SQL Server 2008 Implementation and Maintenance (70-432) LearnSmart Exam Manual

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2 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) LearSmart Maual Copyright 2011 by PrepLogic, LLC. Product ID: Productio Date: July 13, 2011 All rights reserved. No part of this documet shall be stored i a retrieval system or trasmitted by ay meas, electroic, mechaical, photocopyig, recordig, or otherwise, without writte permissio from the publisher. No patet liability is assumed with respect to the use of the iformatio cotaied herei. Warig ad Disclaimer Every effort has bee made to make this documet as complete ad as accurate as possible, but o warraty or fitess is implied. The publisher ad authors assume o resposibility for errors or omissios. The iformatio provided is o a as is basis. The authors ad the publisher shall have either liability or resposibility to ay perso or etity with respect to ay loss or damages arisig from the iformatio cotaied i this documet. LearSmart Cloud Classroom, LearSmart Video Traiig, Pritables, Lecture Series, Quiz Me Series, Awdeeo, PrepLogic ad other PrepLogic logos are trademarks or registered trademarks of PrepLogic, LLC. All other trademarks ot owed by PrepLogic that appear i the software or o the Web Site (s) are the property of their respective owers. Volume, Corporate, ad Educatioal Sales Favorable discouts are offered o all products whe ordered i quatity. For more iformatio, please cotact us directly: Iteratioal Cotact Iformatio Iteratioal: +1 (813) Uited Kigdom: (0) LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

3 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) Table of Cotets Abstract...6 What to Kow...6 Tips...6 Domai 1 Istallig ad Cofigurig SQL Server Hardware ad Software Requiremets for Istallig Microsoft SQL Server Istallig SQL Server SQL Server Istaces...9 Selectig SQL Server Features...10 SQL Server Security Cosideratios Durig Istall...12 FILESTREAM Cofiguratio...13 Data Directories i SQL Server Istallatio...14 Commad Lie Setup...15 Implemetig Database Mail...16 SQL Server Cofiguratio Maager...17 Domai 2: Maitaiig SQL Server Istaces...18 Uderstadig System Stored Procedure: sp_cofigure...18 Maage SQL Server Aget Jobs...18 Maage SQL Server Aget Alerts...19 Maage SQL Server Aget Operators...21 The SQL Server Declarative Maagemet Framework (DMF)...22 Backig Up SQL Server Domai 3 - Maagig SQL Server Security...26 SQL Server Logis ad Server Roles...26 Password Policies...28 SQL Server-Level Roles ad Database-Level Roles...28 The Guest, Public, ad DBO Pricipals...30 SQL Server Istace Permissios...31 Logo Triggers...31 Impersoatio...31 Cross-Database Owership Chaiig...31 Maagig Schema Permissios...32 Auditig SQL Server...33 DDL Triggers...34 LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

4 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) C2 Audit Cofiguratio...35 Commo Criteria...35 Trasparet Data Ecryptio...35 SQL Server Surface Area...36 Domai 4 Maitaiig a SQL Server Database...38 Database Maagemet ad Cofiguratio...38 Database Files...38 Database Filegroups...40 Rage of Database Optios...41 Recovery Models...42 Detachig ad Attachig Databases...43 Database Backups...44 Backup Type Details...44 Verifyig Backups...46 Restorig Databases...46 Restore Types ad Strategies...47 Database Sapshots...48 Database Itegrity...49 DBCC CHECKDB...49 Database Maiteace Plas...50 Domai 5 Data Maagemet Tasks...52 Data Export ad Import...52 Methods of Data Import ad Export...53 BCP...53 BULK INSERT...55 OPENROWSET...56 SQL Server Maagemet Studio GUI Data Import ad Export Capability...57 Data Partitios...58 Data Compressio...59 Maitaiig Idexes...61 Domai 6 SQL Server 2008 Moitorig ad Troubleshootig...62 SQL Server Service Problems...62 Cocurrecy Problems...64 SQL Server Aget Problems...67 LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

5 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) Fidig Error Iformatio...68 Domai 7 Optimizig SQL Server Performace...70 The Resource Goveror...70 Database Egie Tuig Advisor...72 Aalyzig Trace Data with SQL Server Profiler...75 Aalyzig Performace Data with Dyamic Maagemet Views (DMV)...76 Performace Moitorig With the System Moitor Domai 8 Implemetig High Availability...79 Database Mirrorig...80 SQL Server Clusters...82 Trasactio Log Shippig...84 SQL Replicatio...85 Questios...88 Aswers & Explaatios...96 LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

6 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) Abstract This LearSmart exam maual will help you prepare for the SQL Server 2008 admiistratio as tested i Microsoft This maual provides practical examples, test tips, ad guidace o Microsoft best practices, which pervade the questios i What to Kow Studets should study all facets of istallig SQL Server, istallig SQL Server istaces, ad adjustig SQL istallatios via SQL Server Maagemet Studio, SQL Powershell, ad SQL Commad Lie. Studets should study SQL query sytax ad uderstad the T-SQL commads related to istallatio, security, ad maagemet of SQL Server. Tips It is importat to esure that you have hads-o experiece with SQL Server 2008 ad ca attempt the sytax of queries demostrated i this maual ad the cofiguratio examples. The availability of so may virtual server/pc type products today ad Microsoft s 180-day free trial of SQL Server 2008 should allow plety of chaces to work with the product prior to takig the exam. LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

7 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) Domai 1 Istallig ad Cofigurig SQL Server 2008 The first objective whe preparig for Microsoft is istallig Microsoft SQL Server 2008 ad obtaiig a strog uderstadig of its various optios. As a database admiistrator kowig how to istall Microsoft SQL Server 2008 accurately i productio scearios will give you the kowledge to aswer questios based o this sectio of Microsoft Hardware ad Software Requiremets for Istallig Microsoft SQL Server 2008 Microsoft SQL Server 2008 is available i multiple versios. For test preparatio purposes we will focus o the Eterprise 2008 x64 ad Stadard x32 versios. Each versio of Microsoft SQL Server 2008 has uique features but for test purposes the istallatio questios apply to all versios except for Microsoft SQL Server 2008 Express. This sectio will detail processor types for Microsoft SQL Server, hardware requiremets, ad software requiremets. Istallatio also covers data file locatios, default paths for Microsoft SQL Server, ad security durig istallatio. Microsoft SQL Server 2008 comes i multiple processor versios, ad the followig defiitios are applicable for uderstadig the processor versios for istallatio. Processor ad System Architecture Type Nickame or Commo Referece ple Operatig System Microsoft SQL Versios for this Architecture x86 32-bit, a 32-bit processor (e.g., a Petium IV or Petium III processor) Microsoft Widows Eterprise 2003 R2 x86 Microsoft Widows 2008 R2 Eterprise x86 Microsoft SQL Server 2008 Eterprise 32-bit Microsoft SQL Server 2008 Stadard 32-bit x64 64-bit, a 64-bit processor (e.g., a AMD Optero, or Itel Xeo with EM64T support) Microsoft Widows Server 2003 Eterprise R2 x64 Microsoft Widows 7 Ultimate x64 Microsoft SQL Server 2008 Eterprise (64-bit) x64 Microsoft SQL Server 2008 Stadard (64-bit) x64 Itaium IA64, a 64-bit custom processor built by Itel, which requires a custom operatig system ad versios of SQL Server. Normally used for highed istallatios Microsoft Widows 2008 Server Eterprise R2 Itaium IA 64 Microsoft Widows 2003 R2 64-bit Itaium Dataceter Microsoft SQL Server 2008 Eterprise (64-bit) IA64 Table 1: SQL Server ad Supported Architectures Test Tip: Always esure a match betwee the Microsoft SQL Server 2008 versio ad the server processor architecture. You are asked to istall a 64-bit versio of Microsoft SQL Server o a Petium IV. Is this cofiguratio possible? The required SQL Server 2008 Hardware is listed i the table below. The ability to quickly recall these parameters is a importat part of preparig to istall SQL Server ad servig as a SQL Server Admiistrator. The software requiremets are addressed ad hadled by the SQL Server istallatio wizard. LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

8 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) Required RAM Required Processors Required Disk Space All versios of SQL Server 2008 require a miimum of 512 MB of RAM. However, SQL Server 2008 will ot ru very well o 512 MB of RAM. Oe exceptio is that SQL Server 2008 Express oly requires 256 MB of RAM. 2GB of RAM is recommeded. 32-bit versios of SQL Server require a 32-bit processor with 1 GHz or higher of CPU. 64-bit versios of SQL Server require a 64-bit processor with 1.4 GHz or higher. SQL Server has differet disk size optios based o the optios selected, but for testig purposes the amout of disk space required for the database egie, replicatio, ad full text search is 280 MB. Other SQL Server optios will icrease the disk space. Aalysis Services requires 90 MB of space. Itegratio Services requires 120 MB of space. Reportig Services requires 120 MB of space. SQL Books Olie requires 240 MB of space. SQL Server maager ad other cliet compoets require 850 MB of space. Table 2: SQL Server Hardware Requiremets Istallig SQL Server 2008 Istallig Microsoft SQL Server 2008 is accomplished via the setup.exe file of the source biaries. Istallatio will ru a check for all required hardware ad software ad stores all evets related to the setup i the followig locatio o the server or workstatio hard drive: %programfiles%\microsoft SQL Server\100\Setup Bootstrap\Log\. Each file ame is amed i the format Summary_egie_based_ YYYYMMDD_HHMMss.txt. This is the year, moth, date, hour, miute, ad secod of the setup. Oce istallatio is complete all of the setup activity is logged i the summary.txt file located i the above directory. For example, if you are troubleshootig why a certai SQL service or feature is ot available (which the exam will questio you o), the first place to start is the summary.txt file. Test Tip: For ay failures durig Microsoft SQL Server setup, the summary text file is the place to start whe troubleshootig. This is as easy as opeig the file ad coductig a search for the keyword error. If the summary.txt is ot listed as a optio for troubleshootig the SQL Server istallatio, the check for Applicatio Evet Log etries, ad do t forget the basics for verificatio ru the SQL Server Maagemet Studio ad also check if the biaries are istalled. This overview of a SQL Server istallatio will cover some of the required cocepts for the exam ad illustrate best practices, which Microsoft covers i the exam. LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

9 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) Figure 1: SQL Server Istall Optios Figure 1 shows the optios for the type of istall. We will cover SQL Server failover clusterig i Domai 8 i this Maual. The first optio will istall a ew default istace SQL Server, or add a ew amed istace of SQL Server. The upgrade optio is to upgrade SQL Server 2000 or SQL Server 2005 to SQL Server SQL Server Istaces Oe very importat exam cocept is SQL Server istaces. SQL Server ca be istalled o the same physical hardware with multiple istaces that are completely idepedet of each other. For example, you ca istall a default istace of SQL Server 2008 amed Server Name. O the same server you ca istall a ew istace of SQL Server 2008 amed Server Name\Test01. This secod istace of SQL Server 2008 is completely idepedet of the first istace for database locatios, service accouts, ad features. The oly items shared are the core SQL Server biaries istalled o the server. The secod istace will browse for applicatios as a differet SQL Server. A.NET applicatio employig coectio strigs could coect to the default SQL Server for its core applicatio databases ad the SQL Server istace for its Reportig Server eeds. A quick illustratio is show below. LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

10 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) Figure 2: Practical ples of SQL Server Istaces i Use Test Tip: SQL Server versios ca support 8 istaces, ad SQL Server Eterprise ca support 50. SQL Server istaces provide a array of capabilities ad are a valid aswer to some exam questios. For example, may of the exam questios focus o upgradig from SQL 2005 to SQL I some cases the questios o the exam will have aswers that use the least amout of hardware ivestmet. Aytime that phrase is used you should use a SQL istace to aswer the questio. For example, if you are upgradig to SQL 2008 from SQL 2005 ad require testig ad other certificatio of existig databases but oly have oe server what should you do? You should istall a amed istace of SQL 2008 o the same server ruig SQL SQL 2005 ad SQL 2008 ca ru o the same hard drives; however, sice SQL 2005 is already ruig o the server you must use a amed istace because a default istace (the SQL 2005 istallatio) is already ruig. SQL 2005 ad SQL 2008 use differet directories for the istallatio so they will ot affect each other. This is a rapid way to use a istace to solve a upgrade issue with costraied hardware ad allow detachig of databases ruig SQL 2005 ad reattachig of the same databases i SQL Selectig SQL Server Features The SQL Server istallatio allows you to select multiple products. These products are described above i Table 1 i the disk space sectio. Whe istallig SQL Server you are faced with this array of fuctioality ad must uderstad what each item provides to perform well o the exam. LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

11 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) Figure 3: SQL Server features durig istall The SQL Server Database Egie is the heart of the product ad provides the locatio for storig ad processig data securely. SQL Server Replicatio provides for fault tolerace support by allowig the mirrorig ad replicatio of SQL Server databases to other SQL Servers. Full-Text Search provides ehacemets i the searchig of text ad cotet o SQL Servers. Aalysis Services is the solutio eabler for aalytical processig of data. Reportig Services provides a out of the box reportig solutio for the creatio ad maagemet of data reports preseted via the web. The SQL Server shared features provide all of the other tools that esure SQL Server fuctioality. The importat features to uderstad for the exam are the maagemet tools, which provide the SQL Server Maagemet Studio. Test Tip: I ormal productio scearios where fault tolerace ad high availability is a cosideratio Microsoft does ot recommed istallig all SQL Server optios o oe server. This is also a performace cosideratio. A SQL Server istallatio requires the selectio of services eeded for the busiess, ad the selectio of a service will prompt other cofiguratio data as the istallatio wizard for SQL Server proceeds. If Reportig Services is selected, a service accout ad idicatio of the file locatios for the reportig databases, trasactio logs, ad biaries will be required. Test Tip: If users caot coect to a properly istalled SQL Server after istallatio ad all security is correct ad the SQL Server is ruig, make sure the SQL Server Browser is disabled by default. By eablig this SQL Service through the SQL Server Cofiguratio maager, cliets ca coect to the SQL istace without usig port umbers or amed pipe ames. LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

