THE SOUTHERN COU VO L. I, N O. 23

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1 / Did My Duty, Sys Prosecutor BY EDWARD M. RUDD "I feel llke I did my duty," he told m. "I SE LMA - - h nd s wh i te h ire d jur y for e m n shook so bd ly s h e r e d cquitt l s o f th r e e defe nd nts th t he lmost to r e th e v e r d ic ts up. As fo re m n B il l Vughn sputter ed o ut l s t "no t guilty," he sounded s tbouch be were condemning three men t o die, insted settldc m t ree. And 80 WllUm stnley Hoggle, Nmon ONel Hoggle Elmer Cook were clered lst Fridy ot murder UK cn go to bed tonight sleep not worry bout this cse ny more. This is your time." But lmost Immeditely fter Jury brought three McLeod lter struck two men tht Judge Moore would ness refused to testify becuse he fced federl chries But Hrry Vrdmn Selm competent. rd McLeod, bddooe ir duty. So, perhps, hd jury. cquittls, Albm Attorney Generl Richmond Flowers cme bck with guilty verdict on Dlls County JusUce. "Filure or refusl citizens our stte to hce ir respocslbul ties s publ1c ficils jurors se Isolted res is certin to bring federl legisltion," Flowers sld. "I only hope whtever form leglslt10n tkes, jt will fense ttorney Joe Pilcher combined to strike ll 13 Ne ll-white jury selected lter McLeod de groes on jury list. On orders-trom Flowers, McLeod sked prospective tril tor tour dys long jurors wher y thought white clvll rights workers who hls flnlrgument to jury, prosecutor Virgts :Ash worth mde It cler he leving cse jurors Only three men sld y did, Circuit Judge L. S. to know y hd been 011 with defendnts. lps. He not excluded, becuse he lso sid he would con y could not IdentifY or two defendnts, however, y could not sy who ctully struck ttl blow. A white witress from Silver Moon Cfe put de fendnts t scene crime t time It hppened. demonstrtions Selm. seemed tht." Vict defendnts if ir guilt proved bpyond re only ffect res which re gullty bringing it bou!." As vughn nnounced not-guilty verdicts, he or U white men on jury hung ir heds. y 01\ Perhps Ashworth his boss, Circuit Solicitor Blnch Rev. Jmes Reeb. y were ccused betldg whlte Unltrln minister to deth lst Mrch 9 during c1vll rights with m nlggers, I wtll not sy tht I m on n equl bsis with him, I st Reeb Tril te slept Negro homes were "low persons." Moore dismissed only ooe three. One jury prospect sld,.. U,mn goes low plces sonble doubt. not excuse. one c:j 12 jurors selected to try cse. He turned out to be bror witness for detense. Vrdmn cused dely in tril on third dy, when he clled into fmily conference with his wife son. cse held up whlle tmlly discussed foot bll scholrship fered to Vrdmns son, Wyne. Before testimony begn, McLeod told newsmen stle didnt hve " very strong cse." circuit solicitor, who sllfrered stroke lst spring, n retired to side After tht, however, Ashworths cse fell prt. One wit Mr. Reebs deth, Anor witness ruled mentl1;, in A third would not come bck from MisslsFippl to testify. As soon s Ashworth ended his cse, Pilcher :liiked thl judge to dismiss chrges becuse stte hdnt IIrovp,u nything. Judge Moore refused, defense ot Albm House, st bck his chir, brooding. lie seemed to tke Pllchers dismissl rguments s n sult. n he begn ttcking pilchers witnesses with rel e nthusism. One defense witness, white mn, sid he hd "begged" mbulnce drivers to get Mr.Reeb to bospltl. Ashworth lines let Ashworth hle prosecution. chllenged him with question: Mr. Reebs compnions on night his deth positively werent you?" bre bodes t murder cse were re. Two ot Identified Cook s mn who ttcked m. "You weretter tht mbulnce becusetwht It, (CONTINUED ON PAGEFIVE) THE SOUTHERN COU W e e ke nd E d i ti o n: D e c em be r VO L. I, N O. 23 Negroes Her King- n y Go Home 18-19, 1965 Very It... M()N T GO M E R Y - - "R e mi nd s y o u o ld ti m e s, doesn t it?" s i d M soni c led e r R. D. N e sbitt s he loo ked r ound t c ro wd Sund y in th e Mo ntgo mery L UV E RN E -- T h i s li ttle to wn, with ti,e ple l:lnt s o und i ng n m e c lls its e lf " T h e Fr iend li e stci ty in 1,500 people in uditorium murmured greement. y hd gred to S o u th." B u t Luve r ne i s p lc e wh e r e c iv i l r igh ts c tivitie s observe tenth nniversry t Montgomery bus boycott, t Montgom re s im me r i ng, nd so m e ti m e s th t ke e ps.thi ngslro m s t y i ng too f r i e ndly. hd come home. Rev. Mrtin Lur King It.e Rev. Rlph D. Abernthy, first two " (white) people bere re md s hell bout thls," deputy sheriff sld presidents t MIA now top fi c ils t SCLC Atlnt, hd come bck Mondy. As he spoke, 90 Negroes were stging sit-down on curb heblde to city where y becme leders. Crenshw County Courthouse. y clpped ir hs, sng freedom songs y reminisced bout old dys, crried signs deming better Jobs, higher py n end to segregted JusUce. "How mny times we st ln Flrst stright to white folks." "Just let m get to needing something," wy people do t reunions. Bptist Church o r Holt Street Church hve to sk white people for nything." To one mrcher, 36-yer-old Jmes R. Allen, crpenter, problem thy. "You remember those dys. Simple: choir used to sing A Gret Dy Is Com log If "I get $1.25 n hour for work white mn gets pld $3 for doing. If I cn red rule s good s whlte mn, why shouldnt I get sme py? It just Dr. King sld," A visitor to Montgom gted ll res life." "Here we re ten yers lter," he ABERNATHY sid, "We wtched sgging wlls bus segregtion ffnlly crumble. Mont- gomery is difterent city tody. Albm is dltferent stte. Even Gov. Wllce lst Dlght led n tegrted-prde MODtgomery." (Both white Negro hlghschool bshd mrched Sturdy nights down- town Christms prde.) But s Dr. K1ng spoke, he mde It cler he took meeting more seriously thn fmily reunlod: "IIs blsphemy to hve tht voting bul not go ll out get every Negro VOting ge reglstered." "We must elect Negro legisltors stte Albm," sid Dr. Kg. "And weve got to get bllot, to free mny t white polluclns who relly wnt to do whts rlgbt but dont hve courge becuse y dont think y hve votes." But Dr. King wnted his home folk to thlnk beyond Montgomery, beyond Al bm. He wnted m to be concerned with world in which he hs become prominent figure. He tlked bout thret nucler wr. "Weve developed method bere," he sid, " world nejds It now. Weve got to sy to world, Eir non violence or nonexistence... U we dont concern ourselves with disrmment with strengning U.N., sld Dr. King, "we my be plunged to n inferno tht even mind Dnte White Merchnt Asks Wht To Do Some Negroes felt n tht pressure BY EDWARD M. RUDD SELMA--A downtown boycott hs be from Civil rights groups federl. government hd dded more new voters m. Except for two months thls fll, press relese nnouncing end Drem" speech. boycott, Rev. F. D. Reese, mny lso think tht lumping m ll mic siege since lst Jnury. nces hving to do with job socil on both sides issues. Christms. ction, from DCYL to downtown son my bring with It selective buy ed by boycott pressure. ot Selm hs never seen." find out wht Yre doing," sid Mr. November, Mr. Reese clled for new Merchnts Assocition. "Were going white Selm merchnts under n econo, first "selective buying cm plgn" clled nerly yer go to speed up voter registrtion. At beglmlng tseptember--fter nerly 7,000 new Negro voters hd been registered, just tter federl exm ers hd come to town-- DCVL clled boycott, "s n ct good flth." president DCVL, sid ten griev discrimintion hd to be relieved by If not, he sid, "Christms se g progrm, likes which City specil mss meeting erly in boycott people t meeting SIS1 ghettoes North, he sld, "Ive wtched my drems be shttered." "But spite nightmre," Dr. King sid, "I still hve drem, tht right down Crdle ci. tbe Confedercy, little whit" little blck ch11dren will l1ve s brors sisters. "I hve drem