#  At the time of purchase of a Strontium-90 source, the activity is Bq.

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1 1 Strontium-90 decays with the emission of a β-particle to form Yttrium-90. The reaction is represented by the equation The decay constant is year Sr Y + e MeV. (a) Suggest, with a reason, which nucleus, Sr or Y, has the greater binding energy  (b) Explain what is meant by the decay constant....  (c) At the time of purchase of a Strontium-90 source, the activity is Bq. (i) Calculate, for this sample of strontium, 1. the initial number of atoms, number =.  2. the initial mass. mass =. kg 

2 2 (ii) Determine the activity A of the sample 5.0 years after purchase, expressing the A answer as a fraction of the initial activity A 0. That is, calculate the ratio. A 0 ratio =.. 

3 3 2 Fig. 8.1 shows the variation with nucleon number of the binding energy per nucleon of a nucleus. binding energy per nucleon 0 0 nucleon number Fig. 8.1 (a) (b) On Fig. 8.1, mark with the letter S the position of the nucleus with the greatest stability.  One possible fission reaction is U n Ba Kr n. (i) On Fig. 8.1, mark possible positions for 1. the Uranium-235 ( U) nucleus (label this position U), 2. the Krypton-90 ( 90 36Kr) nucleus (label this position Kr).  (ii) The binding energy per nucleon of each nucleus is as follows U: J Ba: J Kr: J

4 4 Use these data to calculate 1. the energy release in this fission reaction (give your answer to three significant figures), 2. the mass equivalent of this energy. energy =... J  mass =... kg  (iii) Suggest why the neutrons were not included in your calculation in (ii) 

5 5 3 The isotope Manganese-56 decays and undergoes β-particle emission to form the stable isotope Iron-56. The half-life for this decay is 2.6 hours. Initially, at time t = 0, a sample of Manganese-56 has a mass of 1.4 µg and there is no Iron-56. (a) Complete Fig. 7.1 to show the variation with time t of the mass of Iron-56 in the sample for time t = 0 to time t = 11 hours. mass of Iron Fig. 7.1 t / hours  (b) For the sample of Manganese-56, determine (i) the initial number of Manganese-56 atoms in the sample, number =... (ii) the initial activity. activity =... Bq 

6 6 (c) Determine the time at which the ratio mass of Iron-56 mass of Manganese-56 is equal to 9.0. time =... hours 

7 7 5 (a) Define the decay constant of a radioactive isotope....  (b) Strontium-90 is a radioactive isotope having a half-life of 28.0 years. Strontium-90 has a density of 2.54 g cm 3. A sample of Strontium-90 has an activity of Bq. Calculate (i) the decay constant λ, in s 1, of Strontium-90, λ =. s 1  (ii) the mass of Strontium-90 in the sample, mass =. g 

8 8 (iii) the volume of the sample. volume =. cm 3  (c) By reference to your answer in (b)(iii), suggest why dust that has been contaminated with Strontium-90 presents a serious health hazard.... 

9 6 (a) Define the term radioactive decay constant.... (b) State the relation between the activity A of a sample of a radioactive isotope containing N atoms and the decay constant λ of the isotope.... (c) Radon is a radioactive gas with half-life 56 s. For health reasons, the maximum permissible level of radon in air in a building is set at 1 radon atom for every molecules of air. 1 mol of air in the building is contained in m 3. 9 Calculate, for this building, (i) the number of molecules of air in 1.0 m 3, number =... (ii) the maximum permissible number of radon atoms in 1.0 m 3 of air, number =...

10 10 (iii) the maximum permissible activity of radon per cubic metre of air. activity =... Bq 

11 7 Fig. 7.1 illustrates the variation with nucleon number A of the binding energy per nucleon E of nuclei. E A Fig. 7.1 (a) (i) Explain what is meant by the binding energy of a nucleus  (ii) On Fig. 7.1, mark with the letter S the region of the graph representing nuclei having the greatest stability.  (b) Uranium-235 may undergo fission when bombarded by a neutron to produce Xenon-142 and Strontium-90 as shown below U + n Xe + Sr + neutrons (i) Determine the number of neutrons produced in this fission reaction. number =.. 

12 12 (ii) Data for binding energies per nucleon are given in Fig isotope Uranium-235 Xenon-142 Strontium-90 binding energy per nucleon / MeV Fig. 7.2 Calculate 1. the energy, in MeV, released in this fission reaction, 2. the mass equivalent of this energy. energy = MeV  mass =... kg 

13 13 8 Uranium-234 is radioactive and emits α-particles at what appears to be a constant rate. A sample of Uranium-234 of mass 2.65 µg is found to have an activity of 604 Bq. (a) Calculate, for this sample of Uranium-234, (i) the number of nuclei, number =  (ii) the decay constant, decay constant = s 1  (iii) the half-life in years. half-life = years 

14 14 (b) Suggest why the activity of the Uranium-234 appears to be constant....  (c) Suggest why a measurement of the mass and the activity of a radioactive isotope is not an accurate means of determining its half-life if the half-life is approximately one hour.... 