12 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) SQL Server Security Cosideratios Durig Istall The selectio of SQL Server service accouts is required durig istallatio. Service accouts are domai accouts or local server accouts with required admiistrative privileges to ru the SQL Server services. Local computer accouts are also available for ruig the SQL Server services. Local system accouts are used oly by system operatios ad are ot available for a iteractive logi. The types of local system accouts available deped o if the SQL Server is a member of a Active Directory domai or a stadaloe. A stad-aloe SQL Server is a istalled SQL Server that is i a workgroup versus a Active Directory domai. System accouts do ot require passwords as they are embedded system resources that require physical or RDP server access to cofigure. The recommedatio (which will help o the test) is to create service accouts i advace of the SQL Server ad make these accouts members of the Admiistrative group o the SQL Server. You ca the use these accouts to ru SQL Server services ad esure you have a audit trail of which accouts are assiged to what services i a Active Directory domai. A example service accout ame is domai ame\_svc_dbserver. Test Tip: Never cofigure SQL Server services to use the Network Service built-i accout i a Active Directory cofiguratio. This accout has rights to traverse domai servers ad is cosidered a violatio of the security best practice. Figure 4: SQL Server Istallatio Dialogue for Selectio of Service Accouts Test Tip: The SQL Server Aget is disabled by default. It will ot start automatically. We will address this i SQL Server Cofiguratio later i this sectio. LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

13 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) Accout provisioig is a critical area durig SQL Server istallatio. SQL Server provides two autheticatio modes: Widows autheticatio mode ad Mixed Mode autheticatio, which allows SQL Server to maitai accouts for SQL Server access. Today s best practice for security is ot to cofigure ay SQL Server i Mixed Mode, thus reducig the attack surface agaist SQL Server by ot allowig autheticatio by the SQL Server itself. I some cases a legacy applicatio or support cosideratio will require accouts i SQL Server. For the exam, keep i mid that usig aother istace of SQL Server to accommodate differet security eeds is the way to go. Accout provisioig is the stage of the istallatio whe you will decide who will admiister the SQL Server. I SQL Server 2008 a decisio must be made to add a admiistrator to SQL Server for maagemet oce the product is istalled. This data should be prepared i advace of the istallatio. For example, a group i the Active Directory may cotai desigated SQL Server admiistrators or a local group whe the Active Directory is ot i use. Test Tip: Make sure you completely uderstad the ramificatios of usig Mixed Mode SQL Security! I most cases do t do it! Figure 5: SQL Server Accout Provisioig ad Autheticatio Mode Choices FILESTREAM Cofiguratio A importat ew feature i SQL Server 2008 is FILESTREAM support. FILESTREAM is a feature that supports the storage of large images ad other BLOB type data over 1 MB. A example is scaed images, or JPEGs of receipts. This SQL optio ehaces fast read access for stored objects. This feature ca be cofigured durig istallatio or by usig the SQL Server Cofiguratio Maager. FILESTREAM eables SQL Server to quickly access objects stored i a server file system versus a database table. The data type is varbiary (max) whe items are stored i file server storage. The cofiguratio requires the ame of a Widows share. Test Tip: The followig T-SQL statemet eables the FILESTREAM attribute capability after the istallatio of SQL Server. The optio 0 disables FILESTREAM, 1 eables FILESTREAM for T-SQL access, ad 2 allows FILESTREAM access for Wi32 applicatios. LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

14 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) Figure 6: T-SQL Statemet to complete FILESTREAM post-istallatio cofiguratio Data Directories i SQL Server Istallatio The locatio of SQL databases is determied durig this phase of istallatio. Best practices dictate that Temp DB ad the Temp DB log ru o LUNs or drive spidles separate from other databases, ad i a RAID 1 cofiguratio. User databases should exist o differet LUNs rather tha user database log files, ad should also be o differet drive spidles. User databases should ru o RAID 1+0 volumes, ad user database log files o RAID 1 volumes. Most disk locatios should be cofigured ad ready to use prior to istallatio. I commo SAN cofiguratios each drive letter will preset to the SQL istallatio as the locatio to achieve best practices. For example, the T (T for Trasactio Logs!) drive the server has access to is a good locatio for trasactio logs, cofigured as a RAID 1 volume. The D drive (D for Data!) is a good locatio for data, cofigured as a RAID 1+0 volume. This allows quick adjustmet i the istallatio to the data locatios ad esures that all databases added will ed up cofigured with the right drive locatio. I the high availability sectio of this maual these cosideratios cotrol the success of cluster istallatios covered i the last sectio. This sectio of the istallatio allows cofiguratio of the backup directory. This directory becomes importat i the setup of maagemet jobs if it is already cofigured. Best practice is for the backup locatio to exist o a protected SAN ad to esure the LUNs are ot used i ay SQL read or write operatios with the stored databases. Test Tip: Although a RAID 5 disk cofiguratio does provide fault tolerace, the fuctio of writig multiple bits across the array is a write ihibiter to SQL Server performace i high volume or high trasactio per secod cofiguratios. LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

15 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) Figure 7: SQL Server Istallatios Data Directories Commad Lie Setup SQL Server allows the adjustmet of SQL Server features via the commad lie after istallatio of a istace is complete. The exam has questios related to setup capability at the commad lie. The setup.exe file located with the SQL Server source biaries provides the executable to use whe makig commad lie adjustmets. Here is a example of a commad lie istall of SQL Report Server for a SQL istace called BOSS302 i the MUSTANG domai. Setup.exe /q/action = Istall/FEATURES=AS /INSTANCENAME =MSSQLSERVER/ RSSVCACCOUNT = MUSTANG\RPTSvc /RSSVCPASSWORD = testme01_ This will istall SQL Server Reportig Services to the default SQL Server istace, with the assigmet of a Reportig Services startup domai accout of RPTSvc ad a password. The best way to prepare for the commad lie capabilities of a SQL Server istallatio is to do it hadso with scripts. A quick referece for this capability is to ope a commad prompt, avigate to the SQL Server 2008 istall source, ad type setup.exe /?. Test Tip: The setup.exe commad with switches will always use the FEATURES=AS switch. This is importat because o the exam the questios will isert the word FEATURES=IS, which is a quick clue that the aswer is wrog. Also ote how the target upgrade SQL Server istace is listed. If it is default, the o istace specificatio is required. Read the questio very closely ad you ca idetify which aswers ca be elimiated easily. LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

16 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) Implemetig Database Mail The SQL Server feature is importat to may database maagemet operatios. SQL Server ca with errors, as a result of SQL applicatio activity, ad for SQL Aget job otificatios. SQL database mail is ot eabled by default. To cofigure database ope the SQL Server Maagemet Studio ad expad the Maagemet sectio. Right-click o database mail ad select cofigure. Clickig the ew profile optio will eable database mail for the SQL Server istace i which you are coected. Assig a profile ame ad add a SMTP accout. The SMTP accout data will require iformatio o your SMTP relay i use or Microsoft Exchage eviromet. The ext optio is to cofigure the profile to be public, which meas it ca be accessed by all users of ay database, or private which requires access to use it. Select Sed Test to test the cofiguratio, ad View Database Mail Log if the test is usuccessful to troubleshoot. Figure 8: Sed Test for SQL Database Mail Test Tip: The stored procedure sp_sed_dbmail operates from withi MSDB for system wide database operatios, so for security purposes esure each database user that will sed database is a member of the Databas UserRole. LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

17 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) SQL Server Cofiguratio Maager Oce SQL Server is istalled the SQL Server Cofiguratio Maager is the tool to use to cofigure your SQL istaces for service accouts, etwork ports, ad other data such as hidig SQL istaces or disablig SQL protocols. The primary SQL etwork protocols are TCP/IP ad Named Pipes. Best practices dictate the use of TCP/IP ad a selected SQL port. SQL Server defaults to port 1433, but this is easily chaged to support higher levels of security by ot allowig SQL to commuicate o the default port. Ecryptio of coectios is a cofiguratio optio here ad allows the additio of certificates used for ecryptio. Test Tip: questios that require recofiguratio of ay etwork parameters, SQL istace hidig, ad SQL listeig protocols should always alert you to look for a aswer where the SQL Cofiguratio Maager is used. Figure 9: SQL Cofiguratio Maager Showig Protocol Properties for a Istace LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

18 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) Domai 2: Maitaiig SQL Server Istaces Uderstadig System Stored Procedure: sp_cofigure SQL Server provides several tools to maage istallatios oce istalled. The system stored procedure sp_cofigure, the SQL Server Maagemet Studio, SQL Powershell ad the SQL commad lie. The exam teds to focus o the use of the T-SQL storage procedure sp_cofigure. I some istaces the maual will poit out whe the SQL Maagemet Studio ca be used over sp_cofigure, but this is oly i cases where the chage is quicker i SQL Maagemet Studio. The stored procedure sp_cofigure is a powerful tool which provides may of the cofiguratio capabilities for adjustig SQL server istallatio ad activatig or chagig features. This review will focus o commo uses of sp_cofigure. This is a system or built i storage procedure that supports SQL tasks across all domais of the exam icludig maagemet, security, ad performace tuig. Test Tip: Kow what the sytax optios are for sp_cofigure ad how to use it to adjust features o SQL Server istaces. Maage SQL Server Aget Jobs The heart of maagig SQL Server istaces is cofigurig jobs which are maaged by the SQL Server Aget. The exam covers, i detail, umerous fudametals of usig the SQL Server Aget. SQL Server Aget is the subsystem of SQL Server which rus jobs o a schedule, coducts the appropriate loggig of job activity, fires alerts, coducts database commads, ad uses required security cotexts for the jobs. All SQL Server Aget cofigured jobs are stored i the system database msdb. For exam purposes remember that the fastest route to backup cofigured SQL Server Aget Jobs is to backup system database msdb. SQL Server Aget jobs are created i SQL Maagemet Studio by right-clickig the SQL Server Aget jobs tab ad followig the cofiguratio dialogue flow. The Aget is ruig ad ready for jobs if the gree arrow is preset. The job will ask for a ame, ower, ad a category of database activity (e.g., database maiteace, data collector, or Full-Text). The steps to the job are iserted ext. These steps cotai the SQL commads ad sytax eeded to complete the required activity. The steps ca cosist of exteral code, operatig system support, or Power Shell scripts. Each step allows specificatio of the database target ad credetials to use for the step. Steps i a SQL Aget Job ca access differet databases as required ad use differet credetials. The Schedule for the jobs is the ext cofiguratio step, ad it supports complete date ad time selectio, recurrig, oe time, or the optio of takig advatage of idle CPU time. A importat part of the selectio process is to eable the schedule. If the schedule is ot eabled the job will ot ru. The SQL Server Aget jobs support alerts that ca write to the SQL Server evet log or a WMI evet. The alert dialogue allows cofiguratio of severity levels ad custom error umber. I additio to the alert the job cofiguratio supports resposes with optios to the alert, which iclude otifyig SQL operators or ruig defied SQL jobs. The Aget will sed alerts via , pager, or a et sed commad. I most cases et sed is outdated. The Aget will provide otificatios of job activity ad results via , page, et sed, Widows Applicatio evet log, or provide for deletio of the job. Coditios are set for each otificatio method, for example, whe the job fails to sed a . Lastly, the target sectio is cofigured. The Aget jobs ca target the local server or other defied liked SQL Servers. LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

19 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) Figure 10: SQL Server Aget Job Creatio Dialogue Test Tip: Whe maagig SQL Server Aget jobs, all activity is logged to the file SQLAget.out file i the SQL Server log directory, with the full path \program files\microsoft SQL Server\mssql10mssqlserver\ mssql\log. This file is idepedet of ay alertig or loggig setup for the Widows Applicatio evet log, , or WMI loggig. Schedulig of SQL Aget jobs is a required skill for the exam. SQL Server Aget jobs ca have multiple schedules. For example, the job amed 4.6Power 1 ad 4.6Power 2 could be scheduled to ru the 1 st of the moth, 15 th of the moth, ad 30 th of the moth. Whe requiremets chage always determie if the job schedule must chage as well. Test Tip: Some Aget jobs are dagerous, i.e., they are cofigured to delete data such as older records or other data. I some cases the job may be depedet o preparatory activity for tables. As you read the exam questios, whe you spot a SQL Aget job that may delete or remove data ad its use is as eeded, make sure you keep the job disabled. Maage SQL Server Aget Alerts Oce SQL Server Aget jobs are cofigured the alerts that the jobs create are itegral to SQL Server maagemet activities. Critical jobs for backups, data trasformatio, data removal, ad export of data (all of which support some busiess activity) must have alerts to esure their success or failure is moitored. I some compliace situatios such as PCI Visa certificatio, this alertig is required ad proof must be available that it exists. LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

20 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) The SQL Server Aget ca alert via , SQL evet log, or WMI. WMI or Widows Maagemet Istrumetatio is a alert that is parsed to a system that is ruig WMI based agets, such as Microsoft System Ceter. These alerts ca use the rich programmig capability of the WMI model. These alerts ca also use ay Widows performace object cotaied i the performace moitorig couter sets. If you have a case where the alert should moitor SQL Server disk space, the the alert should use the Widows performace couter elemet LogicalDisk with a cofiguratio of % Free Space. The solutio of combiig SQL Server Aget performace coditio alerts with the uderlyig Widows Server operatig system performace object is very powerful. Figure 11: SQL Server Aget Alert for Database Disk Size > 80% SQL Server Aget alerts work i cojuctio with other SQL Server otificatio features. For example, if you have cofigured stored procedures ruig, esure that they use the optio to RAISEERROR WITH LOG, ad this will work with the cofigured SQL Server Aget alert. The ubiquitous existece of eabled cell phoes today uderscores otificatio as a viable ad effective SQLS Server alert method. s cofigured as alerts ca otify for both performace ad evet alerts. This cofiguratio also builds o the database mail settigs covered i the Domai 1 of this maual. Test Tip: SQL Server Aget loggig uses the Widows Applicatio Evet log to create SQL Server Aget alerts. If the Widows Applicatio evet log is usig the settig to ot grow ad requires a maual itervetio to clear it, the SQL Server Aget alerts will fail if the Applicatio evet log is full. LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