tht sons tormer slves sons former slveowners w1l1 sit down City Council toger "I still hve drem." As soon s Dr. King finished his speech, most udience got up to leve, sted witing for end progrm. y hd herd wht y cme to her. ir fvorite son hd come home to tlk to his people. But he busy mn now. He couldnt sty long. And so y would go home now,, like fond prents, follow his trvels his honors begin to look forwrd to his next visit. BY DAVID R. UNDERHILL MOBILE--Leflets re out gin Moblle--thls time Plteu-Mg zine Point section town. Lte lst summer, mysterious, vio lent leflets begn ppering Mo biles Tr1n1 ty Grdens section suburb Prichrd. Four different sets lellets were distributed by night two-month period. NOW, Similr leflet hs been dis tributed Plteu Mgzine Point. Residents est1mte tht t lest 1,000 copies It were left on porches mu boxes. new leflet seems to come from sme source s ors. Mny oi phrses rguments re similr. So Is mixture fct fiction. leflet begins, "From: Mobile County Trining School Student Council & FLP," Mobile County Trining School Is Negro high school in re. Immedi tely fter leflet ppered, stu dent council Its fculty dvisors de nied ny connection with leflet. No one seems to know wht "FLP" sts for. leflet blsts conditions t tring school. It lso ttcks "Uncle fctories. n leflet sys, "Be prepred, Its coming to Plteu Mgzine unequl opportunities in jobs, APprently no new lines com munl E. L. Hubbrd, store owner in Pl Reese, J. C. Rolph, nor locl leder, "Weve been workin ll long Plns for new buudlngs t school were begun erly 163. But y hd to be drsticlly revised twice becuse mjor popultion chnges, ccording to school ficils. current plns re bout hif fln Ished, but now sewge disposl for ket, hs 35 Negroes four whites be Yet It Is cluded boycott. "Ive been prcticing wht Mr. Reese Is preching for 20 yers," sid He sid combintion boycott "I wul continue to conduct my busi ness sme wy, s long s business just1t1es It," he sid... But I cnt go complying with him U he would give me reson, I wouldnt feel Mr. Reese sid Lovo) boycotted becuse he could fluence or mer chnts to tollow his exmple. "Its not enough to be good yourself," some ors to be good long with you." fluence or white merchnts. "y think Im one ol big dogs this rcil bit," he complined. "Bllt or merchnts wont listen to me. been cooperting with SC I.e 11\ heding demonstrt1ons Alton Turner, stte representtin from Crenshw County, sid dem onstrtors "re just bunch kids tht nybody could get stirred up bout nything. No respectble, lw-biding Negro would be cught ded with sp rbble rousers," he sle!. lny Negroes replied tht "Iespect ble, lw-biding Negroes" re Just sc red oc losing ir jobs. Lw ficers, city ficils whitt wen. on county Ju n rolls mi tht \ottr.. Actully, Im right between- confide in me." NO C!IlIRI ER!rlntenticnt schools, estimted tht EHN COlTJ!lEIl will bl Iubli"hld thp for destroying white businesses t!l1iber, th! new buildings will be red} by Spp hs neir side hs enough confidence to refers to Los Angel!s riots lst summer. It clls rioters "hero!s" Jmes Kolb, 66, hed Cren shw County Dlmocrtic Conference, side tence. To m, Im sitting on or be published ntxt \wlkliili, Dec. :!G- John H. Montgomery, ssistnt SIlP courthouse Mondy, fter week try ing. citizens disgreed shrply lth thl Ne groes. "ThEres Just no C:lUSt Cor wher! school Is locted. Llk! erlier leflets, n(w one JAMES KOLB grm hs put serious dent in his busi ness. increse in bus fres. re no sewers in Plteu, Demonstrtors finlly reched hind Its counters csh registers. new building Is cusing problems. re tht lrge deprtment store supermr Lvoy sid he no posl Uon to s fst s we cn." store on DCVL list. Lovoys, But J. W. Luquire Jr., director district, disgreed: Richburg, Richburg hd tken prt civil rights And t lest two Negro wrds hve sid Mr. Reese. "You ought to try to get plnning construction for school rel reson for firing, sid objected to boycotting one white-owned greed. And R. A. Holt, principl school, dmitted, "It might serve s motivtionl torce." principl school. tive." bitter." Hubbrd sid. burg, who dismissed lst mooth 011 chrges thretening to kill to try to mke boycott more euec ortlclls seem more concerned.bout strted quickly, y sld y were protesting firing biology techer, H. J. Rich speking white Retil broke getting construction Negro high school nerby Hell con, "Were not running round trying to new school tor better thn 10 yers." Since leflets cme out, school not yet. y were students boycotttni merchnts to City Hll, hve been open supported leflets. Mny m hve denounced It, but few believe teu, sid, "y been promlsln us tnrchers, however, ctlv1t1es. countys free surplus food pro tht It might do some good, even though under one boycott hs contused people owner, Brce Lvoy. y dont ILke It. Most didnt shre Allens problem--t lest students Point soon." No reeognlzed, Negro leders hve we prt... housing, school re well tken. But Tom Negro prechers," two lrge pper mills re recent C1H )WII A lii.au/l1; 1)/(. KINGI; 1;11;1-;(;11 All Negroes gree tht grievnces Dlls County Voters Legue hs hd On Porches Mobile Wshington for Jobs Freedom, where he delivered hls tmous "I Hve Selm hs seen better boycotts. bout wtched my drem turn into nightmre," he sld. Delt Mis voted to hve It. thn boycott. come n lmost dlly fct life in Sel Le flets Agin Apper Dr. King returned closer to home t end Im going to keep on mrching till I get justice or illl deth do Anor Negro Boycott in Sehn; his tlk. He reclled Mrch on could not Imgine."..l e int right, CONFRONTATION IN LUVERNE ery before boycott wouwlhve found community r1g1dly firmly segre deputy sld, " yll go A civil rights worker nswered, "u Negroes hd ir rights, y wouldnt filled It from bottom to top run ning to- streets," sid Mr. A :rrn THE REV. RALPH Friendly BY SCOTT DE GARMO City Audltorlum. SOIlS TE N CENTS Negroes Dont Think Luverne Is BY GAIL FALK ery Improvement Assocition (MIA). It like fmily reunion, fvorite befu,. Ashworth, rugged-looking, red-fced former spelpr Becuse Christms holid}, this," sid onl. y sid Nlgroes rlgistrtion hd goi\t smoothly. (Tht JustlCl Deprtment hs not sent (Iderl ex3jl1ln!rs illto ("rlnshw county.) ) lso polnttd o u t tht Negroes could prlsent ir grle\ll(" TO till 1111 SOUll1EHN COUHIF:H will not CIt) 2G. IIPxl isslil TilE SOllTII ;\Tld Ihl tht sullrintlndlnl o( llhlltlon welkllid Jil. I-:!, l!llili. c ou nd l, tht form.. rl) white Lu \Irnl IIl[:h School h d lok"ll illttrlioll TIl"t r"lilr" with t[:ro e!.. Itt;tion. (lllntinltfll ON PAGE TWO)

2 PAOE TWO II THE SOUTHERN COURIER Roon. 622, rdnk I.fU Ruildinft Montlomt ry.,\1.. Plnttion Mentlity I)hone: (205) pubusbed weekly by Sou..rn Eductionl DOIl-prnt. 1\OII.bre eductionl c:orpor4t100, for stu dy Dd dt.semlduoii ccurte idformtioll bout event.s ffi rs in tteld humn reluon. THE SOUTHF;RN COUlUER t. COIIference. c Price: l per cop). $5 per yer in South, ptron sllbscriptioil P.5 per ction. secoild-clss $10 per yer elsewhere n U.S" yer, used to defry costs or printing publl postce pid t MOiltcomel"Y, Al. Presuient: Robert E. Smith Editor: Michel S. Lottmn Executive Editor: Gll Fdlk Photo Editor: Jmes H. Peppler Vol. I. No. Dec Letters to Editor Well over Amerlcns--Negroes to get n eduction, My home is in New whites--hve given ir Uves in Jersey, I m in Albm my own true heroes in fightfor treedom. Yet stter, I m proud to cll Albm my ud \be wr 111 South Vietnm. Tllese re 111 Dec. 4 5 issue yourpper,you ttclced Governor Wllce tor prevent- 1Dg Albm students trm tking prt 111 cuvities whicb re very ner to treson. Not ouly treson to Americ. but lso treson to idel treedom. tile sme editoril, you sked wbt free choice. Although I m n out- "second home," I m proud to cll