this technology Prototype trials are expensive other railways have demonstrated fuel cells at great cost without further implementation plans Rail vehicles have a very long life issue over replacing diesel stock in Local emissions a driver for change

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