21 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) Maage SQL Server Aget Operators SQL Server Aget operators are the credetials that receive alerts o jobs. The operator is defied with the SQL Server Aget job maagemet sectio. The Operators folder supports the creatio of operators that are available for job otificatio. The availability of a operator is a key part of the operator optios set ad allows for desigatio of whe operators may be o shift, or to support helpdesk operatios or DBA groups. The setup of a operator icludes methods to otify the operator, which are via , pager, ad et sed address. Agai, et sed is a method that will sed a message to a logged i computer so this method is ot as reliable as . The operator view also cotais a otificatio list that stores all alerts by type set to the defied operator. The operator objects created for otificatio are maageable, thus if someoe goes o vacatio or is ot available that otificatio operator object ca be disabled, or deleted i the case of a operator chage. Figure 12: SQL Aget Operator Setup Test Tip: I a sceario where oe operator should receive all otificatios or the exam questio asks to otify a operator if aother operator is ot available, make sure you uderstad the solutio is to cofigure the fail-safe operator i the SQL Server Aget core properties. LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

22 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) Figure 13: SQL Server Aget Fail-Safe Operator I cases where database mail is used to provide services to SQL Server Aget always remember that if ay ew database profiles are created ad used for SQL Server Aget otificatio, the SQL Server Aget service requires a restart i order to use the ew profile. SQL Server Aget restarts do ot affect the uptime of the SQL Server database egie. The SQL Server Declarative Maagemet Framework (DMF) SQL Server 2008 icludes the ability to create policies that work toward best maagemet practices. The collectio of tools withi the DMF focus o the policy capabilities of SQL Server to support ease of maagemet from oe to may SQL Server istaces. The DMF targets surface features. For example, protocol types i use, servers, logis, databases, tables, ad users. The policies eforce security ad database settigs. Policy maagemet is achieved via the Policy Maagemet ode uder the Maagemet area i SQL Server Maagemet Studio. The policy sectio supports Microsoft s DMF goals for SQL Server, which is to allow policy cotrol that mirrors the ease ad capability of Active Directory s Group Policy features but is targeted toward SQL Server security, settigs, ad databases. Policies are created based o eed ad the creatio of coditios the policy eforces. The coditios are comprised of SQL Server fuctios ad settigs, for type, ad actual calculatio fuctios for determiig coditios, for example, additio, subtractio, ad other math fuctios. LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

23 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) Oce a coditio is selected i buildig the expressio, the optios for that field are available. I this example, settig a database policy for Recovery Model, whe selectig the the optios of Full, Simple, ad Bulk-Logged are available. Coditios ca be combied to form multiple elemet policies. The policy is applicable agaist all databases or select databases. Policy cofiguratio ca be restricted based o the formulatio of policy facets. A facet ca determie exclusios for policies or other cosideratios. Policy Maagemet cotais a evaluatio feature that allows evaluatio of polices prior to productio implemetatio. Facets of a database are the feature settigs, ad the SQL Server policies set ad maage facets of a database. Policies ca evaluate the coditios they are goig to employ ad differet modes exist to iclude: O schedule, which is ruig a policy o a schedule. O demad, which is ruig a policy maually. O chage: log, which will log compliace with the policy as it would have doe i a evaluatio mode. O chage: prevet, which will stop the policy from executig if a policy evaluatio fails. Figure 14: SQL Server Policy for Database Recovery Model LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

24 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) Test Tip: Ay DMF policy created that is left i the o demad evaluatio mode will ot eforce the policy. The policy must be set to o schedule to esure it is executig. For example, if a policy for auditig does ot allow SQLMail eablig but SQLMail is ruig the reasos ca be that the policy is set to o demad. Whe policies execute o schedule, they use the security role of sysadmi, which esures that a proper security cotext is i use to execute the policy. SQL Admiistrators ca log o ad evaluate a policy maually, but this will use the logged o user s security cotext ad it may ot have all required permissios to ru the policy successfully. Backig Up SQL Server 2008 The backup ad protectio of SQL Server data is oe of the most importat SQL Server admiistrator tasks. Compaies that lose critical data do ot survive for log. SQL Server 2008 provides built i back capability. The exam has multiple questios cocerig the setup, admiistratio, ad restore operatios for SQL Server Backup. Ay SQL Server database or database log is easily backed up by right-clickig o the database ame ad selectig Tasks\Backup. However, this type of ad hoc backup is ot reliable or the proper method to backup SQL Server productio databases. SQL Backups require cofiguratio so that they are scheduled, automatic, use defied backup sets, ad log their results. SQL Server provides for several types of backups as follows: Full Backup Complete backup of a database file. This type of backup oly represets the database at the time of backup. Differetial Backup A backup that oly adds data chaged sice the previous full or differetial backup. Trasactio Log Full Backup Complete backup of a trasactio log. Trasactio log backups ca be Full recovery model or bulk-logged recovery model. The full recovery model allows recovery back to a poit i time by restorig backed up trasactio logs. The bulk-logged recovery model is for temporary backups ad operatios durig a large bulk operatio. Partial Backup A backup that oly addresses full data i the primary filegroup ad ay specified filegroups. Differetial Partial Backup A backup that oly cotais the data extets modified sice the most recet partial backup. Establishig a SQL backup is best hadled through the DMF s Maiteace Pla Wizard. This wizard is lauched through the Maiteace Plas ode uder Maagemet i the SQL Server Maagemet Studio. This wizard allows the setup of multiple schedules whe usig full ad differetial backups, ad for differet times for a trasactio log backup. You ca select the Backup Database (Full) optio or others as required. You ca also select other commo tasks, such as Shrik Database. The wizard allows cofiguratio of the back locatio, which ca be disk or tape. Normally, backups o disk are the backed up to tape by aother product, such as VERITAS Backup Exec. Compressio is also a optio to esure that data storage is optimized. For full backups the optio exists to apped to the desigated backup locatio, or overwrite. I most cases you will apped data for the backup so that a poit i time is selectable. The result of the backup job ca be ed or writte to a file. LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

25 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) Figure 15: SQL Server Backup Pla Test Tip: A stadard workable SQL Backup schedule is as follows. We are protectig a database called poypowersalesdb. This database is backed up with the followig schedule ad type of backup: 2300 PM Nightly MTWTFSS: Full Backup 1000 AM Daily MTWTFSS: Differetial Backup 1400 PM Daily MTWTFSS: Differetial Backup Every 30 Miutes of Each Day, MTWTFSS: Trasactio Log Backup The exam will challege you to coduct a database restore for a database problem with poypowersalesdb. Pay close attetio to the order of the backups ad what time the exam idicates the problem has occurred. I this example, a failure occurs at 3:00 PM or 1500 hours. The restore order is (1) the full database backup from 2300; (2) the 1400 differetial backup; ad (3) each trasactio log backup before 3:00 PM. This will restore the database as quickly as possible. I some recovery cases, the restore will be for a database already restored. The database recovery model Full Recovery allows you to restore a database usig the WITH RECOVERY optio. The Full Recovery model allows the use of trasactio log backups, while the Simple recovery does ot. This will allow you to restore a backed up database, which places the database i stadby mode ad allows the full backup with recovery optio described above. LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

26 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) The COPY_ONLY backup optio is also covered o the exam ad allows backig up data from a database or log file without affectig the backup sequece. If you recovered a file withi a database from a previous backup ad wat to esure playback of the trasactio log backups for true poit i time recovery the restore whatever part of the database file or filegroup is required the backup the trasactio log with the COPY_ONLY optio ad restore it WITH NORECOVERY ad the restore it agai WITH RECOVERY. Usig WITH_RECOVERY as the last optio i the restore will brig the file back olie. This is kow as a tail-log trasactio log backup. Whe the failure of the database i questio is reported or kow, the quick backup of the trasactio log attempts to recover trasactios betwee the failure ad the trasactio log backup. I may cases this will esure you are the SQL Admiistrator hero of the day because ormally o data is lost, especially if best practices are followed ad the trasactio logs are o differet disks tha the database files. Aother optio, which the exam will also cover, is the SQL 2008 backup optio called READ_WRITE_FILEGROUPS. I database desig read-oly databases are usually filegroups with the database structure. Backups are quicker because read-oly data is skipped. Domai 3 - Maagig SQL Server Security SQL Server security questios accout for 15% of the exam. This is a area requirig fluecy ad accuracy. The exam will expect uderstadig of SQL Server logis, server roles, the maagemet of users, SQL Server istace permissios, database permissios, schema permissios, object permissios, auditig, ad data ecryptio. SQL Server Logis ad Server Roles SQL Server logis cosist of Active Director or domai logi accouts, local computer logi accouts whe a SQL Server may ot be a member of a domai, ad the SQL Server accout. SQL Server accouts are logis which are maitaied by SQL Server ad do t belog to the local computer SAM or a Active Directory domai. The type of accout that SQL Server will allow for a logi is determied by the SQL Server autheticatio mode. The SQL Server autheticatio mode is set durig istall or adjusted at ay time i the Server Properties sectio of the Server ode or with a sp_cofigure chage. The two autheticatio modes are Widows Autheticatio, which will use Active Directory or local server accouts, ad SQL Server ad Widows Autheticatio, which oly allows the use of SQL Server accouts. The latter autheticatio is commoly referred to as mixed mode. Best practice dictates that oly Widows Autheticatio mode be used, which reduces server attacks that attempt to compromise SQL Server based accouts. The default SQL Server security mixed mode logi is called sa. LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

27 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) Figure 16: Server Properties for Server Autheticatio Modes Logis are created through the Security Node of SQL Server Maagemet Studio. Right-click o the Logis sub ode ad select ew logi. The ew logi is give a ame, but i the case of Widows autheticatio this ame should correspod to the Active Directory or local server accout ame. SQL Server Logi creatio allows a search of the Active Directory or the local server accouts. No password is assiged for a Widows autheticatio logi as it will use the password maitaied via the Active Directory. A SQL Server logi requires a password ad optios as to whether to use password policy, password expiratio, ad a chage o first logi. Additioally, SQL Server logis ca be certificate based for applicatio support, mapped to asymmetric keys, or mapped to credetials. A default database for the logi is the last portio of the ew logi dialogue. Logis ca be mapped to the databases they are supportig or should have access to. Test Tip: The followig sytax will create users i query editor. For a Widows user, add the commad FROM WINDOWS ad put the user ame i the cotext of DOMAIN\USERNAME. To force a password chage for a SQL logi, add the MUST_CHANGE commad to the CREATE LOGIN sytax. LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

28 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) Figure 17: Create Logi Commad Password Policies SQL Server password policies provide the same robust security eforcemet as Widows 2003 ad Widows 2008 Active Directory complex passwords eforcemet. The parameters iclude eforcig password complexity, password expiratio, ad the eforcig the policy. The policy applies ONLY to SQL based logis, ot Widows Active Directory based accouts. Test Tip: Use the ALERT LOGIN T-SQL commad with CHECK_POLICY to ON to eforce the password policy. SQL Server-Level Roles ad Database-Level Roles SQL Server security cotais several fixed or default server roles. By placig SQL logis ito the available server fixed roles, the logi receives the privileges i which the role is cofigured. Fixed server roles apply server wide ot just to idividual databases. SQL Server also cotais multiple predefied database roles that are applicable to databases idividually versus the SQL Server rage of a fixed role. A admiistrator ca create custom database roles, but the predefied oes aswer most SQL security issues. Fixed Roles SysAdmi ServerAdmi SetupAdmi Securityadmi ProcessAdmi DBCreator DiskAdmi BulkAdmi Public Defiitio Ay member ca perform ay actio o the SQL Server Ay member ca set cofiguratio optios o the server Ay member ca maage liked server ad SQL Server startup optios ad tasks Ay member ca maage server security Ay member ca maage kill processes ruig o SQL Server Ay member ca create, alter, drop ad restore databases Ay member ca maage SQL Server disk files Ay member ca ru the bulk isert commad Default role for every SQL Server logi Table 3: SQL Server Fixed Security Roles LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

29 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) Predefied Database Roles Db_ower Db_accessadmi Db_datareader Db_datawriter Db_ddladmi Db_securityadmi Db_backupoperator Db_deydatawriter Db_deydatareader Defiitio Members have full access Members ca maage Widows groups ad SQL logis Members ca read all data Members ca add, delete, or modify data i tables Members ca ru ay data defiitio laguage (ddl) commads Members ca modify role membership ad maage permissios Members ca back up the database Members caot add, modify, or delete ay data i user tables Members caot read ay data i the user tables Table 4: Predefied Security Roles Test Tip: questios i this area will focus o the least amout of privilege. If the questio idicates that backup capability is required ad the ability to kill processes, the assig oly those two roles; do ot push up the stack to SysAdmi or ServerAdmi. I the case of custom database roles, the role should be added to the respective fuctio of predefied database roles. If you create a database role called Shelby_Backups ad wat the members to backup databases, the add the Shelby_Backups role as a member to the db_backupoperator role o the database i questio. Figure 18: SQL Server Custom Role with Members LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

30 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) User mappig is also importat to complete the setup of database roles. Whe settig up a user admiisters have the optio of mappig the user to a database ad selectig a role. Agai, best practice is to use least amout of permissios to maitai a secure audit posture. Logis ot mapped to a database have o access. Figure 19: User Mappig for a Database Role The Guest, Public, ad DBO Pricipals All SQL Server databases iclude the guest user, which is created aytime a database is created. If a SQL logi does ot have a accout i a database, the it iherits the guest user rights. By default the guest user is disabled. All databases have the database ower or dbo user added upo creatio. This role is always a member of the database-level role called db_ower. This user ca cofigure ad coduct all activities i a database. Each created database is a member of the public database role. Ay user who does ot have permissio i a database will iherit the public permissios. As with guest user, for security purposes, this user should remai without rights. LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