George Wllce my governor. A Christms Messge H o ho h Oe Mobne Settlement NATCHEZ, broke. With Dexter t Dexters 88th nniversry He red from Isih wbt God did with by Myor John J. Nosser Chrles Evers, NAACP field secretry for Mis sissippi. "ADd he tenced it, gred out stones re, plnted it with greement response to three months intense elvn rights c wine tivity tht begn fter Ntchez NAACP be looked tht it Plesldent George Metclfe nerly should bringforth grpes, it brought forth w1ld grpes." (Isih kllled by bomb hidden in his cr Aug. 5:2) 27. "SO must we fence churcb from rest Mr. Abernthy sid, world, And we must gr out stones.. Some stones our church we cn not move, so we must roll m over to side let m sit re whi1e we cultivte vineyrd," to church brethren," precher sid, Mr. Abernthy sid churcb is no longer stroog leder for its people. "Tne cnurch hs been t1l l1ght," he sid. "when it should hve been hedljght--it bs been n mbulnce picldng up wounded or dying, wben it sbould hve been tnk, or bull dozer." Now pstor West Hunter street Bptist Church 111 Atlnt. Mr. Abern thy sid he bd preched muy Umesbe tore from Dexters pulpit. He pstor First Bptist Church Montgomery trom to tor five those yers his close ssocite, Rev. Mrtin Lur Dexters pstor. King Jr., Church To GO? BY ROBERT E. SMITH MONTGOMERY--A mster pln for tuture stte Cpitol re re commends tile destruction histor ic Dexter Avenue Bptist Cburch, However. n lnfluedtil stte tricll sid Albm does not piu to use Its rlgbt to se1ze lud becuse. s he put It. churcb ls "lmost nttonl shrine." Tecbnlc1ly, stte hs rtght to colldemn l needed tor public pur Rev. Mrtin Lur King Jr. cme to church in 1955 s young pstor Just out grdute school. He left five yers lter s nuonl rtgure. His churcb OIIe centers Montgomery bus boycott protests. Now De xter Avenue Church hs 350 members. mny m prominent Negro c1tizens. It is celebrting its 88th nniversry this MONmOMERY -- Improvement Assocition, begn street demon strtions, clled boycott o f white owned stores.in downtown Ntchez, demonstrtions. which resulted mss rrests. fed rivlry mong civ11 rights leders in Ilie town. But every one greed on boycolt itbe Montgomery fter glnce bck t its ten-yer history. set cme nerly 100 per cent effective, Negroes sid y wouldnt buy t downtown stores until city greed its gols lst week for yer hed, to ir dems, y orgnized president, pledged to crete " lrger log towns. trtion, school desegregtion pre Negro dems more. Rev. Jesse L. Dougls, MIA c onsciousness" through voter regis cinct work. "We shll present select Negro cidtes tor t1ce," Mr. Dougls sid, "Tolcen tegrtion" fully with Civll Rights Act 1964 by end month. greement rem1llded munic1pl employees, "No persoilis to be refer red to 11 ny mnner or by ny tiue which is fensive, such s uncle. unue, boy" hoss. etc." It nnounced tht ll pubuc otnclls, would be hired on bsis merit cr-pools to tke shoppers to nelhbor Dec. 3 greement grnted ll city nn ounced it hd hired six sid. two without regrd to rce, Negroes were lredy working in Socil Security f ice. city greed to submit to voters $2, Cpitl Improve ment Progrm, topy for streets. snl or projects Negro neighborhoods. city sid i t wouldppolnt one Ne gro to school bord, " view tct tht more thn fifty per cent pupns ttending locl public school re members Nerro rce, it is considered tir equttble tht this mjority be represented by quli fied Negro on tbt Bord," sid greement. "To insure tht re w1l1 be no brekdown in communictions (between white Negro rces)... to provide orderly procedures for dellng with grievnces. to reduce tensions prevent violence Bord Aldermn meettng Negro C1tl zens Committee will be held t re Negro policemen SlX Negro uxil quest eir group t ny ud ll re Police Deprtment Is to use undue wrrnt." greement concluded, iry ficers, sid "no member sonble times,,, whenever conditions schools ttcked preprtions reveled to triple number students now t tending formerly ll-white schools, "Discrimintory prctices in em ployment continue," Mr. Dougls told Fridy night MIA session t BIiL!\h Fmous Negro p05es. grievnces. y BY INEZ J, BASKIN "And we must budd tower, becon guide ll groes sent Nosser petition UsUng 12 Spek to MIA school bord tbt citysfed ttton After bombing, ngry Ntchez Ne Reid, Dougls persons ll rces. tht two-yer de erlly-supported hospitl would comply 3 tb1s vineyrd: Ntchez nnounced tht ll city-op erted publ1c fcll1ttes were open to chnts greed to hire Negroes s clerks city s Negro community. It n noudced t Joint press conference Dec. Isih 5:1. chrging his duties," segregtion pln hd been submitted to ment between cit} Ntchez Mr. Abernthy sld todys churcb press rein: ir decision prt n gree is lllte "vineyrd in very frutttul pproching courteously. service SUndy. it, lso mde Christms force. verbl buse or brutl1ty in dls ir stores hlf-empty becuse to tret customers ll rces secretry-tresurer SCLC Miss... Twenty-three boycott by Negro citlzens, mer to mke church gret. choicest vide, bullt tower month yd rr tegrte thn go Avenue Bptist Church lesson in how midst Ntchez store-owners Ntchez decided this MONTGOMERY--Tbe Rev. Rlph D, hill," mentioned It i s bd e no ugh to t urn progr m over to p oliti c i ns in p l c e l i ke Ch icgo, B ut it i s e ve n wo r se in So uth, whe re C ity H ll c o ntro l o f nti-po ve r ty m o n ey m e ns t ht poor N egro e s will be i g nore d. A s Ch i c go Ne gro l e d e r s i d o f S hr i ve r. "Agin. he h s e xh ib ite d hi s Sou r n plnt tio n me ntl ity," Spring H1ll College BY ROBERT E. SMITH spoke Mo r e nd m o r e. t he nti - p o v e r ty progr m is be ing t ke n w y fr o m people nd turne d o ve r to pol mo s t impo rt nt thing bout Wr o n i t ic i ns. Po ve r ty w s th t i t gve p o o r p eople c h nce to pl n t he i r o wn re s c ue progr m s. N o w it i s bec o m ing jus t n Richrd J. Rivrd Dexter Ave. Notes 88th d id n t e xpe c t poo r pe ople to pl n ir o wn nti-po ve r ty p ro gr m s. "A c l i e nt te ll s rch ite c t kind ho u se he w nts- -but he doe s n t d e s ign it." s id R. Sr g e nt Sh r ive r, "Th t s wh t we m e n by p r tic ip tio n o f p o o r in pove r ty p ro g r m." Thnk you for your time. Ser.og or.he Wuk Abernthy gve members s pe e c h i n Ch icgo l s t we e k, hed U. S, Off i ce E co no m ic Oppo r tunity m de it c l e r he o r ki nd o f go v e r nm e nt h nd - o ut. student would wnt to come to Albm To Editor: Opinion Editoril week. Robert D, Nesbitt. clerk church. sid members hd 110 inten tion movtng. "We bve just completed $20,000 remodel1n( progrm," he sid, " churcb bord decided lst week to mke no comment JlIJ..to e DO c UOD unless we re pproched by stte." stte ftclllild Albm might try to persude church to sell Bptist Church" "Economic withdrwl will be necessry If people re nouir employment." he sid, MIA, born out bus boycott begn its weekend nnlvers ry observnce with mss meettng t Holt Street Bpttst Church Thursdy night. Petersburg, V., quoted from Pslms: "I believe I shll Vietnm. " pslmist sys, living." Freedom Now, " sid Mr. Reid, "Freedom tor our cblldren our grchildien yes. But lso Freedom Now. II Tile meettng commemorted night ten yers before when more thn 3,000 mintsters t NBC tkes hrd look t. wr in Vietnm, with first-h reports from reporter S 10 in Mob1le. Chnne l 12 in Montgomery, Chnnel 13 in Birming Negro leders repl1ed tht Lu niggers," sid Negro youth, TUESDAY, DEC, cnt do nythtng." A pollce fic1l tried to sum up problem, "Its like this." he sid, td, is to determ1ne wht property pur c...s will be necessry in tuture. pln. drwn up by sttt bulldlllf commission. recommends tht tbe ClPltoi erounds be extended point. think for second, Mybe Yve got you figure. No, y hvent got one t.. lie sid police hd no serious