15 15 8 (a) Explain what is meant by the binding energy of a nucleus.... (b) Fig. 7.1 shows the variation with nucleon number (mass number) A of the binding energy per nucleon E B of nuclei. E B 0 0 A Fig. 7.1 One particular fission reaction may be represented by the nuclear equation U n Ba Kr n. (i) (ii) On Fig. 7.1, label the approximate positions of 1. the uranium ( 235 U) nucleus with the symbol U, the barium ( 141 Ba) nucleus with the symbol Ba, the krypton ( 92 Kr) nucleus with the symbol Kr.  36 The neutron that is absorbed by the uranium nucleus has very little kinetic energy. Explain why this fission reaction is energetically possible 

16 (c) Barium-141 has a half-life of 18 minutes. The half-life of Krypton-92 is 3.0 s. In the fission reaction of a mass of Uranium-235, equal numbers of barium and krypton nuclei are produced. Estimate the time taken after the fission of the sample of uranium for the ratio to be approximately equal to 8. number of Barium-141 nuclei number of Krypton-92 nuclei 16 time =... s 

17 17 9 A positron ( +1 0 e ) is a particle that has the same mass as an electron and has a charge of C. A positron will interact with an electron to form two γ-ray photons. 0 +1e + 1e 0 2 γ Assuming that the kinetic energy of the positron and the electron is negligible when they interact, (a) suggest why the two photons will move off in opposite directions with equal energies,... (b) calculate the energy, in MeV, of one of the γ-ray photons. energy =... MeV 

18 18 10 An α-particle ( 4 2He) is moving directly towards a stationary gold nucleus ( Au). The α-particle and the gold nucleus may be considered to be solid spheres with the charge and mass concentrated at the centre of each sphere. When the two spheres are just touching, the separation of their centres is 9.6 x m. (a) The α-particle and the gold nucleus may be assumed to be an isolated system. Calculate, for the α-particle just in contact with the gold nucleus, (i) its gravitational potential energy, gravitational potential energy =... J  (ii) its electric potential energy. electric potential energy =... J  (b) (c) Using your answers in (a), suggest why, when making calculations based on an α-particle scattering experiment, gravitational effects are not considered.... In the α-particle scattering experiment conducted in 1913, the maximum kinetic energy of the available α-particles was about 6 MeV. Suggest why, in this experiment, the radius of the target nucleus could not be determined....

19 19 11 Two deuterium ( 2 1H) nuclei are travelling directly towards one another. When their separation is large compared with their diameters, they each have speed v as illustrated in Fig v v deuterium nucleus deuterium nucleus Fig. 5.1 The diameter of a deuterium nucleus is m. (a) Use energy considerations to show that the initial speed v of the deuterium nuclei must be approximately m s 1 in order that they may come into contact. Explain your working. (b) For a fusion reaction to occur, the deuterium nuclei must come into contact. Assuming that deuterium behaves as an ideal gas, deduce a value for the temperature of the deuterium such that the nuclei have an r.m.s. speed equal to the speed calculated in (a).  (c) Comment on your answer to (b). temperature =... K ...

20 12 An α-particle and a β-particle are both travelling along the same path at a speed of ms 1. They then enter a region of uniform magnetic field as shown in Fig cm path of α-particle and of β-particle 1.0 cm region of magnetic field into plane of paper Fig. 5.1 The magnetic field is normal to the path of the particles and is into the plane of the paper. (a) Show that, for a particle of mass m and charge q travelling at speed v normal to a magnetic field of flux density B, the radius r of its path in the field is given by mv r =. Bq 

21 21 (b) Calculate the ratio radius of path of the α-particle. radius of path of the β-particle ratio =.  (c) The magnetic field has flux density 1.2 mt. Calculate the radius of the path of (i) the α-particle, radius =.. m (ii) the β-particle. (d) radius =... m  The magnetic field extends over a region having a square cross-section of side 1.0 cm (see Fig. 5.1). Both particles emerge from the region of the field. On Fig. 5.1, (i) (ii) mark with the letter A the position where the emergent α-particle may be detected, mark with the letter B the position where the emergent β-particle may be detected. 

22 22 13 The isotopes Radium-224 ( Ra) and Radium-226 (226 88Ra) both undergo spontaneous α-particle decay. The energy of the α-particles emitted from Radium-224 is 5.68 MeV and from Radium-226, 4.78 MeV. (a) (i) State what is meant by the decay constant of a radioactive nucleus  (ii) Suggest, with a reason, which of the two isotopes has the larger decay constant  (b) Radium-224 has a half-life of 3.6 days. (i) Calculate the decay constant of Radium-224, stating the unit in which it is measured. decay constant =... (ii) Determine the activity of a sample of Radium-224 of mass 2.24 mg. activity =... Bq 

23 23 (c) Calculate the number of half-lives that must elapse before the activity of a sample of a radioactive isotope is reduced to one tenth of its initial value. number of half-lives =...

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