31 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) SQL Server Istace Permissios The types of SQL Server istace permissios focused o i the exam are logo triggers, cross-database owership chaiig, ad impersoatio. The cocept of separatig security boudaries with SQL Server istaces is i play here. Disparate security measures for password policies, logi types, ad SQL Server Autheticatio mode all should alert you to use a ew SQL istace to create good security segregatio. Logo Triggers Logo triggers are used to activate a stored procedure i SQL Server. Logo triggers are covered o the exam i the audit ad cotrol server portios of the questios. Whe audit type questios o the exam describe methods to track user activity the aswer is the logo trigger. The trigger ca be set to ru for access to the SQL Server or a database. Logo triggers iclude the ability to activate stored procedures ad esure they ca eforce ad prevet actios. A logo trigger ca esure that a logi is ot ruig more tha two sessios to a istace at ay oe time. The logo trigger ca eforce (via checks) coditios about the user sessio. Test Tip: questios that ask about restrictig user sessios or checkig the amout of sessios are askig about the use of a logo trigger. The logo trigger is created i the master database to esure SQL Istace wide eforcemet. Impersoatio SQL Server impersoates credetials that origiate as a Widows user whe commuicatig withi SQL Server or SQL services. Whe SQL rus a process it will use the cotext of the logi, ad this trasposes to other fuctios, processes, Liked SQL Servers, ad database access. SQL Server has a Commo Laguage Rutime (CLR) built i to execute maaged code withi the SQL Server memory space. The SQL.Cotext.WidowsIdetity i the CLR is used to impersoate a Widows accout with permissio to access the required databases ad code. This code call will set the cotext uder which the code will execute which allows creatio of Widows accouts with the appropriate permissios to execute i the CLR space. Test Tip: questios that offer aswers for impersoatio by addig the Widows accout to the Active Directory Domai Admis group or local server Admiistrators group are wrog aswers. The eforcemet of security always dictates the least amout of privilege to execute successfully. Always evaluate exam questios i the security area with a focus o least permissios. Cross-Database Owership Chaiig Database applicatio solutios sometimes require the access of multiple databases i a SQL Server istace. I cases where this is required a chai of owership is created across the required databases. The secod database i the chai will ot evaluate permissios of a object that was previously autheticated i the first member of a chai. This does provide for a speed icrease i some cases; however, this feature is disabled by default. Test Tip: Cross-Database chaiig is eabled server wide via the SQL Server Maagemet Studio ad Server Properties, or with sp_cofigure cross db owership chaiig =1 to ON. The recommeded solutio for exam ad maagemet purposes is to use ALTER DATABASE to tur o cross-database chaiig or idividual databases that require it rather tha settig it server ad istace wide. LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

32 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) Maagig Schema Permissios Aother key securable i the SQL Server security ecosystem are database schemas. Database roles, such as dbo or other logis, ow or maage schemas throughout the database realm. A key ehacemet with SQL Server 2005 was the itroductio of user ad schema separatio. SQL 2008 maitais this security split. Schema objects iclude tables, stored procedures, views, ad roles that ca access ad maage these iteractios. The practical effect of this security feature is that a SQL logi amed Shelby302 ca ow a schema amed SchemaPower, which cotais a table, a stored procedure, ad a user-defied fuctio. The SQL logi has access to ad owership of all of these database objects through sigular schema owership. Test Tip: I SQL 2008, it is simple to chage the ower of a schema from oe logi to aother. This is the least disruptive admiistrative path. If a user amed Shelby302 leaves the compay, a simple chage of owership to the ew logi completes assigmet of all the objects i the schema. The iclusio of the schema object creates the four-part cotets of a fully qualified object ame i SQL Server 2008; for example, BOSS302.HEADERS.SCHEMA1.TABLE1. I other words, the SQL Server ame, database ame, schema ame, ad the object. SQL Server 2008 supports the use of syoyms to access these four-part defied objects. For example, the code below creates a syoym of BOSS for the BOSS302.HEADERS.SCHEMA1.TABLE1, ad the coducts a select of all data. Figure 20: Creatio of a Schema Object Syoym Test Tip: The ALTER AUTHORIZATION versus the ALTER USER commad quickly chages schema owership. The movemet of schema objects is accomplished quickest through ALTER SCHEMA. LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

33 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) Auditig SQL Server The auditig of SQL Server is oe the most importat day-to-day tasks of a SQL Admiistrator, ad this is covered i multiple covergig areas o the exam. A collectio of methods is reviewed below, which, take together, preset the picture of a valid SQL Server audit posture. From PCI (Paymets Card Idustry) certificatio to HIPPI (Health Care Regulatios) the storage of data, which is comprised of persoal or fiacial iformatio, dictates that SQL admiistrators must have a commad of SQL audit methods. SQL Server ca audit activity ad sed the output to multiple locatios to iclude files, the Widows Applicatio Log, ad the Widows Security log. Test Tip: SQL Server ca oly access the local server s Widows Security log if the SQL Server service rus as a Local System, Local Service, Network Service, or a Active Directory based accout which cotais the rights to access the log. SQL Server allows creatio of objects for auditig via the CREATE SERVER AUDIT commad. A audit coditio is set up with this commad ad a destiatio as described above is selected. Oce audit coditios are created, the SQL admiistrator ca add evets to the coditio with CREATE SERVER AUDIT SPECIFICATION ad CREATE DATABASE AUDIT SPECIFICATION commads. If as a SQL admiistrator you were trackig failed logis, you would create a audit specificatio that tracks the failed logi ad adds it to the audit file ad locatio. The followig are examples of stadard SQL Server audit specificatios ad ca be applied to all users: SUCCESSFUL_LOGIN_GROUP LOGOUT_GROUP FAILED_LOGIN_GROUP AUDIT_CHANGE_GROUP SERVER_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP The followig are examples of database specific audit specificatios ad should be applied to all databases: DATABASE_CHANGE_GROUP DATABASE_PERMISSION_CHANGE_GROUP DATABASE_OBJECT_ACCESS_GROUP The followig are database table specific audit specificatios that esure auditig is applied at the lowest poit of the database object: SELECT (this audit feature captures the SELECT statemet ot the data!) INSERT UPDATE DELETE Protectio is also required for the SQL Server audit files. Esure that you are familiar with auditig the readig ad chagig of the produced SQL Server audit files. A audit set o master.sys.f_get_audit_file records ay logi that reads the audit file or attempts to chage it. LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

34 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) Each database has a property called Chage Trackig, which is eabled at the database object level ad the available to ay table withi the database. This will track all chages to data i a database withi a table ad allow you to specify a iterval to retai the chage data. Figure 21: Chage Data Trackig Cofiguratio o Database Table DDL Triggers DDL triggers are similar to logo triggers i that they execute evets based o some defied audit coditio. DDL triggers provide the power to eforce SQL Server auditig by esurig code executio for defied evets ad the executio of alertig whe required. DDL triggers track specific evets withi databases. For example, if a SQL admiistrator wated a evet writte every time a database object is deleted a DDL trigger would satisfy this requiremet. DDL triggers help collect audit activity i databases. For example, a SQL admiistrator always has the optio of creatig a audit table based o a XML colum ad isertig ay DDL trigger evets ito the table for simple parsig ad reportig later. A very powerful feature of DDL triggers is the ability to act o CREATE_USER actios ad the execute procedures to eforce permissios maagemet. For example, if you wated to have all users for a database receive data_writer capability o creatio the DDL trigger ca import the user ame from the XML based data ad the form a SQL statemet to execute the requiremet. Test Tip: Whe the exam questio asks how to audit a evet every time it occurs ad write a evet, the aswer should focus o the DDL trigger capability. LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

35 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) C2 Audit Cofiguratio The C2 audit mode was a previous SQL Server audit posture that matched evet loggig for both failed ad successful attempts to access statemets ad objects. This mode is easily tured o i SQL Server Maagemet Studio\Security Properties or by usig sp_cofigure. All C2 iformatio is stored i the sys. traces catalog view. Test Tip: C2 auditig collects a lot of data. If the file locatio where the loggig is saved rus out of disk space the SQL Server will shut dow. To brig SQL Server back up you must free up disk space, or for the exam kow that you ca brig up SQL Server ad bypass loggig with the followig commad: Ru: sqlservr f. Note that the C2 audit stadard is ow replaced i SQL Server (ad the idustry) by Commo Criteria. Commo Criteria Commo Criteria is a idustry security stadard certificatio that is promulgated by the NSA DBMS Protectio Profile. SQL Server 2008 is compliat whe usig Commo Criteria compliace as a optio to EAL1+. Commo Criteria addresses the followig elemets. Residual Iformatio Protectio (RIP) esures the overwritig of bits i memory with a kow patter of bits before the memory is used by aother process. This prevets buffer ad other types of data harvestig from leftover processes i memory. Commo Criteria supports the viewig of all logi statistics to iclude successful logis, usuccessful logis, umber of logi attempts, ad logi times. These statistics are viewed i the sys.dm_exec_sessios Dyamic Maagemet View (DMV). The last elemet of Commo Criteria is that ay table with DENY will take precedece over ay colum object of that table with a GRANT. Commo Criteria audit optios are eabled via the SQL Server Maagemet Studio or with sp_cofigure. You must dowload a script from the Microsoft SQL Server Commo Criteria web site to complete the cofiguratio ad restart the SQL Service. Test Tip: Whe exam questios focus o loggig all logi attempts both successful ad usuccessful, the aswer will iclude eablig commo criteria compliace. Whe you review the aswers to this type of questio take ote that logo triggers oly execute AFTER logos have occurred ad oly capture successful logi activity. Trasparet Data Ecryptio Securig SQL Server data with ecryptio helps further the security model. SQL Server 2008 provides for Trasparet Data Ecryptio or TDE, which provides the required cryptographic fuctios to ecrypt ad decrypt data as it is read from or writte to SQL storage. This is a huge advatage because it does ot require that the applicatio use SQL Server for ecryptig ad decryptig data. TDE uses a DEK (Database Ecryptio Key), ad this key is stored i the database boot record i case recovery is eeded. Test Tip: Aytime a database usig TDE is moved to aother SQL istace, the database ecryptio key requires a backup ad restore to the ew SQL istace. If you do ot also get the certificate, you caot restore without the key because TDE database backups are also ecrypted. A rage of ecryptio capabilities exist with Widows 2008 ad Widows 2003 which have BitLocker Drive Ecryptio (BDE) ad the Ecryptig File System (EFS), respectively. This defese layer is oly at the operatig system level ad ot withi the SQL Server applicatio. SQL Server databases do ot achieve ecrypted operatios by oly ecryptig the disks with the operatig systems. TDE is the aswer that provides ecryptio, ad it is preferred because it does ot affect applicatios, such as ASP.NET web applicatios usig a SQL database. LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

36 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) The use of TDE requires uderlyig key cofiguratio for SQL Server. You will eed to create a master key. This is accomplished via the CREATE MASTER KEY statemet. The ext requiremet is a certificate, which like all certificate operatios, ca be geerated from the Active Directory Certificate Authority, the local server certificate authority, or a third party certificate from VeriSig or a similar accredited certificate issuer. The ability to create the required DEK for TDE is cotiget upo the above two steps. Figure 22: Eablig TDE for a SQL Database SQL Server Surface Area The SQL Server surface area is reduced by default to esure that services that are ot ecessary after istallatio are ot ruig. The SQL Server surface area is the portio of the SQL Server services exposed for use ad coectios via tcp ports or amed pipes. A example service is database mirrorig, which uses multiple ports to fuctio so it is disabled by default ad reduces the SQL Server surface area. The cofiguratio of security for the surface is area is addressed by sp_cofigure ad the previously metioed SQL Server maagemet policies. A umber of cofiguratio facets exist which allow defiitio of policies relatig to the SQL Server surface area. The facet Surface Area Cofiguratio cotais the key surface area services for eablig or disablig. The creatio of a coditio usig the facet allows creatio of a policy to eable or disable it. LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

37 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) Figure 23: SQL Server policy coditio usig the Surface Area Cofiguratio facet disablig Service Broker Oce a coditio is created based o a precofigured facet this coditio rolls up to a policy o the server, for example, a combied security policy which will iclude the defied coditios, i this case, those related to surface area cofiguratio. LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

38 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) Figure 24: Addig the cofigured coditio to a policy for Surface Area Cofiguratio Test Tip: I this area, the exam focuses o reusig policies for other SQL Server istaces. SQL Server Maagemet Studio allows the export of a facet as a policy to a file. O a ew SQL Server istace select the exported policy file, evaluate it, ad apply for ay violatios. Sp_cofigure is the aswer whe exam questios ask you to evaluate a surface area solutio for oe SQL Server istace versus multiple istaces. Domai 4 Maitaiig a SQL Server Database Database Maagemet ad Cofiguratio Questios o the exam from Domai 4 cover a wide rage of everyday SQL Server admiistrative tasks. These areas iclude backups, restores, database file types, checkig database itegrity, recovery models, ad rages of database optios. Database Files The fudametal buildig blocks of SQL Server are the collectio of files that make up the complete database object. Aytime a database is created two files are created by default. A database cosists of a primary database file, with the extesio *.mdf, ad filegroups withi the database object, with the extesio *.df, ad the log file, which has the extesio *.ldf. A database object always has a primary file, ad the filegroups become secodary. Withi each SQL database object are the various elemets: tables, idexes, ad schemas. LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

39 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) Figure 25: Database Files with extesios, Primary, Filegroups, ad Logs SQL database objects ca cotai multiple log files. Whe oe log file fills up, the ext log file is used. This esures that the database object stays olie ad does ot suffer dowtime. SQL Server database object files should be stored o separate disks or arrays to achieve fast throughput. The primary *.mdf ad *.df files should be o differet disks or arrays tha the *.ldf files. This supports the goal of disk read ad write operatios employig differet I/O paths to differet physical disks. Ideally each disk subsystem path will use a differet disk cotroller or Host Bus Adapter (HBA). The SQL Server database filegroup of *.df files ca also beefit from performace with storage to differet disk subsystems. I the exam questios ote that RAID 1 is the best disk RAID type to support a log file. This also provides fault tolerace. Performace experts do ot agree about the use of large RAID 5 volumes as locatios for SQL Server *.mdf ad *.df files, but this does provide a solid fault tolerace solutio. I most cases high trasactio based SQL Server ad OLAP implemetatios use RAID 10 (RAID 1 + 0) SAN cofiguratios to achieve the fault tolerace capabilities of RAID 5, with the speed of RAID 1 data reads ad writes. SQL Server 2008 stores data o a page. This is a commo term used i backup ad restore scearios because at times the restore problem is to just restore a corrupted page holdig some data withi the row o that page. Stadard page storage is 8 KB. The groupig of 8 pages together i a SQL Server database file structure forms a extet, which is 64 KB. The exam expects a uderstadig of SQL Server database structures to this level ad questios emerge o the smallest elemets of a row ad table. LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