problems with locl Negroes, "ex. cept tor suicides.ii CHRISTMAS DAY, DEC, sic, Tuskeeee stitute Choir pre worlds most cclimed dncers, 6:30 p.m. Chnnel 5 in Mobile, Chnne1 l9 in Huntsv1lle Chnnel 20 in Montgom ery, sents r.. hour-long concert t 3:30 p.m. on Chnnel 12 in Montgomery. BLUE-GRAY FOOTBALL GAME - From Crmton Bowl in Montgomery, this nnul college ll-str clssic re turns to TV fter two-yer bsence. resoo? tems hd never been integrted. TV networks bd re WEDNESDAY, DEC, 10 tused to televise gme. But this 22 yer, both North South tems wlll SEASONAL MUSIC from 6;30 p,m, to P.m 1IIcludlng Tuskegee stitute Choir t 8 p,m, Chnnel 2 Andlusi 10 i Cbnoel 7 in Anniston, Chnnel hve Negro white plyers. KJckf t 3:30 P.m. CbDDeI4lnDothn.Cbn 13 Del 6 in Birminghm Cbnoel Mob1le. Birmtnghm, Chnnel 25 in Huntsv1lle Chnnel 26 in Montgomery, And n you think g1n ll. 8:30.m, Christms by vrioos progrms Christms mu 21 THE NUTCRACKER -- populr "When we get out se schools," sid Negro womn. "we so dumb we mordlng. CHURCH SERVICES re telecst vernes progress is "tokenism." "All se schools do is mnufcture p.m.. followed by Christms 10:30 chorl music until mny chnne ls in mornldg,tollowed bllet clssic. performed by some (CONTINUED FROM PAGE ONE) Birminghm presents " Messih" er Vnocur government oulc1ls, MIA bord Luverne Protests music on ll sttlons,includlng Christ gunfire bombing, Thursdy night only downstirs members. 24 ms Eve churcb services, Chnnel 6 1n home, Christms men sounds hm Chnnel 15 Florence. rrested in Montgomery. Americn fighting men fr trom cott, pews were tilled, On h were A FULL SCHEDULE Christms VIETNAM, DEC EMBER For 9 p.m. Chnne l originl disptchers, cr pool drivers, in B irminghm, Chnne l 25 Hunts vule Chnnel 20 persons crowded in round sme church to dem historic bus boy lusl. Chnnel 7 in Anniston,Chnnel lo CHRISTMAS EVE, DEC.. MONDAY, DEC, see goodness ot Lord l "You think bout it tor whue you "V" towrds Dexter Avenue. bll, grim reminder wr in speker Thursdy. Rev. MU ton A. Reid ot First B pttst Church, property. purpose mster piu. he Television next :week focuses on Christms seson--with l1tt1e foot THURSDAY, DEC, THE DIRECTIONS 66--An ll-negro cst 23 performs mteril bued OIl New MESSIAH -- Hels musicl msterpiece, 7 p.m, Chnnel SUNDAY, DEC in And- Old Testments, 12 nooo. Chnnel 6 Birminghm. Cbnnel 13 in Mobne Chnnel 32 in Montgomery.

3 PAgE TUREE Men Meet ir People Photogrphy Text by Jmes H. Peppler It wrm dy in October. It chilly dy in December. people gred t courthouse. people gred t church. mn would be coming. ir leder. Rightly or wrongly symbol wht y beueved. television crews set up ir cmers microphones. begn slowly. He hdnt rrived yet but progrm n, ll t once. word spred through crowd. He is here. He hs come. b begn to ply. singers burst into song. music "Dixie." song "Freedom." He ppered y cheered. He introduced y cheered gin. He spoke y listened. He spoke it wf; song--ir nm. "St up for Albm." uwe Shll Overcome." He spoke words y hd come to her y responded.

4 PAOI rou R If You Don t Like to Study, Sty t C rver School Officils in Besselller Try to Block Desegregtion BY STEPHEN E. COTTON B E S S E M E R - - Be s se mer now h s token sch ool in te grt ion. By re my be mny more Negroes ttending Bes se mer schools with wh ites - - but pro b bly not. At lest, tht s not wy school bord h s it p l n ned. Bessemer school bord never did Uke ide in tegrtion. Lst Mrch, group Negroes sked bord fct, bord lredy working on wy to get out B E S S E :\I E R - - E _h S t urdy m o r nin g b se ment St. P ul s L uth e r n C h urch in B i r m i n gh m l o o k s m o r e like one - roo m schoolho use th n ch urch. For th ere. 12 st ude nt s who i n te grted Bes se mer Hi gh School th i s fll stu d e nts f r o m G e o r ge W sh i n gto n C r v e r who pln to t rn sfe r to Bessemer H i gh next yer m e et to ge t e xtr h e l p i n th e ir stud ie s. i s d e c i m l p o int in th i s num ber " Wh e r e Mentl illness is f il u re t o visitor And even techers who wnted to rgrphs, 12th grders prcticed is subject sentence, isnt it?" help didnt hve time to go to prob digrmming sentences. One tutor gve lems in detil use clsses were creful explntion " ene rgy " to two seventh grders who were behlnd white Bessemer High School ccepted so lrge. And so prents Negroes lor first time lst septem students begn looktng round for tu ber, tor s tor ir children. dpt to envi roment. Atter legl bttle which lsted ll summer still is unfinished, ll But Negro students soon found ir bckground in mny subjects so wek tht y could not keep up with i r new clssmtes. Kids who hd gotten Bs C s t B es se me r ten students from nerby For exmple tutors sk ques tl ODS to s ee if th e students re red ing with understing. y give dvi c e 011 how to keep ss ignm ent note books or how to review m te r i l for n F ou r locl ministers dooted ir Four s tudents got Fs in three or prents set up crpool, tutors more mjor subjects. strted meeting urdy mornings. tor meeting plce, with students St kids get toge r During week th t first she "completely lost." to tlk bout i r ssignment. Usully " first Six weeks it just study, by Sturdy y hve list questions stud}, study," she sid. " Now Im get ting more used to it." But re m ore to problem thn "getting used to It." "re re m ny things we hvent lerned er li er grdes," explined nor student. English, in mth, in socil s tudies, in foreign lnguges, kids from Crver found y hd not lerned mny things th Bessemer students hd been tught. :l1ost Bessemer t(;cbers were tht hve stumped m. tutor comes in. y divide to over Iwd Thts where smll groups to go pirt.9 frt61ti lessolls week before n look t work for week hed. At beginning yer kids were expected to write book report. y hd never been tught to write book report t crver, but Besse mer kids hd "been doing m since seventh grde," sid one student. So Willing to give m some help in ctch one first topics for ing Ufl. " techers re quite fir to Sturdy u. vv,ile seem wre our problems wrltlng book reports, If student hd tn book repor t SSigned, he got It redy to help us out," sid Negro mo r ning sess ions Sturdy before it due. Tht sludent. But one techers st stu dents t bck room by fn, y never knew ir lesson cuse when be words reched m cn, ern Colleges who were willing to help. churches strnge sitution. A student explined " y give us s much s expect us to give s much s we cn," expllned one tute e, y Mlles, Howrd B irmigbm-south Crver were getting Fs t Bessemer. One reson for difficul ty tutors don t do work for s tudents. Telephone clls locted two pres sors in sc ienc e. wy tutor could go over It with him give him help in rewriting I t. One Sturdy tutor explined how democrtic processes developed from eom. "y re ctchillg us up 1978, first Negro to enjoy 12 yers integrted Negroes federl ttorneys objected to pln. Circuit Court Judge Seybourn H. LYnne ordered couple minor chnges. Negroes di dn t think chnges improved pln much so y ppeled to tht city shouldn t hve to in tegrte enure zchool funds. On Aug. only thing tederl government should be ble to 27, four dys before opening school, Bes semer submitted new pl n 10 Judge Lynne. It whites like. sme old pln with tew more smll chnges. Lynne sid 11 too lte to mke ny mjor chnges-- he p o pr ved pln gin. mer would benefit ll children- - seprtely but eqully. Tht should stisfy An ppel my bring stricter pln for next yer, but federl government, sid lwyer s, becuse Bessemer hd only II vol untry for this yer Bessemers school integrtion pln is bout segre wy it s tr ted out. guon" - -Negroes wnted it tht wy. mentime, Bessemer is receiving federl money. After ll, y pointed out, no Negro hd ever pplied for tr n sfe r to white school. none hd ever filed According to federl governments rules, court-p school desegregtion suit. p roved desegregtion pln is enough to show tht s chool district does not dis cr i m inte. citys ttorneys spoke too soon. My, prents 11 But fede r l government my chnge tht rule. So Negro school children filed su!t cliing for te c ity is still trying to w in i t s t1rst school sult tht would let grtion Bes sem e r school system. Negroes won suit. s chool bord Bessemer keep getting federl funds even if I ts schools re ordered segregted, to submit pln for integr llng its schools. OIl how to study rrnge out time, Al ter While, we w1ll be cugh t up," student sid. students teel y hve been helped by tutoring. "If it hdn t been tor tutoring, I wouldnt hv e mde it, sid ooe. IQ mny cses rrdes hvent re tlected Improvement, but this does n t worry tutors. One sld he didnt expect grdes to chnge rdiclly do school is dequte eduction until now. Chnge is very slow grdul " becuse bsed bow y 011 n thing. But wht we re doing now is good Dd helpful even If grdes dont chnge." "Id like to get m terested 1fl ir work bove beyond ir grdes," sid Dor tutor. tutors hve kept project from becoming ll work. When Odett cme to Birminghm, y got block tick ets took studen ts to her concert. Gettlng to know college students hs SEVENTH-GRADERS ASK QUESTIONS A T A SATURDAY MORNING TUTORING SESSION clde wht college to ttend next yer. ing now y work with tutors on in tutors cn tell her bout differ cresing ir vocbulry prcti ent colleges give dvice on how to cing smple test questions. pply. H igh school students rent only Two 12th grders who wnt to pply ones to benefit from project. As to Norrn colleges re getting prc y tech, tutors sy y re re tice tor Scholstic Aptitude Test, lerning things y hd forgotten. This Greece until tody so students could been new experience for some ntion-wide test y will hve to write socil studies pper on democ kids. " Its big help to hve m to tke. s tudents in seprte pile fter she col rcy. tlk to bout nything. like mking deci lems words students hvent Sions," sid one leges, hve never before hd contct seen before, So every sturdy morn- with Negroes s educted telli were ll chopped up." Ninth grders got help writing p- lected m. senior trying to de- test will hve mny prob Honor Roll tegr ted t Lnier BY VIOLA BRADFORD er. following re excerpts from her pper; MONTG OMERY - -" Segregtion now, segregtion lom orrow, segregtion " Hppiness Is joyous feeling con forever" long-time slogn tentment pece mind. Hppiness A lbm i ts cpitl M ontgomery. But tht slogn becme n resuits from service. untrue r espect for ors ir Idels. Is unselfis hness prejudice who need such contct most," he dded. At Howrd tutors l e m s get hed strt prepring. T hey will hve generl Ide wht to ex pect," sid Bessemer student. One girls now t Bessemer l redy hd this dvice for her tormer s c hoolmte s ; " U you dont like to study, hve s ty t Crver." It " SUmming up ber experlence t Lnier y were cutious me, M iss Boyd sld, "I m gld Im over Mny ignored me- -n now - - re few smiled sid hello or tried toct MISS JANICE CAPLE MISS DELORIS BOYO vledictorin her clss. est t Lnier becuse it took long time Once her English clss sked UD expec tedly to write pper on " W ht for white students to iet used to see becu!.e I ts (Lnier) bigger its g so mny Negroes s chool t one wrote it, pssed it in r ece ived tim e. Whi te students threw spit blls A. mde fun lunch tble. But II her sitting lone t Hppiness Mens to Me," Mi!ls Boyd n lui It. He sked, "A re you sure sid; fter first week "every you were born here? Hve you lwys tblng norml lived Albm?" nd I hve tew fri ends." Miss Miss Boyd ts nllmbfr.. r }> re nch Club. When she received her report crd,. s truc to r commen ted, " T h t r pln to nnl sh re." ferred to Lnier went to George Wsh gton C r v e r lst yer. y re Miss Y volule M il e s, Miss Myrt V inson. Miss Jonn Mstin, Sergent Austin Perry. Bobby Ar rington, JohD McC1n Jer next dy her biology techer. who hd seen pper, told her how beutl techers were nice," :;he Most or s tude nts who trns is nice-looking report crd." She sid her fi rs t week hrd Compring Lnier to Stte Lb SChool, she sid, " It!. big duterence M is!. Ulorls Boyd, lso sopho for tutoring re not ones with rcil der.:s plnning to trnsfer from C rver next y er. " y cn lis ten to our prob Hppiness is love for ors more thn yourself. It i!i kindnes s ni! " fi rst week I cutious more, grduted lst yer from Love le, s Junior li1ih School, when she "Of course, ones tht volunteer students now t Bessemer think tutoring wlll be very helpful to stu I hve ccomplished some mjor tri Lnier this wy : bout Lee- Lnler gme." commented ir prents would mke m quit if y knew. umph. tory School, reclled her djustment to 01 Lniers Future l Iome mker!. Americ French Club. Sh I!. f llklng bout becoming phy!.i cl IherJlI!.t. " I kuii.1 01 excltld Sh dded, him betore," prents wht y re doing, becuse "Genuine hppiness come from with ferred from Albm Stte Lbor member like Howrd s tudent. Some tutors r e from liberl homes. I t ls tht sprk JOY I receivp when Miss C ple, sophomore who trns M Iss Cple is one Boyd r epl i ed, "Yes, why?" "I cnno t believe tht you re Sourner. Your tlrminology ill so. different," nswered biology tech- ry Tylor--ll Junlors- - Miss E m m Sc ott -- sophomore. A rr ington M cc in pln to join trck tem, Tylor I s m E mbe r Lniers R O TC. A r lm Crr, sopnomore, lb mem d. ROTC Ptrici Oliver, sophomore wbo trnsferred fr om St. ber J ude, is DOW m ember t Lniers Future Medics Club. w i th our but s o m e rent. y don t tell ir hppiness. lst mrking period. school." t mth, one seventh grders, who Is whiz. y hd never met ny symptic tht money does not bring every thing, first honor roll rnking t end Ilubllc dmire one Negro re One thing it cn never purchse is t rue two m - - M lss Jnice Cple Miss Deloris Boyd-- recelved ll As relly I strtion ims." sid Howrd tutor. lots money, mong o r mteril to L nter this fll hve done well, Miss Cple mde lour As one B too fi rs t s i x weeks. "Mny tutor from MUes, who is relly good if word got round bout project. " But some people in dmin possessions, As I m tured, I relized 12 students who trnsferred friendly." y, school Ides success were bsed on hving 1965 re were twice s ll-white s chc;s s before, m s fer hppiness. When I younger, my mny Negroes to go to previously A ll gent ficils w ould get trouble with Its supporters " Mteril vlues lone do not bring in Montgom ery- Hobert E. Lee Sidney Lnier High Schools. Mny tutors from Blrmlnghm Sourn Dd Howrd, both white col to be quiet bout wht ;- re doing. U niversity ot God brings pece joy to me. s tudents desegregted two lrgest schools To know tht my Idels ctions re right sight sttement in 1964, when severl Negro ll-white highe r court. This court ruled require, y sid, is tht its money go tc help Negroes techer kept ppers Negro " ) tht Bessemer hd to rewrite Its pln. And y promised tht ny federl money given to Besse one c o r ne r, boy r e d s b y h i m se l f ; i n nor, teen ge r st res t book st nd i n g o n edge. A nd fro m o th e r t bles, b it s conver st ion cn be overherd: And not ll students could pply. It would be to turn him down. unconstitutionl. Bessemers ttorneys rgued system just to receive federl no exct U m l t on how much time bord tion. And every yer school bord would hve been ble ing prt Civil Rights Act which requires integr sent bck to Negro school totulout trnsfer pplic sted, school flcils fued suit federl court clim tion And n he would hve to wlt tor s chool bord to ct on it. At be ginning every s chool yer he would hve been thn $IOO,OOO complince forms. BY ROBIN KAU F MAN If Negro wnted to ttend white school, he could till out specil ppliction. Unlike mny or Sourn school districts, which pro AT BESSEMER. THEY SAY THEY ARE BEHIND IN ALMOST ALL THEIR C OU RSES. begin ir school creers by eport1ng to Negro schools. eduction Bessemer would grdute--mybe. mised to begin desegregtion, Bessemer retused to submit FS pln. be trnsfer red. Civil R ights A c t. U it didnt comply--by integrting its GOT BS AND CS AT CARVER ARE GETTING integrtion three yers before students in ll grdes could even sk to federl government hd been writing leiters to WHO s chool All Negroes would stm be ssigned to Negro schools, just plictions, bord sking wher Bessemer would comply with 1964 STUDENTS Bes.emer s y hd lwys been. All Negro flrs t grders would still re integrting schools. in federl funds this yer lone. exmple, c ould tke. re no s trd t ll for judging Ihe p to integrte schools. re no reply. school s - - school system might lose more But res more thn one wy to segregte school- tor ENGLISII AND MATII GIVE TilE M OST TUOUB L E. H E H E A TUTOn tlelps WITH A DIFFICULT ALGEDUA PHOBLEM