40 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) Database Filegroups SQL Server database filegroups build o the commo database file structures listed above ad expad the optios for addressig data segregatio, performace, ad recoverability. A filegroup stores multiple SQL Server database files i it. The creatio of a database establishes the first file i the group as the PRIMARY. SQL Server admiistrators i the desig process ca create multiple filegroup objects which become the *.df files listed i the defiitio of database files. Filegroups allow the spreadig of tables ad idexes across physical files. questios from the SQL Server Performace sectio (Domai 7) have filegroups as the basis for achievig great optimizatio i very large database implemetatios. You ca create multiple filegroups ad place them o differet volumes ad achieve better I/O. Whe queries execute to various tables spread betwee filegroups performace is icreased. Filegroups also provide the foudatio for good database maiteace ad backup plaig. Read-oly data is placed ito a read-oly filegroup, which reduces backup time. Oe strategy is to place large data i differet filegroups ad the use full backup or differetial backup at differet times to protect the data. For example, a filegroup amed PARTS is backed up fully o Moday ad Thursday, ad a filegroup amed SALES is backed up fully o Tuesday ad Friday. This strategy saves time because oly portios of the database are backed up ad o differet days to avoid cogestio whe backig up large amouts of data. Test Tip: For exam purposes ote that a trasactio log ca ever be i a filegroup! Figure 26: Database with multiple files i a filegroup LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

41 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) Rage of Database Optios Each database created i SQL Server has a full set of optios available oce created. Optios ca be chaged o databases with the SQL Server Maagemet Studio or with the ALTER DATABASE T-SQL statemet. The exam will expect complete familiarity with the SQL Server Maagemet Studio database optios sectio ad with usig ALTER DATABASE. The ALTER DATABASE commad has the followig database optios available: Optiospec Auto_optio Chage_trackig_optio Cursor_optio Database_mirrorig_optio Date_correlatio_optimizatio_optio Db_ecryptio_optio Db_state_optio Db_update_optio Db_user_access_optio Exteral_access_optio Parameterizatio_optio Recovery_optio Service_broker_optio Sapshot_optio Sql_optio Termiatio LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

42 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) Figure 27: ALTER DATBASE commad i actio (chagig recovery model to full) Recovery Models The type of recovery model used i the SQL Server database cofiguratio will drive the restore method available for SQL server databases. SQL Server has three recovery models: full, simple, ad bulk-logged. Each of these models has a differet effect o how the database s trasactio logs are set up. All of the recovery models are set i the Database Properties\Optios ode. Right-click o a database i SQL Server Maagemet Studio ad select database properties. The simple recovery model dictates that the trasactio logs are ot kept. Whe database data is chaged ad committed the trasactio log i simple recovery mode is also cleared, or i SQL Server terms, trucated. Whe a trucatio of the trasactio log occurs it is o loger useful i the restore of a database. Whe a database is i simple recovery mode the oly database backup type available is full backup. A SQL Server admiistrator i support of productio databases would ot use this recovery model. If a database is backed up each hour over six hours ad a failure occurs at 5 hours ad 55 miutes, the data loss widow is ow 55 miutes of data as the admiistrator would restore the backup take at hour 5. The full recovery model does ot automatically create SQL checkpoits o the trasactio log ad trucate them. The full recovery model allows the itroductio of two ew backup ad restore fuctios: differetial ad trasactio logs. I the full recovery model a admiistrator ca restore oe file, without the etire database, or oe or more pages ad a trasactio log. The full recovery model eables full poit i time recovery for a database for ay time rage covered by the backed up trasactio logs. The bulk-logged recovery model is like the full recovery model except that this mode supports bulk operatio ad is desiged to support the full recovery model. This model is a performace-ehacig mode for support of itesive database operatios such as bulk imports of data or idex creatio. Bulk log will reduce the log space required. However, oe key differece from the full recovery model is that the bulk-logged model does ot support poit i time recovery! LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

43 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) Prep: The 302Ifo database i Simple Recovery Mode The 302Ifo database is cofigured with the simple recovery database optio. Each ight the 302Ifo database is backed up at Oe day you come to work ad the Sales departmet reports that their.net applicatios are reportig the error Database 302Ifo Not Foud. You check the SQL Server istace ad discover a failed drive. The drive failure occurred over 10 hours after the last backup, ad the compay had coducted about 10,000 sales betwee the last backup ad the drive failure. You are ew to the job ad ot held resposible for this catastrophe. However, the Sales Executive Vice Presidet tells you: Never allow the loss of more tha 10 miutes of sales data. The compay does ot have much available storage space for backups. What solutio will you provide? Solutio: The 302Ifo database i Simple Recovery Mode The first part of the solutio is immediately apparet: the 302Ifo database must switch to the full recovery model. This is accomplished easily through SQL Server Maagemet Studio ad database optios for 302Ifo. This chage will ot disrupt curret database operatios ad is seamless to users. The secod big requiremet is to ot lose more tha 10 miutes of sales data. This requiremet suggests schedulig a trasactio log backup every 10 miutes. The last requiremet is that the recovery method caot use much disk space. Trasactio log backups at such a short iterval (10 miutes) will use a miimal amout of space sice they oly capture what has chaged i that time spa. This is aother graduated walkthrough of a questio type that may appear o the exam. Keep the followig i mid whe aswerig these types of questios: Some of the aswers will offer the differetial backup as a optio. This optio, however, uses much disk space ad backs up everythig chaged. Aswers will also offer differet time itervals. Always esure you match your aswer with the solutio. I this case the operative timeframe is 10 miutes. Detachig ad Attachig Databases The SQL Server Maagemet Studio supports the easy detachig ad attachig of SQL databases. This fuctio is primarily used to move a database to a ew server. A database detach will esure that o processes or applicatios have the database i use ad esure that the files ca be easily copied ad move. Oce a database is detached avigate to the file system directory cotaiig the databaseame.mdf (database file) ad the databaseamelog.ldf ad copy them to the ew SQL Server drive locatio. LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

44 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) Figure 28: Detachig a SQL Server Database Database Backups Database backups ad restores occupy a large portio of a SQL admiistrator s time durig support or productio database operatios. This area is also crucial to successfully passig MS Domai 4 adds to the basics of backups ad restores covered i Domai 2. I this sectio we will ivestigate more scearios for backup ad restore questios versus core defiitios ad how to set up ad coduct these services. Backup Type Details Whe you are ready to take the MS , you should already have a solid uderstadig of backup ad restore defiitios. Prep: Backup ad Restore for 302Ifo You are resposible for a database called 302Ifo. The database is approximately 460 GB, ad data exists i multiple filegroups. This full backup takes 6 hours. Oly 30% of the data i the 302Ifo database chages daily. The Parts filegroup is read-oly ad rarely updates. LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

45 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) The busiess divisio, which uses the 302Ifo database for corporate sales, has requested that you devise a backup implemetatio that achieves the followig busiess goals: No more tha 2 hours of data ca be lost at ay time. The time widow to back up the database, which is curretly at 6 hours, is too log ad must be reduced. If ay database recovery is required the busiess team demads that it be as quick as possible. Filegroups for db.302ifo PowerAccessoriesSales Parts CustomerIfo Filegroup Types Primary (150 GB) Read-Oly (200 GB) Read-Write (110 GB) Solutio: Backup ad Restore for 302Ifo The sceario above will have four possible aswers o the exam, but i evaluatig this questio, several backup cocepts emerge quickly as clues to the correct aswer. The use of a read-oly filegroup called Parts immediately sigals that the backup optio READ_WRITE_ FILEGROUPS is okay to use for a partial backup, i.e., the backup commad will oly backup read-write filegroups ad the primary filegroup. By usig the T-SQL statemet BACKUP DATBASE 302Ifo READ_ WRITE_FILEGROUPS TO CompayBackupSAN, you achieve a backup of the chaged data each day, but ow avoid backig up over 200 GB of static data. This will reduce the backup time to less tha 3 hours, which is a 100% reductio i time. Whe data chages i the Parts filegroup, the schedule a backup to accommodate the ew data ad the move forward agai with the READ_WRITE_FILEGROUPS optio. This is a partial backup type. The ext portio of the questio focuses o how much time ca exist betwee data failures. So if a failure of the database occurs at 1410, ad it is backed up every two hours with a differetial optio, the recovery ca occur withi the expected two-hour time widow. The solutio is to set up a BACKUP WITH DIFFERENTIAL every two hours for the 302Ifo database. This will esure that o more tha two hours of data is at risk throughout the day. For a restore, the fact that the full backup did ot back up the 200 GB read-oly filegroup alog with the smaller size of the differetial backups esure that you will ejoy a faster recovery time. The combiatio of the above two solutios allows you to quickly isolate the aswer o the exam. Make sure you focus o aswers with solutios that do ot work so that you ca quickly idetify the correct aswer. ples of solutios that do t work for the above sceario are as follows: BACKUP DATABASE 302Ifo to CompayBackupSAN. This solutio maitais the curret situatio of a log backup timeframe. BACKUP DATABASE 302Ifo to CompayBackupSAN WITH DIFFERENTIAL, ad do this ightly. This solutio fails because it does ot create the base backup required for recovery ad as the partial backup base. Backig up the databases every four hours without usig a differetial, which supports a quick restore, or ot backig up the databases withi the requested data loss prevetio iterval, which i this sceario is two hours. Test Tip: The above sceario demostrates a method you ca use to evaluate the requiremets of a questio o the exam ad how to elimiate wrog aswers ad isolate the correct oe. LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

46 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) Verifyig Backups Verifyig backups i SQL Server is a importat admiistrator task ad oe that should happe ofte to esure that whe disaster strikes you are ready. The exam will expect you to kow how to verify a backup durig the backup process ad also maually. The Verify backup optio is available whe settig up a backup job through the SQL Server Maiteace Pla iterface. This optio will esure that the backup is complete ad the volumes are readable. Aother verificatio method is the optio of performig checksum before writig to media. The backup process will check media but cotiue o whe it fids a error, but ot use that portio of the backup volume. Figure 29: SQL Server Backup optios for reliability ad verificatio Restorig Databases The restore process for SQL server databases takes several routes. Keep i mid for the exam that the SQL Server database recovery model dictates a route for the restore operatio. If the recovery model is set to simple, the a trasactio log restore is ot possible because it was ot a optio i the backup cofiguratio. SQL admiistrators will excel o the exam by uderstadig the followig restore methods, ad this will traslate to successfully supportig corporate SQL database operatios. The first time you coduct a restore from well maaged backup optios that save a compay moey ad time you will be the hero! LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

47 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) Restore Types ad Strategies The followig are restore strategies with a explaatio of how the recovery model of the database iflueces them: Restore of the etire database. Simple recovery model: Restores the etire database with o trasactio log capability. Full recovery model: Restores the etire database, ad allows restore of ay subsequet log files to the full backup. As with all full recovery model restores the last restore of a log is restored with the RESTORE WITH RECOVERY optio. Restore of a data file, which ca iclude differet filegroup database files ad read-oly files. Simple recovery model: Restore idividual files oly if the database has at least oe read-oly filegroup. Full recovery model: Restore idividual files, without restorig the etire database. Filegroups beig restored are always offlie. Restore of a Page, which ca correct a damaged page or pages. Simple recovery model: Not a optio. Full recovery model: Page restoratio relies o havig a ubroke chai of log backups to the curret log file. Piecemeal restores recover databases i stages at the filegroup level, startig with the primary ad workig through the remaiig read/write or secodary filegroups. Simple recovery model: supported. Full recovery model: supported. Prep: Database 302ifo Restore The 302ifo database is 400 GB total ad has 300 GB of database files located o SAN drive Y ad 100 GB of log files located o SAN drive L. You have implemeted the followig backup schedule: Backup Type Full Backup Differetial Backup Differetial Backup Trasactio Log Backup Backup Time 2300 Nightly 1000 Daily 1400 Daily Every 30 Miutes, Daily At 1310 PM o a Tuesday, the SAN array hostig the database file abeds (abormal ed to operatios) ad is offlie. How will you quickly recovery the database? LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

48 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) Solutio: Restore Sceario O the exam quickly idetify your optios for the restore. I this case you must ote the complete loss of the SAN drive supportig the database file. The SAN drive supportig the log file is still up ad workig, however, this is a sceario that requires a restore to get the database back. Keep the followig steps i mid whe performig a restore: 1. First ad foremost back up the trasactio log! 2. Restore the last full backup. 3. Restore the latest differetial backup if applicable. 4. Restore each log file backup take after the last differetial backup i sequece, with the RECOVERY optio selected, util restore of the last trasactio log. Whe thikig about the solutio above, usig these steps you ca successfully restore the database back to its state at 1300 or a data loss widow of 10 miutes. The backup of the trasactio log is detailed below i the Trasactio Log Tail Restore sectio. This last trasactio log backup prior to the restore allows the recovery process to eve restore some of the trasactios betwee 1300 ad the time of the failure at There is a differetial backup coducted at 1000 daily so this will reduce the amout of time for the restore due to ot havig to restore logs from 2300 the ight before. Rule out aswers that do ot back up the log as the first step of the restore process. Beware of aswers that suggest that a restore of the latest trasactio log is the oly requiremet for logs. Also ote aswers that restore trasactios logs from the origial full backup time ad do ot icorporate the differetial backup. Database Sapshots Database sapshots provide aother level of recoverability ad fault tolerace i protectig SQL Server. Microsoft s database sapshot techology builds o their expertise with virtual drive sapshots for Widows operatig system products, but adds the importat SQL uique sapshot requiremets of esurig that the database sapshot is readable by SQL Server. A sapshot is a poit i time picture of the state of a database ad all of its objects. Database sapshots are extremely useful for code updates that affect table structures or other database stored procedures. Whe a code update goes awry or some ew process removes a table or idex by mistake, the reversio back to the previous database sapshot saves time from a restore ad esures rapid recovery capability. Test Tip: There is o capability withi the SQL Server Maagemet Studio graphical tools to create a database sapshot. The database sapshot is read-oly. However the cotets of the created sapshot are usable with T-SQL commads for restore back ito the source database. LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