5 Selm Men Acquitted (CONTINUED FROM PAGE ONE) PUc:bIr prgceci wude... to ljbi for defeddnt. ADd, be cl1med, IIr. Reeb did not set prompt medicl ttedtioll tht could bve Aved b1 lite. He cbrpd court tht "cert1ll civu r1cbt croups bd to bv. mrtyr, Dd y Wlr. wwldc to let Reeb die." It did DOt tke tile JlUor lollc to do ir "tl1ty." Ninety minute. fter y bepd dellbertldr, jurors mde Cook Dd tile brors Hle tree meo. Myor: Ill See Selm Negroes Of:r:::Wo:!,M.!ith SELMA -- Its not Just lilly Dlls County Nerro who cn tlk to Myor JO( Smirmn bout poverty. Itl ooly Nerr oes "good tlth." OD Dec. 4, myor grnted n ud lence to bout two dozen Negroes from SHAPE, (Dlls County self-help Ap1Dst Poverty with F.Veryooe), n nti - poverty committee spr1ng1ng mostly trom Negro communiues Dlls County. y ctrered Smirmn written pln tor committee to run federl nti-poverty progrm in Dll County. TIle myor took ODe look Ut. It ellllclq>posite pln be hd pro poad. It 8\lIC8sted tht poverty pro crm be run by people mus meet lop. His pln 1fU to hve ltp through n W01Dted l1-mn committee. myor sld he would study Nerroes Pln. But, be sid, since DOth1IIr could be discussed UDtU he hd stud ied it, everybody dism1bed. But people wouldnt be dlmissed. y got up Dd tlked bout thlr pln, Smirmn llstened. "As expresssu loes," sld Rev. E ldest Brdford,SHAPE ch1r IIWl, y stood tu--ech 0118 m who stood hd sometbjdc to sy." People t SnAPE meeting fol lowing week decided tht myor bd hd enough time to study ir pln. y wnted nor meetldl. But Mr. Brdford Bld tbt wilen be clled myor, he given flt "no." "He told me meeung would not be,rnted to me," Bld Mr. Brdford, "but only t", or people,ood flth." " myor is swl frld," Bld one womn who hd ttended meetinc. " quesuoo ls, wht?" someth1ng growing "He lcks up," sid nor. Mr. Brdford sld he felt.my or hd locked door t his flce to SHAPE. "Well hve to move 00," sld Mr. Brdford. "WewODt try to mke con tct with him ny more. re milht be meetings with or representtives city county government, but Im Dot sying yes." Menwhile, myor wtll hve to loot elsewere for Negroes "good fith! Voter After c:quutls, federl government begn look ldi into tile posslbu1ty prosecutljlg tile three men OIl clv11 rlcllts chr,es. Tbe three Selm defendnts hve lredy been chrged, but not indicted, under sme 1870 lw used to COOvict CoWe Leroy W1lk1Ds Jr. two ors eruer tills month in Mootcomery. U.s. SUpreme Court ls expected to rule soon on wher tile 1870 lw cn be pplied to killings Negroes clvll rights workers. Albm AUBVRN--"Reglstrtlon w1ll put you OD wy to voting, bullt WOll t get you re," sid big mn with Texs ccent. " You hve to py your poll tx, too." Sixteen Negroes Dodded ir heds 80 emphticlly tht big mn surprised. He looked round church where Est Albm Council on Hu mn RelUons lst week held ODe its first voter eduction clsses. "I cme here to tell you bout stte voung lws city loveroment," he told Negroes. "But mybe you know more bout lt thn I do." As H turned out, y did. All m were registered voters. Some hd pssed strict litercy tests to reglster severl yers 11(0. MllY were mem bers Auburn voters Legue, po liticl ctioo group. y werent people Humn RelUons Council relly trying to rech. "We wnt to tlk to new voters in Lee COUDty, to people who registered for first time fter VoUni Rights Act went through lst summer," big mn sid. "We wnt to mke sure y know bout poll tx wbo ir city county c1ficlls re--things Ilke tht." People in udlence sid y hd been told he would show m hw to use.m ULL CUI AItD POOLROOM Opinion Negroes Shouldnt Deny Heritge Blues Songs BY NORMAN LUMPKIN M ONTGOMERY -- Negroes belleve y hve nothing to otter ir own Americn SOCiety. This Is grve. mistke, becuse we hve blues. blues re n origi nl rt form this country, n rt form this country hs to otter world. blues tell story hppedidgs -- trlls tribultions blck mn his womn his food his liquor his trvels wht hes dooe to or men jlls be hs served time white men hes lllted dlsuked. III blues, you cn see yourself, you cn see your mor fr, better underst troubles y hd. blues re noth1ng but soul. " Soul ol Mn," thts song. "DoUble o Soul." "SOUl Joinl." blues re nothing but soul, n erthy thing. People who sing blues re nothlng but bums. Freight-trin riders. Ex collvicts. And ODly wy y CD ex press mselves Is through song. We ll express ourselves through sodg. We hum or mon. U you go to church, you express yourself through song. Let someone ply gospel bet, you will go nllts with rest slsters brors in church. But sme people whow111 s crem swet for two bours in church re shmed blues. y dont under st tht blues re lot llke church music. Most or rces hve closer tmuy ties thn Negroes. y hve things to tlk bout, llke wht Grp did wht it used to be lllte in old country. y tlk bout ech or y re proud ech or. NORMAN LUMPKIN Someooe like Llghln1D Hopidns cn keep roomful whitepeople listedidg for t lest n hour. Groups from Eng l go bck 20 yers for songs written by Negro blues composers, mte milhons dollrs t m. BUt Negro himself hs tried to dissocite himself from his true herl tre. He hs overlooked this heritge blues. To see how shmed Negroes re lr heritge, tke loot t some New York Clty Negroes who chnge ir mode dress to Atrlcn gib, stop strightening ir hlr wer it "u nture"" y chnge ir nmes to Mobutu, or someth1ng l1ke tht. Anything to sep rte mselves from Americn Negro rce. This ls bd thidg. After ooe sitting listening to blues rtists, se Negroes might re Uze y hve something to otter to so Ciety. Usses Begin BY MARY ELLEN GALE Xms Pre s ent voting mchine. "[ cnt do tht," he dmitted. "Uust moved here from Texs, Ive never used n Albm votlng mchine. But Ill find out tell you next time." OPELIKA--A lively question- -nswer sessloo lst week begn first series voter eduction cls ses here. Thlrty Negroes gred in church to Hsten to n instructor from Est Albm COUDcll 00 Humn Reltions. But y didnt sty quiet very long. ode womn wnted to know how she could register to vote in Albm still vote in her old home stte Georgi. She trowned when instructor told her s he could vote only in stte where she lived. Negro would be better ble to un derst himse his people, If he ccepted fct tht he is blck mn tht he will be one unul he dies. He should help to develop his culture --Uke his sollg s--so tht more people w111 be ble to underst him through his rt form. I th1nlt thls would be n importnt con trlbutlod to reltions mollg rces. But it cn never hppen unul we Negroes c cept fct tht we hve been torn wy from nor continent thrust into dltferent environment, complete ly dltferent culture hs been developed in process. We should tke Ume to listen to our own story for chnge. (Normn Lumpkin Is news director rdio sttion WHMA in Monfgomery.) hnge New Voters BY LAURA GODOFSKY WASHINGTON--About 2,300 college students from ll over coudtry will spend ir Christms vction helping reglster Negro voters Albm tlve or SOUrn sttes. tirst group students helping in " Freedom Christms" project will rrlve thls weeke!lld. second group wul rrive bout Dec. 28. Albm projects were plnned by SCLC. One huddred students re ex pected in Birminghm. Ors will work in Montgomery. students, mny whom worked on SCOPE projects lst summer, w111 Hve in homes locl Negroes. From Dec. 21 to Jn. 15, y w111 go from house to house in Negro neigh borhoods, sking Negroes to reglster. Most student volunteers will work Sourn count1es with federl exminers. Orgnizers project feel tht in se res, gret del cn be done in short time vilble. Since prlmry elecuons will be held some res s erly s My 3, sy pr01ect orgnizers, summer reg Istrtion drive would be too lte. Will SCLC Vole Drive Flunk in Birminghm? posed to led mrch on courthouse to publlclze vote drive. But mrch, scheduled for Tues dy, cnceled when Kings ides lerod tht registrtion owce in courthouse would be closed. Dr. Klng spoke to 500 Negroes who pcked St. Jmes Bptist C hurch Mondy n1cht. "We men to go ll out to get bl lot," he declred.. "I still hve drem tht rlght here in Birminghm, Negroes will slt on clty coudcll wlth white meo." BY STEPHEN E. COTTON BlRMINGHAM--SCLC leders hve been tryinc for month to strt vot er registrtion drlve in BlrmlDgbm. y hvent gotten very fr. More thd four weeks co, hlf dozen SCLC sttlers rrived bere to orgnize drive. Rev. Mrtin LUr K1DC Jr. scheduled to ddress mss meeting to rlly suppor t. But when SCLC workers rrived, y lerod tht registrrs f1ce would be closed for next two weeks, becuse constltuuool mend ment elecuon. So Dr. KiDls visit postpooed, SCLC workers returned to A Unt. A group locl leders promised to be gin orgnlz.1ng driveby mselves. Three weeks lter, SCLC tst torce cme bck to help. SCLC peo pie found tht locl group hd done lmost nothing. But SCLC didnt do much better. tsk force workers couldnt even find plces to sty ln locl homes. y hd to sty t Gston Motel. Dr. King finlly cme to Birminghm lst Moody. This Ume, he sup- But s Dr. King speklng in St. Jmes, one his ssistnts givlni nor kind tlk to 100 locl Negro students in church cross s treet. Hose WllHms, mn in chrle SCLC voter registrtion tsk forces, told students tht Negroes in Birm inghm were too ptic. "U Birmlnghm Negroes relly wnt voter registruon drive, yre going to hve to get it up mselves," he sid. "SCLC cn only help. "Im worried bout Blrminghm," he dded. "WP:ve never flunked before, but we my flunk out in Birminghm." Why No Scholrships For Negroes? BY DAVID R. UNDERHILL MOBILE--A few dys go, 24 high school senlors from Mobile county were tken to dinner t plush restu rnt. y herd representtives Louisin stte University tlk bout size 01 schools librry equipment its SCience lborto ries. se students re countys finl ists in Ntionl MerH Scholrship compeu tion. y hve survived series exm intions tht begn lst spring. Some finlists my receive four-yer N tionl Merit Scholrships to college ir choice. Most ors w111 probbly re ceive some kind scholrship, becuse y hve proven mselves superlor btudents. All m re from white high schools. "We tend to rnk low in ll se tests," explined J. T. Gines, princi pl Centrl High School, one Mo biles Negro schools. Gines sid he couldnt recll Negro student in Mobile ever winning Ntlon!..Merit Scholrship. An lumim;m compny in Mobile "Ive never hd relly hrd tech er... sid Centrl student who seml-f1dlist NUonl Achieve ment SCholrship competition. This compeution is tor Negro stu dents only. Ntionl Merlt Scholr ship C orporuon strted H, becuse Negro students could rrely bet whites competiuon tor regulr Ntioni Merit Scholrships. A recent report relesed by gives scholrshlp ech yer to stu dent whose ftber works t plnt. Both white Negro frs re em ployed re, but " white student wins it every yer," sid Gines. Gines blmed this mlnly on " se rlous culturl lg." Butnor Negro techer put most blme on " in ferior techers in inferior schools! Negro students here lmostll gree tht ir schools re loterlor to white schools. (CONTINUED ON PAGE SIXf B&P Super Mrket Peoples Store Strts A Fuss A t Nme C PA91 EP Gr iffin A ve. t Brod St. --Slm. A l. Tuskegee s ti tute High School BY MARY ELLEN GALE TVSKEGEE--"Whts in nme?" my sound llke hrmless question. But those were fighting words for while lst week t Tuskegee stitute High School. trouble tht Mcon County Bord Eduction stu dents t Tuskegee sutute HtgIi SChool cme up with diuerent nswers to question. bord t eduction took long look t high schools nme de cided it spelled.. segregtion." "All over stte, people think Tuskegee stitute s synonym for Ne gro," explined Joe C. Wilson, county schools superintendent. "But we dont hve NegrO white schools here ny more. "Besides rcil connottion, res been contusion for yers over who opertes TUskegee sutute Hlgh School. We wnt people to relize 1Is public school hs no connection with college." So school bord decided to renme school Greenwood High School. bord pssed flcil word long to Alonz Hrvey, TIRS princlpl, two weeks go. When Hrvey nnounced chnge to 1,300 Negro students, he touched f n instnt controversy. students-- even more, lumni- -thought nme Tuskegee in stitute spelled not "segregtion" but "trdition." y wnted to keep it. TIHS Student Council hstily r rnged meeting with Superintendent Wilson to discuss mtter. " Our min objection tht nme chnged without consulting us," sid Chrles Chisholm, Stu dent Councll president. "But Mr. Wil son explined tht he thought we hd l redy been told hd greed to it. "At first we were upset. We wnted to remin Tuskegee stitute. But tter we tlked to him, we sw his point bout new nme mking desegregtion es ier." Birminghm $10 Jeff Dvis ere Montgomery resl go for prescr iptions, s met ics, sundr ies, s ick m suppl ies R i\,.i 8.m. to 9 p.m. weekdys 9.m. to 2 p.m. SUDdYs "DOC" JOHN M. POOLE JR; B ILLY STEWART Chisholm sid superintendent promised tht school would remin Tuskegee stitute High until July 1. Be tween now n, students w1ll vote on new nme. Lis Joyce Price. Erned 1019 W. Big Hol idy Show & Dnce in One Week Selling SOUTHERN COURIER Billy Stewrt FON T E L L A B A SS B A R BA RA LYNN u,. Wll tt. 1M I.0IMrJ. All. SO CAN YOU Open House Sundy, 0«. 19 St. Elizbeth Ctholk Church SE L MA 2 to " p. m. EV E HYO N E IS W E I.tOM E! M ny More St r s Pekin tre M ON T G O E R Y S O U T H E H N C O U R IE R del ivers ppers to y o u r hometown o nce week. You sell ppers t o your fr ie nds n e i gh bors i n you r sp re t ime. Y ou re pid csh fo r e v e ry pper y ou sell. Some our d is t r i butors e r n up to $ 2 0 in only few hours work. If you wnt to sell S O U T H E R N C O U Il I E R, c ll o r w r it e : Thursdy Dee. 30 T H E S O U T H E R N C O U R IE R R OO M 6 2 2, F R A N K L E U B UI L D IN G C O M M E nc E S T R E E T M ON T G O M E R Y, A LA BA MA P H ON E : F lh S T S I I O W A T 1 P. M., L A S T S H O \\ A T T ic k e t s $2 i n :td v llce o r $ P. M. t d o U l