49 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) Sapshots are created with the CREATE DATABASE commad. A example is show below. Figure 30: CREATE DATABASE commad for a database sapshot The above sapshot commad created a copy of the database Superchargers. Whe ay data chages i the database Superchargers, that data will show up i the created sapshot. The sapshot has a utility for restorig corrupted data or ay of the objects i the database that are corrupt. Database sapshots receive data from the primary database via copy-o-write, which is how the sapshot stays up to date. Test Tip: Database sapshots will grow i time just like the database i which they are take. Database sapshots must always exist o the same SQL istace as the source database. Database Itegrity Database itegrity refers to the usability of SQL Server databases. Are they fit? Are they corrupted? The primary tool i your SQL admiistrative tool kit for aalyzig database itegrity is the DBCC commad. Commo SQL Server challeges for databases iclude tor pages that affect performace ad data retrieval. Abrupt power outages ca cotribute to database damage. The DBCC commad ad its optios allow a rage of checks ad repair activity. DBCC CHECKDB Database Cosole Commads or DBCC are used to coduct maiteace ad itegrity checks o databases. DBCC has a set of statemets related to validatio, which help esure database itegrity. The primary statemet used for validatio is DBCC CHECKDB. This check will esure correct allocatio ad structural itegrity of all objects i a database. It will idetify ad repair a wide rage of possible errors. Prep: Usig DBCC CHECKDB You are resposible for a database amed 302Ifo. This database is o a SQL Server 2008 istace. 302Ifo has six filegroups, ad tables located over several filegroups. A problem has occurred ad a developer has idicated a check of the database s itegrity is eeded as quickly as possible. What will you do? LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

50 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) Solutio: Usig DBCC CHECKDB This questio is like may posed i the exam i that some of the data give i the questio is ot relevat. The DBCC CHECKDB commad has existed sice SQL Server 2000, so the versio of SQL Server is irrelevat. The filegroup locatios i the questio are also irrelevat sice they wo t affect the DBCC CHECKDB commad. The quickest aswer to this questio is to ru DBCC CHECKDB 302Ifo. This will provide a quick check to verify the itegrity of the database. As you work through the exam questios some will be just this easy. Do t secod-guess yourself whe determiig the aswers as this type of questio ca lead to overthikig. DBCC CHECKDB has may optios. You ca use the WITH PHYSICAL_ONLY switch, which will oly check ad ot repair ay problems. A exam aswer for this solutio usig the REPAIR_FAST optio is a quick clue ot to use it. This optio oly applies to other versios of SQL Server, ot SQL Server Database Maiteace Plas This domai focuses extesively o database files, optios, backups, restores, ad methods to esure databases are available for use. The Database Maiteace Pla capability of SQL Server 2008 with both a maual ad wizard drive creatio process is a feature that SQL admiistrators will use ofte. Maiteace plas ca set up backups of all types, idex reorgaizatio tasks, database compressio, ad perform other required daily tasks. Figure 31: Precofigured Maiteace Tasks LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

51 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) Maiteace Plas are built from the Maiteace Plas ode i SQL Server Maagemet Studio. The wizard supports rapid poit ad click creatio of maiteace plas with all required optios, which iclude time, schedule, databases to affect, types of backups, ad otificatios via text files ad reports. The large umber of predefied maiteace tasks facilitates the quick build of multi-step plas to allow idividual step schedules. The Maiteace Pla desiger allows the maual creatio of database maiteace plas ad editig of created plas. Figure 32: SQL Server Maiteace Pla Desiger Test Tip: Whe exam questios pose the task of coductig multiple actios with the least admiistrative effort, this poits to usig a SQL Server Maiteace Pla. Oly members of the sysadmi role ca create ad modify maiteace plas. LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

52 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) Domai 5 Data Maagemet Tasks The maipulatio of data withi SQL Server is what the database product is all about. The storage ad retrieval of data is paramout to supportig applicatios ad other iformatio systems. The exam focuses heavily o these skills ad as a SQL admiistrator so will your day-to-day activities. Data Export ad Import SQL Server provides multiple methods to export ad import data. We will review Bulk Copy Process (BPC), BULK INSERT, OPENROWNSET, ad the extesive set of tools available withi the SQL Server Maagemet Studio. SQL has a dedicated service SQL Server Itegratio Services (SSIS) desiged to address the export ad import of data with GUI-based support ad SQL T-SQL statemets. May of the scearios o the exam ad o the job iclude activities that require movemet of data from SQL Server 2005 (ad possibly SQL Server 2000) istaces to ew SQL Server 2008 istaces. Data import ad export ca be part of established busiess processes or a sigle task. Data movemet also focuses o hydratig SQL Server Reportig Services databases, data warehouses, ad other aalytical operatios. The first cosideratio for exportig ad importig data is preparig the data. Whether usig the BCP utility, BULK INSERT, or OPENROWSET, the data requires proper formattig for either import or export. The followig coditios apply for data preparatio for export ad import: Export Never use a ame for a BCP export if the data file ame is already i use. This will OVERWRITE the curret exported data i the file. The SELECT permissio is a miimum security requiremet to export data. Whe exportig data, SQL Server 2008 will use parallel scas for export retrieval, i.e., data is ot retrieved i ay specific order. Whe the exam metios specific order for a export, always use the queryout optio explaied below, with a ORDER BY switch. Import The file must be i row ad colum cofiguratio. Character data ad ative biary format is supported, icludig Uicode. The destiatio table for the data import must already exist. The target table must have a correspodig colum with the imported data. Use XML formats to import fixed legth fields with a format file. CSV files are ot supported for BULK IMPORT operatios, however, if data fields do ot cotai a field eder (the comma ormally i a CSV file), or oe of the data is i quotatio marks, the CSV-based data may import. LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

53 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) Methods of Data Import ad Export Oe of the most commo data import ad export activities is copyig data betwee servers. The BCP utility, BULK INSERT T-SQL commads, ad OPENROWSET all play a role. BCP The BCP commad ca export or import data from a SQL Database object. The BCP utility is commad lie based, ad accessed via bcp.exe. This utility is beeficial i that it rus o a small memory space ad is fast. Whe exam questios focus o quick out of bad SQL Server data import or export--thik BCP! It ca be accessed via the Widows commad lie, i script, or with SQL Server Powershell. Figure 33: BCP commad lie with switches The BCP utility requires a exact order of commads ad is case sesitive. The BCP utility also requires a format file to set optios for the data import or export. LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

54 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) The most commoly used sytaxes for BCP are listed below: BCP Settig Explaatio -a packetsize Number of bytes i each packet for import/export, default is 4096 bytes. -b batchsize Number of rows to copy, default is ALL. -c -C codepage Specifies the use of character mode for data trasfers. This supports a o-sql destiatio ad will output data i ASCII text. Sets the relevat codepage to use i the trasfer (does ot matter whe character values are > 127 or < 32). -e errfile File to store error messages. -E Uses idetify values. -F firstrow Determies the umber to use for first row. -f formatfile -h loadhits A very importat compoet of ay BCP commad sytax. The format file is a file with a extesio *.fmt ad cotais key iformatio for the import or export job. Hits cosist of TRIGGERS durig the job, ROWS_PER_BATCH, or CHECK_ CONSTAINTS, ad ORDER. -l iputfile Used i iteractive mode for resposes to commad prompt questios. -k Keeps ulls. -L lastrow Will set the last row. -m maxerrors Determies the umber of errors which ca occur before stoppig the BCP. -N Determies ative export for o-character data ad Uicode. - SQL ative mode, used i trasferrig data betwee SQL Server istaces or databases. -o outfile File for BCP output durig scripted BCP use. -P password Password for logi durig BCP. -r rowtermiator Determies whe to termiate a row. -S serverame The SQL Server ame or istace. -T Allows use of a trusted coectio. -U userame Logi ame durig BCP. -w Sets wide character use (Uicode) for imports ad exports. -x Supports the creatio of a XML file istead of a stadard file as listed i the f switch. Table 5: BCP Settigs LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

55 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) A sample export commad with BCP usig a trusted coectio is listed below. The data exported is headers iformatio from a table called Parts withi the 302ifo database. The T switch esures a trusted coectio at the commad lie. bcp 302ifo.parts.headers out headers.dat T Prep: Usig BCP You maage several databases, oe of which is called Accouts. This database has several tables i which customers require the data mothly, ad the data is very large. Whe exportig this data usig SQL Server based SSIS packages, you otice it takes a very log time ad affects the capacity of your SQL Server durig the export. Sice your operatios are 24/7, ay latecy iducig operatios are ot good. What actios should you take? Solutio: Usig BCP The aswers o the exam will focus o may methods for exportig ad importig ad appear to always mix i a XML file to help cotrol data that is ot formatted correctly. Other web service terms such as XSLT ad XSD do ot APPLY to data import ad export with BCP. The focus must be o time ad efficiecy, which BCP adheres to sice it rus i separate memory space, has the capability of ruig queries for data, ad is fast. As you evaluate the possible aswers remember that BCP is always good for offsite movemet of data because its modes ca support character-based export sice the target system may ot be a SQL Server. Never forget that BULK INSERT is as advertised; it ca oly import data. BCP is very scriptable i Cscript, Powershell, ad SQL Aget jobs. BULK INSERT The BULK INSERT commad is very similar i sytax to BCP but oly addresses import, ot export of data. Note for the exam that BULK INSERT capability is related to settig the BULK-LOGGED recovery model. Use this recovery model durig BULK INSERT to speed up the process with less trasactio log writes. Database recovery models are flexible ad ca shift betwee BULK-LOGGED ad FULL with o issues. A sample BULK INSERT is listed below where table data is iserted ito the Parts table object of the database headers from a file amed lieitem.tbl, with a field termiator switch ad row termiator switch. Figure 34: BULK INSERT Commad ple LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

56 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) The advatages of BULK INSERT are that it is great for importig large amouts of data, ad the T-SQL sytax switches are very similar to BCP. BULK INSERT has a correspodig recovery model to ehace the isertio of very large amouts of data: BULK-LOGGED. This commad also works very well with costraits that iclude NULL values, clustered idexes, ad foreig key costraits. OPENROWSET OPENROWSET provides aother SQL Server 2008 method for data import. OPENROWSET is a fuctio that is used amog SQL Servers for oe-time, ad hoc data access. It is a OLE DB fuctio called with the FROM statemet, or INSERT, UPDATE, ad DELETE T-SQL commads. OPENROWSET also ca read bulk data from a file ad the retur it as a row set. This commad allows rapid retur of a row from a source ad isertio of the data ito the destiatio. The followig example demostrates the use of OPENROWSET with a SELECT statemet ad SQL Server OLE DB as the provider. Differet data providers may be ivoked as required. The provider is listed first, the the coectio iformatio, followed by the SELECT sytax, the FROM sytax, ad additioal commads as required. Oe implemetatio ote for usig OPENROWSET is that Ad Hoc Distributed Queries must be cofigured to o, or a state of 1. This is disabled by default. Figure 35: ple of OPENROWSET Data Import Figure 36: Eablig Ad Hoc Distributed Queries LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

57 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) Prep: Usig OPENROWSET You maage a database amed 302ifo o a SQL Server 2008 istace. The sales team requires a data import from aother server ruig SQL Server 2005 o a as eeded basis. You set up a OPENROWSET fuctio to complete the task but each day it fails. How should you troubleshoot this? Solutio: Usig OPENROWSET This type of exam questio requires a quick examiatio of the aswers for why OPENROWSET is failig. The first area to check i SQL Server 2008 is the state of Ad Hoc Distributed queries, which is tured off by default. Make sure you eable this. The aswers will take o multiple paths. Oe path is almost always the use of SQL Server Itegratio Services (SSIS), but i this limited ad hoc case, the solutio is a OPENROWSET oe. SSIS provides a much more extesive bulk data import ad export trasformatio capability. SQL Server Maagemet Studio GUI Data Import ad Export Capability SQL Server 2008 provides a rich poit ad click wizard to set up data import ad export packages via tasks established i the SQL Server Maagemet Studio. The graphical import ad export wizard creates packages that ca import ad export data i a ad hoc as required maer or as a scheduled job. The SQL Server import ad export wizard created packages ca be maaged by the SQL Server Busiess Itelligece Developmet Studio ad are SSIS packages. This wizard is accessed by right-clickig a database i SQL Server Maagemet Studio ad selectig Import or Export uder Tasks. Figure 37: SQL Server GUI Data Import ad Export Wizard LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

58 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) The poit ad click wizard allows settig all package elemets for the data import or export activity. Key settigs created i the wizard iclude: Data Source (SQL Server, OLE DB, Microsoft Excel, or Microsoft Access) Autheticatio Methods Destiatio Server Data copy optios to iclude oe or more tables or views, or a query to establish cotet Table Mappigs Preview of Results Destiatio Optios to iclude deletio of rows, or appedig The ability to ru the package immediately or save it for future use as a SSIS package Ability to sed exported data to multiple formats to iclude flat files, Microsoft Excel, ad Microsoft Access formats Test Tip: questios that describe regularly scheduled table data copies ad import or export of data from Microsoft Excel ad Microsoft Access to SQL Server are idicatig the use of SSIS. Data Partitios SQL Server 2008 tables ad idexes ca exist i more tha oe partitio. This is termed horizotal data partitioig because groups of rows are orgaized ito idividual partitios based o a idetifed colum. This type of table orgaizatio is critical to large database efficiecy ad performace. Partitioig cosideratios iclude if the table will host data used i differet ways, ad ay query or other database operatios that are latet or ot executig properly. Additioally, you ca partitio a table usig the cocept of vertical partitios, which is spreadig the colums of a table across multiple tables versus the rows. If a large table for auto parts exists called PARTS, ad the primary database operatios agaist it are INSERT or DELETE (some of the data is oly used for SELECT queries), a partitio could occur o the PARTS types, ad isolate the items used i SELECT queries from the oes used i INSERT ad DELETE fuctios. Aother good example would be a order table, i which the curret moth s data was used primarily for INSERT or DELETE operatios. The previous moth s data, which is mostly used for SELECT queries, represets a target for partitioed tables. This esures database fuctios do ot sca or query a etire large table. The followig commads support the partitio fuctio: CREATE PARTITION FUNCTION, ALTER PARTITION FUNCTION, ad DROP PARTITION FUNCTION. The exam focuses o a uderstadig of these commads ad whe to use them to maage a data partitio. Each ew partitio must have a rage called the split rage, ad the values must be uique from the existig table. If a partitio fuctio takes i the year 2006 for orders, the the ew rage must start with a differet rage, 2007, for example. The mergig of data ito the ew partitio is accomplished oce a rage is created. The steps for creatig a table partitio are: 1. Create or use a existig partitio fuctio that sets the correct rage boudaries (CREATE PARTITION FUNCTION). 2. Create or use a existig partitio scheme tied to the partitio fuctio. 3. Create the table usig the partitio scheme. LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

59 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) This sample fuctio demostrates the creatio of four partitios for each year with a it colum. CREATE PARTITION FUNCTION mydateragefp1 (it) AS RANGE LEFT FOR VALUES (2006, 2007, ad 2008) This sample fuctio demostrates the alteratio of a existig partitioed table i which orders received i 2009 would split out. ALTER PARTITION FUNCTION mydateragefp1 () SPLIT RANGE (2009) A data partitio is easily dropped with the followig commad: DROP PARTITION FUNCTION mydateragefp1 Prep: Alterig a Data Partitio You maage a large database amed PARTS hosted o SQL Server The PARTS database has a table called INVENTORY, which is partitioed o its ReceivedDate colum usig the PFReceivedDate fuctio. This partitio uses oe moth values. You eed to write a script that moves the older data for more tha oe year to the partitioed table for PFRecivedDate ito a empty partitio. Which code should you use? Solutio: Alertig a Data Partitio This example alerts you to use the ALTER PARTITION FUNCTION with appropriate sytax ad switches. You will ru ALTER PARTITION FUNCTION PFReceivedDate() SPLIT RANGE(datelastyear). This will split out the data from last year. The you ca merge the data ito the empty partitio, ad add to it as eeded. Test Tip: The partitioed table feature is oly available i SQL Server 2008 Eterprise ad Developer versios, ot Stadard. Data Compressio SQL Server 2008 has several methods for data compressio withi the database object itself. The exam expects a uderstadig of whe to employ data compressio based o the situatio ad how it will affect the parameters of the database object. SQL Server 2008 row compressio allows the storage of fixed legth data i variable legth format, ad page compressio attacks data redudacy. SQL Server 2008, ulike SQL Server 2005, exteds the capability of row compressio to all fixed legth data types, to iclude iteger, char, ad float data types. This type of support allows data compressio without the applicatio usig the data requirig ay type of chage to access it. The goal is to reduce byte storage cosumptio. If a commo iteger ca fit i 1 byte, there is o reaso to use 4 bytes to store it. By usig variable legth storage format 3 bytes are saved. Variable characters are ow a stadard optio o colum defiitios. LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

60 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) Figure 38: ple so variable character data types Page compressio is the first place to start whe esurig data withi a SQL Server database is compressed ad uses less space. Page compressio first acts o a row, ad the dictioary based compressio for multiple istaces of the same values. Whe databases have duplicate data i may of the fields, space is coserved with this method of compressio. I most exam questios o data compressio clustered idexes are i use because i a large table they would exist ayway. Whe page compressio is used o a table heap, ay existig pages are ot compressed, oly ew oes. A rebuild of the heap is required to esure that the compressio is used for all pages. O the exam whe istaces of clustered idexes are i use for tables with compressio esure that ay maiteace coducted to support compressio drops the clustered idex first. Prep: Data Compressio You ru a database called Headers. The Headers table icludes products that are depedet o other products for use. You eed to store the umber of depedet products for each product. For example: 1 to 10 Products. The 302Ifo.NET web applicatio requires the ability to do a efficiet sort based o the umber of parts. You eed to create a NumberofParts colum. What is the solutio? Solutio: Data Compressio This solutio is focused o usig varchar capability withi SQL Server Due to the requiremet of accessig filtered data, the solutio must iclude use of a filtered idex o the created colum to provide for the umber of depedet parts. Filtered idexes o sparse colums support efficiet sortig o the data. You should create the NumberofParts colum as a sparse colum of type varchar, which will eforce data compressio ad reduce storage. For questios like this o example o the exam look for aswers that use Null i their solutio as this would immediately discout them. Also watch out for aswers usig o-clustered idexes i the solutio. I this example a o-clustered combied with ullable colums would result i o storage savigs. Also ote you ca t add a sparse colum to a clustered idex. LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

61 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) Maitaiig Idexes SQL Server admiistrators must uderstad all types of idexig for database tables to esure accuracy whe aswerig exam questios. The types of SQL Server idexes iclude: Clustered Idexes XML Idexes No-clustered Idexes Composite Idexes Uique Idexes Certai idex types are liked to the colum type i use. A spatial idex ca oly be used with a spatial data type. A spatial idex as with other idexes requires a primary key prior to creatio. A spatial idex supports uique SQL Server data type features i the area of geometry ad geography, which use the spatial data types. Idexes are a uderlyig performace ehacemet, which support rapid queries ad speed of data access. SQL Server database tables ca cotai clustered or o-clustered idexes. A clustered idex will keep the actual data rows at the leaf level of the idex. Normally, they are i ascedig or descedig order. Oly oe clustered idex ca exist o ay oe table or view. The term heap refers to a table that has o clustered idex thik slow or small! No-clustered idexes differ from clustered idexes i that they do t actually cotai the data i the rows, but oly poiters to the data. No-clustered idexes ca t be sorted, but you ca create multiple o-clustered idexes per table or view. I SQL Server 2008, 999 o-clustered idexes are supported. The composite idex ad the uique idex are two more forms of SQL Server table idexig. A composite idex will cotai multiple colums, up to 16. A uique idex, as you may have guessed, is based o a uique table parameter such as a primary key. For example, whe you create a primary key i a table a automatic uique clustered idex is created. XML colums i tables require a XML idex which will create a idexed view of all the XML tags, values, ad paths of the XML data. As a SQL admiistrator you will eed to uderstad the commads available i SQL Server 2008 to chage, delete, or add idexes. These tasks are always icluded i other SQL Server maiteace operatios. They are also icluded i performace tuig as droppig ad rebuildig idexes is a fairly commo SQL Server admiistrator task. The exam will expect fluecy with the followig T-SQL commads: CREATE INDEX CREATE SPATIAL INDEX CREATE XML INDEX DROP INDEX Prep: Alter Idex You support a database called 302EgiesDB. It cotais a table called PoyCars. The followig table describes the idex setup of the table. IX_PRIMARY is a clustered idex. The other listed idexes are all o-clustered. Colum Name Type of Data Data I Idexes CarID Char(10) IX_PRIMARY IX_CARTYPE IX_CARPRICE Type Varchar(25) IX_CARTYPE Descriptio XML Noe Value Decimal IX_CARPRICE LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

62 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) Performace testig idicates you eed to add the Descriptio colum to the IX_CARTYPE idex as a icluded colum. Table dowtime should be miimized. What is the solutio? Solutio: Alter Idex You would use the CREATE INDEX WITH DROP EXISTING ad perform this commad offlie. The requiremet to rebuild this idex offlie is due to addig a XML colum, which is a large data type. You ca rebuild the idex olie if a large data type is ot icluded. Aytime a colum is added to a idex you must drop the existig idex. I this case ALTER INDEX will ot work because you ca t add a colum with this commad. I exam questios that focus o solvig slow query time due to idex fragmetatio, ALTER INDEX is a solutio with the REBUILD WITH ONLINE switch. Test Tip: questios that focus o idex maagemet will always use DBCC commads i possible aswers. Take ote that these commads, while good for database maiteace, do ot address most idex maagemet issues. Domai 6 SQL Server 2008 Moitorig ad Troubleshootig Troubleshootig SQL Server problems is primarily a SQL admiistrator s job ad will factor ito the exam questios. The ability to rapidly solve SQL Server issues is related to exam objectives i this domai ad beig able to rapidly troubleshoot problems. The areas of SQL Server service statuses, problems created by cocurrecy such as a dreaded deadlock, SQL Server Job Aget issues, ad how to quickly fid error iformatio all cotribute to problems that occur with SQL Server 2008 ad how to quickly assess ad remediate those problems. I productio situatios SQL Server 2008 dowtime is ot a optio, ad this domai will demostrate methods to quickly solve problems that affect uptime. SQL Server Service Problems SQL Server s uptime is related to the fuctioig of the product features that are istalled. These features are listed as services ad reflect the rage of SQL Server capabilities. The most importat service is the SQL Server database egie, which is termed the SQL Server (ame of istace) service. A quick look i the SQL Server Cofiguratio Maager uder the SQL Server Services shows the status of all SQL Server Services. Services iclude the SQL Server Browser, SQL Server Aget (ame of istace), SQL Full-text Filter Daemo Laucher (ame of istace), ad ay other istalled SQL services, for example, SQL Reportig Services (SRS). SQL Server status depeds o logos, the start mode defied, ad that o system issues or SQL Server cofiguratio has stopped SQL Server from startig. At times the problem is that the SQL Server service will ot start. You eed to immediately troubleshoot this, ad the quickest way is by chagig the sqlserver.exe file to use the f switch to start up. The f switch starts SQL Server i a miimal cofiguratio mode ad allows a sigle coectio to the SQL Server. This type of startup mode ca address multiple issues, for example, whe loggig has filled up the drive it is assiged to ad the SQL Server service ca t start up. This optio is easily accessed through the properties sectio\advaced tab of the SQL Server service i the SQL Server Cofiguratio Maager. LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

63 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) Figure 39: SQL Server Advaced Startup Parameters If the SQL Server Aget is set to start automatically, this must be disabled prior to lauchig the SQL Server service with the f optio. This is due to the f mode optio oly allowig oe coectio to the SQL server. If the SQL Server Aget starts automatically this service will use the oe allowed coectio to the SQL Server service. SQL Server provides the optio of a Dedicated Admiistrator Coectio (DAC) to make a coectio to SQL Server 2008 whe ormal coectio attempts fail. DAC access oly works o the server itself. However, you have the optio to use the sp_cofigure stored procedure to cofigure the DAC to allow remote coectios. But this must be eabled prior to a problem that requires this special coectio. The DAC is usable via sqlcmd ad requires the special admiistrator switch A. The best strategy is to use the DAC to coect to the master database, which is usually available whe problems occur ad the SQL istace is ruig. Troubleshootig SQL Server services also requires a uderstadig of service startup types. The SQL Server Browser service allows the use of the SQL Server Resolutio Protocol (SSRP) to resolve which port SQL Service is listeig o. This obviates the requiremet to use stadard SQL Server ports such as 1434, ad allows other port use to avoid scas for SQL Server services by malicious programs. Additioally, this helps support multi-istace SQL Server use for the same physical service. The SQL Server Browser service is ot set to start by default. If you pla o usig this, the set the properties of this service i the SQL Server Cofiguratio Maager to the automatic startup type. The exam will pose various questios that focus o service use such as the SQL Server Browser service, which does t start automatically. I this case there is o eed to over thik the questio, just focus o esurig required services are started automatically. Test Tip: Services like the SQL Server Browser service do ot require extesive permissios to ru. Whe evaluatig exam questios make sure you fid solutios that are paired usig the SQL Server Browser service with the Local Service accout versus the Local System or the Network System accout. The Local Service accout has a reduced permissio set compared to the Local System accout with extesive permissios, which the SQL Server Browser service does ot require. LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

64 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) C2 audit mode ad the commo criteria alog with other loggig choices ca impact disk space ad serve as the cause for SQL Server failure. Whe loggig this much data, disk space is impacted. If smaller drives are used as the locatio for audit log files ad the physical disk fills up, SQL Server will ot start. The solutio o the exam i this case ca rage from startig SQL Server with the f switch to movig the audit files to aother drive with more space. The accout uder which a SQL Server service rus also presets a area for troubleshootig. If you use all Active Directory domai accouts as the service accouts for SQL Server services ad ay Active Directory group policy optios require the Active Directory accouts to chage the password (or they expire), this will result i a failure of the SQL Server service usig that Active Directory accout. Normally, you ca use Powershell scripts or other maagemet scripts to chage SQL Server Active Directory accout passwords withi the required time, which esures that the accout is chagig passwords per compay policy or best practice. However, whe a Active Directory accout expires, locks out, or requires a password chage the SQL Server service i questio ca switch to Local System to get SQL Server started agai immediately while troubleshootig. Agai, for exam purposes, remember that the SQL Server Cofiguratio Maager supports rapid chage of SQL Server service accout iformatio. Prep: Troubleshootig SQL Server Services You have two Microsoft SQL Servers o your etwork. Oe is a SQL Server 2005 istace, ad the other is a SQL Server 2008 istace. SQL Server is cofigured with default coectio iformatio. The SQL Server Aget rus o both SQL istaces. A ew corporate applicatio will access both SQL Servers for its data. You are workig with the applicatio developers to troubleshoot ay coectivity problems that may arise. The developers report that they ca oly fid coectios to the SQL Server 2005 istace, but are forced to specify a port whe coectig to the SQL Server 2008 istace. You are required to esure both SQL Servers ca retur coectio iformatio automatically without specifyig a port. The solutio should ot chage the established etwork security. What is the solutio? Solutio: Troubleshootig SQL Server Services I this type of exam questio the challege of coectig to SQL Server 2008 is preseted. The service i questio should immediately come to mid--the SQL Server Browser service. It is ot cofigured to ru automatically i SQL Server 2008, which explais why the developers caot eumerate or fid it automatically. The simple solutio is the correct oe--you eed to start the SQL Server Browser service ad cofigure the service to start automatically. Aswers that focus o chagig a Active Directory service accout are ot correct. Other aswers o the exam for this sceario ted to focus o the SQL Server Aget service, which agai is ot related to this issue. Cocurrecy Problems SQL Server operatios sometimes suffer latecy or dropped trasactios due to blocks, deadlocks, or locks. These are problems that require rapid idetificatio with the SQL Server 2008 tools available. As SQL Server reads ad writes data to a database lockig occurs to support cocurret operatios. This is SQL Server s method to esure that the same data is ot writte to the same row/page at the same time. This is also the heart of shared database access by users ad applicatios. The exam focuses o the tools available to troubleshoot cocurrecy problems ad whe to use them. The SQL Server tools for diagosig cocurrecy problems are the SQL Server Profiler, SQL Dyamic Maagemet Views (DMV), ad the activity moitor. LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