6 2AG! SIX Negroes in U.S. History - - Chpter 8 Reconstruc tion Sw Negro Gins WHEN THE BY BOBBI ANU FRANK CIECIORKA CIVIL Wr ended, people in North couldnt decide wht to do with South. Before wr, lmost ll be bt l most slve s were owned by smll number white people. se slveowners mde most decisions bout how South run. y were lso people who strted wr. Mny no rrners wnted to let m run th ings gin fte r wr. Andrew Johnson becme. president when Uncoln shot, He one those who wnted to forgive Confedertes. Or people believed tht wr tought for nothing 11 old slveholders were put bck power. y wnted to "reconstruct" society South so tht equlity democrcy would replce rule by tew. y were - clled "rdicls." Thddeus Stevens Chrles sumner were two leders Reconstructlon progrm Congress. But no mtter wht people North thoueht, freed slves hd ir own Ides. y wnted to own ir own l, y wnted eduction, y wnted voice how things were rud.. DURING THE WAR, mm slves took over plnttions when Union rmy chsed owners wy. Tbe soldiers told slves tht Congress would give m l to keep fter wr. y set up ir own government, y bu1lt rods, schools churches. And y got guns to protect mselves. All over tile South, Negroes poor whites orgnized toger to wht y clled UnJon Legues. One outevery three people in UnJon Legues white. se Legues were very much like Mississippi Freedom Demo crtic Prty is tody. y held mss meetings once week churches schools. y tllced bout klnd government y wnted South. ADd for few yers fter wr, y got ir chnce to be prt government, DuriDf Rej:QDStructlon re were Negroes in COIIgress stte legisltures. re were Negro pollce, judees lwyers in South. Before wr, only rich could fford to get n eductloo. Only people who owned property could vote. Poor white people were not much better f thn Negroes. freed slves poor whites legisltures fter wr gve everyone chnce to get free eduction. y chnged lw so tht prsoll didnt hve to own property to vote. y lso gve more rights to women Dd y pssed civil rtpts bills. Most history books dontsy thtnegroes poor whiles pssed good lws durldg Reconstruction. y sy tht Negroes did not hve enougb eduction to mke good lws. But when someone Is sick. you doll t need to go to college to know he needs medicl cre. And when someone cnt red, nyolle knows he needs eduction. se were kinds lws th!lot were pssed, THE OLD SLAVEOWNERS tried to destroy movement, y orgnized secret groops like Ku Klux Kln. y tried to get ir old power bck by burning, betlng. k1l1lng. But re were still federl troops Soutb. And Union Legues still bd guns to defend mselves. So slveowners were not too successful. But to election for president very close. re were three Sourp sttes tht turned in two sets votes. slveowners hd seprte elections y voted for Democrt, Tilden. Negroes poor whites voted for Hyes, Republicn. Congress set up committee to decide which votes should be counted. Hyes wnted t mke sure he becme president., He tllced to people on committee who were fvor slveowners. He sid tht 11 y counted his votes sted Tildens, he would pull federl troops out South. Tht ment tht Negroes poor whites would no longer hve federl protection. So in 1877, President Hyes sold out cuse democrcy. Kln stepped up ir system terror htred Negroes s soon s tederl troops were gone. THE DEMOCRATIC PARTY South run by old Confedertes. Mny m wnted to hve Negroes vote for m. So y fered to hold bck Kln in return for Negro votes. But Negroes didnt feel tht y hd sme needs interests s rich people, lowners old sl1eholders. On or h, Republlcn prty selling m out gin gtn. n, in 1890s. new prty rose up to chllenge or two. It clled PopUlls t, or Peoples prty. Populists sld tht poor whites Negroes should suck toger. As long s y were set ginst one nor, ir wges would be low y would never get nywhere. One Populistleder Tom Wtson, sid prty would "wipe out color Une". Democrts weretrld Populists would tke over Soutb. First Democrts tried to split union poor whites Negroes. next step to tke right to vote wy from Negroes. Ech Sourn sttes pssed lws to keep Negroes from voting. Mississippi first By 1910, ll sttes to South hd such lws. X -Cel will py I % to Churches, PTA non.prit orgniztions - minimum $50000 cshiers receipts X-eEL Super Stores c. We reserve right to limit quntities. Specil Holidy Prices We ccept food stmps. x-eel BOIIos CDllpOR No. 5 GODCHAUX SUGAR & lit. for 38c U. S. CHOICE MUTS ROUl IltAK lie lb. BRISIET STEW _ Dc III. OHOII BOLOlA 38c lb. SMOKE SAUSAGE - _ Clc lb. CHICIEN LIVER c lb. WHOLE FRYERS c lb. HEIS c SUPERIOR ICE MILK - -- /2 24-0Z_ McKENZIE GREEI PEAS IO-OZ. MIXED VEGETABLES _ 12-0Z_ TENNESSEE pl. _ 29c III. 2 for Blc 2 for 38c YAIS for 39c MORTON 14-0Z. OREME PIES c _. SEABOARD MOTOR TEXACO AMALIE OIL - _ 7 WINSTON AUTOMATIC qtl. $ c qt c ql. TRAISIISSIOI FLUID _ 3&c ql. FRESH DEL. APPLES _ BABY WALIUTS _ Good Dec. 1& Dc. 24 PRODU(E 4 FRESH NUTS 4&c Ibs. 49c lb. BRAZILS &c Jb. MIXED -----_ 4&c MEDIUM WALIUTS - &3c lb. lew OROP PECAIS _ FRESH COLLARD GREEIS c blnches 3Ic lb. FRESH PRODUCE AT YOUR X-CEl STORE 4-0z. Your Foyorite Vinu Susge 10 for IIc No. 303pcf iii Volley 1 for lie 12-Oz. Niblets Whole KERIEL CORI 2 for 3Ic 3-Lb. Jewel SHORTEIIIG He Frnco Mcroni Mcroni Ground Beef 5 for Ilc 1-lb. Dixie Bell SALTINES 1ge 15-0z. Bounty CHILI AND BEAlS 3 for lie LI.ten to X-C.I Hour every lundy 10:00 to 10:30 A.M. On W"LD X-C.I Super Store., 400 Second Ave. North, BI,rAinlhm, Al. Ph Shoppln With X-C.I Build. A Better Blrmlnlhm By losing Negro vote, Populist prty cut hll. More more popullsts tried to get white votes by tlk1lig gidst" Negroes. By 1906, even Tom Wtson turned ginst Negroes. But Democrts were solidly power Popullst Prty slowly disppered. Negroe poor whites were left without ny voice in decisions thttfected ir lives. Copyright 1965, Student Voice, c. Next 7 ccheted coven commtmortblc 0IIly tile mjor U. S. pce cb1evem\1ltl tor,5.00 dvldc. de. posit. SPACE CRAFT COVERS. P.O. Bo UK, HlIDtIIIctOD, w. V , U.s.A. Eddies Set Cover Mobile Complete Auto Upholstery Covers mde our truck At your business or home EDDIE GATSON Phone Birminghm Jckson High Students Attck Negro Clssmte BY DAVID R. UNDERHILL JACKSON--Robert Brooks hsnt been to his clsses t Jckson High School tor nerly three weeks. "I dont wnt to lose my 111e," Brooks explined, He is Negro. Jckson High ll white until this fll. Brooks four Negro girls integrted high school September. y re ll seniors, A totl r:4 14 Negroes tegrted Clrke county public schools grdes one, four, seven 12. Despite totegrtlon, countys desegregtion pln hs not yetbeenpproved by U. S. Oflice Eduction. At first, Brooks girls met no open hostil1ty trom ir white clssmtes. n. mid-october, little hrssment begn ginst Brooks. He sid It cme trom techers students. It grew stedily worse. he Sid. until it included " threts tht Id be killed," n. bout three weeks go, s Brooks strted wlking wy from school, bunch white boys tollowed him Jut. He Ignored m, one TIMES HAVE m chrged to him from behind, leving him with n injured bclt, Brooks doctor sent him to bed for few weeks. His bck hs mended pretty well by now, but he silll hsn t returned to school. According to Frnk Den, YOUD& Negro leder in Clrke County,!be Jckson High principl clled sld things would get worse 11 Brooks returned to school. But DOW it ppers tht lui oifiell ttempt will be mde to protect Brooks when he returdli to school. " h1ch sherllf Is suwosed to escort him uto" sld Cleve Jcksoo, nornegro leder. School ficils refused to comment,. SC HOLARSHIPS (CONTINUED FROM PAGE FIVE) school district shows tht Negro firstgrders MobUe system re, on verge. bout one yer hehlnd white first-grders. By time Negrostudents grdute from high school. y re three yers behind, repor sys. CHANGED, BUT... old-fshioned qulitie s dependbility th rift still guide us here. MAK. ou" ANK YOU.. PIIiANCIAL H.ADQUAIIT... ABAMA ExclUN BA1!K Member Federl Meserve Sy stem nd Federl Deposit surnce Corportion P.O. Box 728 Give Full-Yer Subscription to THE SOUTHERN COURIER $5 per yer miled in th e South MAIL TO: $10 per yer miled in North $25 per yer ptron subsc ription THE SO UTHERN COURIER Room 622. Fr nk Leu Bldl. 79 Commerce St. Montgomery. Albm Enclose check or money order. Se nd SOUTHEHN s gift to : T uskegee. Albm COllRIER Nme --- Address --- C lty ---Stte Compliment oc ---