65 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) Blockig occurs whe a lock is created ad the escalated based o the size of the sca. For example, a sca of data i a table that exceeds 5,000 locks will cause a lock escalatio ad ultimately block the ext process requestig the readig or writig of data. Blocks by default do ot timeout. You ca moitor SQL Server for block coditios usig the SQL Profiler ad filter o the evet (Lock: Escalatio evet), the Dyamic Maagemet View (DMV), or regular pollig of system iformatio for lock coditios. These tools will help gather the iformatio o blocks such as the block ad lock time per object, which will lead to a pla to remediate the coditio. The SQL Profiler is available withi the SQL Server Maagemet Studio ad allows you to record iformatio over time for a deeper aalysis of the blockig issue. The results are recorded to a trace file ad are available for examiatio. Test Tip: O the exam, questios focusig o time as a compoet of troubleshootig the lock issue suggest the use of SQL Profiler. Figure 40: SQL Server Profile Lock Evets for Trackig Block Coditios Deadlocks occur whe several tasks withi the same SQL Server memory space block each other by havig a lock o a resource that aother database fuctio is tryig to lock. This situatio is caused by a variety of resources to iclude locks, worker threads, memory, parallel query executio, ad multiple active result sets. SQL Server is cofigured to automatically search for deadlocks every 5 secods with the database egie deadlock detectio scheme. The resolutio to a deadlock is made by the database egie ad is a result of choosig a thread to cotiue. This results i a error 1205, which is prevalet i the exam questios o how to track deadlock coditios. Additioally, the trace flags 1204 ad 1222 exist to documet deadlock coditios that have occurred. You ca tur o trace flag 1204 as a stadard evet to write to the SQL Server error log, which will allow parsig of this error by your maagemet activities ad respose to the occurrece. The flags list all relevat iformatio for the deadlock to iclude what process was ruig, the SPID, the mode, the row i questio, the object, the key, ad other metadata that is available. Whe usig SQL Profiler to track deadlock activity esure you select the Deadlock Graph as a optio. LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

66 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) Prep: Troubleshootig SQL Server Deadlocks You maage a SQL Server 2008 istace. Customers report that purchases ofte timeout with a strage error. You must quickly determie which resource is causig this problem. How ca you determie the problem quickly? Solutio: Troubleshootig SQL Server Deadlocks I this type of exam questio you must moitor the SQL Server processes ad determie what process is causig the issue. This is coducted by the SQL Server Profiler ad uses the deadlock graph evet. This will provide detailed historical data o the problem ad allow you to view the process causig the deadlock. May exam aswers i this area will suggest the use of a dyamic maagemet view with tra lock. However, this oly shows curret locks ad does ot reveal ay history. For example, you may eed to ru the SQL Profiler ad create a trace file that spas the etire time period i which the problems appear. The Activity Moitor also seems like a good choice for this type of problem, but it does ot provide historical data either, oly a just i time view of what is locked curretly. Sometimes the aswers will also have a optio to use sp_lock. But ote that sp_lock is a retired legacy commad that will ot provide ay help with troubleshootig a deadlock issue. Dyamic maagemet views, i geeral, provide views ad fuctios to retur server state iformatio to support health moitorig, diagosig of problems, ad performace tuig. The sys.dm_tra_locks dyamic maagemet view is very importat whe troubleshootig calls for quick views of trasactio locks at various times of the day. Thik of this dyamic view as a sapshot for quick views ad the ability to rapidly gleam iformatio about a deadlock coditio. Figure 41 below demostrates the use of the above dyamic maagemet view to display lock iformatio for a database with a ID of 5. Figure 41: Sys.dm_tras_locks Dyamic Maagemet View LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

67 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) SQL Server Aget Problems The SQL Server Aget is resposible for ruig may of the cofigured maagemet jobs for SQL Server ad associated jobs to support database applicatios, data movemet, ad a host of importat database tasks. Whe the SQL Server Aget fails, rapid troubleshootig must esue to correct the problem, especially whe the SQL Server Aget defied job is critical to productio operatios. As covered i other domais, the otificatio features of the SQL Server Aget are powerful ad esure that you kow whe a failure occurs. Oe of the mai areas for SQL Server Aget job failures is the security cotext i which the job is ru, or security cotexts for steps i a job. SQL Server Aget ca use a proxy accout to ru jobs, which are the credetials of a Widows user. The SQL Server Aget ca use the security cotext of the established proxy user to impersoate it ad ru the job. SQL Server Aget job failures ca fail quickly based o the role of the user cofigured for the job ad SQL Server role of the user, or the roles of the user withi msdb. SQL Server Aget proxy accouts are created i the SQL Server Maagemet Studio\SQL Server Aget object, uder the Proxies sectio. Select the subsystem for the proxy accout upo creatio. Figure 42: SQL Server Aget Job Proxy Accout Creatio LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

68 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) The EXECUTE AS commad is also a security cotext to support SQL Server Aget job executio. I some cases the proxy accout or other security cotext may ot have the correct permissios to execute a T-SQL job step. The EXECUTE AS commad allows the use of a security cotext to complete the T-SQL step. The SQL Server Aget proxy ca t be used with a T-SQL job step because it is a Widows user accout. The stored procedure sp_eum_proxy_for_subsystem provides a retur of which proxies have permissio for which SQL Server Aget job subsystems. This is aother useful tool i troubleshootig permissio problems. Aother area of focus for the successful executio of SQL Server Aget jobs is the ability to coect to required SQL istaces. I multi-istace SQL Server cofiguratios the SQL Server Aget ca serve i a master role, ad the target other SQL Server istaces for job executio. However, to esure that jobs work without SQL Server port or istace coectivity issues make sure you create a SQL Server alias for the target servers. Additioally, durig the creatio of the Master/Target SQL Server job setup you ca specify the servers for coectios. Helpful diagostic iformatio for the status of steps i SQL Server Aget jobs ca be obtaied by cofigurig each job step to log detailed iformatio to a table. The cotets of this table ca be accessed quickly with the followig stored procedure: sp_help_jobsteplog. The SQL Server Aget core optios support the settigs for the maximum umber of rows etered for each job ad the maximum size of the log about the job. Fidig Error Iformatio SQL Server 2008 provides several areas for rapid access to error iformatio. These areas iclude: the error log, the aget log, the job executio history, ad evet logs. SQL Server admiistrators will study these logs daily to quickly diagose problems, ad the exam will test your kowledge of where to fid relevat iformatio for reported problems. The SQL Server error log is the first place to check for problems with SQL Server. This log file is located i the default locatio of the first SQL Istace, which is \\istalldrive\program file\microsoft sql server\ mssql10.mssqlserver\mssql\log\errorlog. The most recet file does t have a extesio. This log will cotai SQL Server specific errors, ot the type of errors you may fid i oe of the Widows Server evet logs. The size ad locatio of the error file is adjustable via the SQL Server Cofiguratio Maager. The SQL Server Maagemet Studio has a log file viewer utility uder the Maagemet ode, which supports the aggregated view of several critical SQL Server logs. They are the Database Mail log, the SQL Server logs, the SQL Server Aget logs, ad the Widows NT logs of the server hostig SQL Server. The log file view cotais a filter settig to rapidly search the logs for keywords, such as the user, computer, ad text cotaied i the message ad a Source. Additioally, ay of these logs are exportable for further review or upload ito other systems. LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

69 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) Figure 43: SQL Server 2008 Combied Log View with Filter Settigs Custom error iformatio ca be writte to the SQL Server logs or Widows evet logs. The maagemet stored procedure xp_logevet writes user defied messages to a log destiatio. Stored procedures i use i SQL Server ca haress this capability to esure database errors are meaigful ad assist i the troubleshootig process. Aytime a stored procedure raises a error message, they are automatically stored i the sys.messages table. A query agaist this table provides ay errors logged by stored procedures regardless of their severity level. Prep: Fidig SQL Error Iformatio for Job Executio You maage 10 istaces of Microsoft SQL Server You have oe istace that has a problem every hour with the SQL Server Aget service. Troubleshootig this problem requires detailed iformatio about the job executio. Executio trace messages should write to the SQL Server Aget error log. How will you achieve this with i the quickest maer? Solutio: Fidig SQL Error Iformatio for Job Executio This exam questio requires SQL Server Maagemet Studio. A quick right-click o the SQL Server Aget ode will make the chage to this tool easily. This type of questio will preset solutios that focus o triggers that do ot address this loggig questio. Other solutios suggest usig DBCC as a form of turig trace flags o. Agai, this does ot address cofigurig the SQL Server Aget to write trace executio messages. LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

70 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) Figure 44: Settig the Executio Trace Messages Optio for SQL Server Aget Domai 7 Optimizig SQL Server Performace SQL Server 2008 performace is always importat i real world use ad for this exam. SQL Server resposes that are latet or fail impact the applicatios ad solutios that use the database tier. Imagie ecommerce solutios that fail to retur product ivetories or process orders as cosumers are clickig ad waitig. SQL admiistrators are expected to rapidly idetify problems ad correct them through data aalysis ad tredig of SQL Server operatios. The tools covered i this domai provide, i depth, the data that classifies performace issues ad fixes them quickly. The Resource Goveror The SQL Server Resource Goveror is a member of the collectio of SQL Server 2008 policy iitiatives. The resource goveror allows the defiitio of groups or resource pools that use SQL Server resources, ad the placemet of classifiers or policy statemets o the group. A resource pool is comprised of the physical resources of the server--cpu ad memory. LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

71 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) The processig of costraiig a resource works as follows: 1. A icomig sessio to SQL Server is classified, e.g., as a report server query. 2. The sessio is idetified through its user-defied classifier fuctio via Policy Maagemet. 3. The sessio is routed to a workload group, e.g., Report_Server. 4. The workgroup will use the resource pool defied to it, e.g., Report_Server_Pool. 5. The resource pool eforces the limits required by the defied applicatio. A illustrative example ivolves prevetig users i a group called MassiveQueryFu from usig over 40% of the SQL Server s CPU time whe ruig queries. The group i questio is restricted much like a restrictor plate o a egie i NASCAR racig. The restrictio or policy elemet is the classifier that activates the thresholds. The resource goveror is accessed via the Maagemet Node of the SQL Server Maagemet Studio. Setup ca occur via T-SQL statemets. The elemets of defiig a resource with limits are the resource pool, the workload group settigs, ad the the creatio of classificatio fuctios for the resource pool. Oce the resource classificatio is registered with the resource goveror the eable it ad moitor the performace. Here the DMVs allow quick query iformatio about the resource use. The example below establishes three workload groups uder the default system resource pool ad assigs the SQL Server logi power to the group, while establishig a classifier ad the eablig it. Figure 45: Resource Goveror Setup T-SQL Statemets Prep: Usig the Resource Goveror You are resposible for maagig a SQL Server 2008 server. A group exists called CrazyEddiesQueries. This group coducts resource-itesive queries. You are a smart SQL admiistrator so you create a workload group i Resource Goveror ad moitor the performace via a DMV query whe members of CrazyEddiesQueries execute a query. The CPU use durig this query period hovers aroud 92%. You determie that CrazyEddiesQueries must be limited. What should you do? LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

72 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) Solutio: Usig the Resource Goveror I this case, most of the elemets of limitig the CPU are i place. You have a workload group i place; however, a classifier is ot established to limit members of the CrazyEddiesQueries group from usig too much CPU time. You will create the classifier fuctio to esure the CPU limits are eforced. You ca quickly elimiate the exam aswers that do ot associate ay workload groups with iteral resource pools. SQL Server as its ow istace uses the iteral resource pools, ad this wo t work for user defied classifier fuctios. Rebuildig idexes always seems like a good solutio to a performace issue, but this could use MORE CPU time tha it would reduce, so avoid ay idex buildig activities. Max degree of parallelism settigs also figure ito possible solutios for this type of problem. The max degree of parallelism settigs applies to the umber of server processors to use i executig a query versus addressig idividual queries. This is agai a system wide settig that wo t help address specific queries that require boudaries. I summary, always thik of the resource goveror i terms of its elemets. Create a resource pool with a give ame. Assig the values for miimum ad maximum CPU or memory use. Create a workload group to use the resource pool. The the established classifier fuctio will retur the ame of the workload group i which SQL Server will execute the query. Database Egie Tuig Advisor The database egie tuig tool is aother weapo i the battle to optimize SQL Server. This is a graphical-based tool that rus from SQL Server Maagemet Studio ad provides recommedatios based o settigs selected for optimizig a database. The mai focus of the database egie tuig tool is recommedig the best cofiguratio with idexes, idex views, ad partitios. The tool coducts processes that would be quite complex to aalyze maually. The tool aalyzes collected database workloads from trace files or tables collected via the SQL Server Profiler. The recommedatios of the database egie tuig tool iclude: Best cofiguratio of idexes for databases based o query optimizatio Suggests aliged or o-aliged partitios Suggests idex views Coducts aalysis of the possible chages, i effect a query test for idex use, spaig the query across tables, ad actual query performace Allows iput of desig choices to affect the actual database desig Small query support Provides a complete array of reports documetig recommedatios Allows some simulatio of database server coditios, e.g., CPU costraits LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

73 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) The basic steps for database egie tuig are: 1. Create a workload for the database tuig activity either i T-SQL script by collectig a trace file or collectig trace data to a table. This should represet the work coducted by the database you wat to tue. 2. Determie what you wat to tue: idexes, idex views, or partitioig best practices. 3. The database egie tuig output is i the form of logs, summaries, ad recommedatios rolled up ito reports. 4. If ecessary, you ca use the results to perform hypothetical modelig by chagig parameters ad aalyzig them. 5. Oce you agree with tuig recommedatios you ca apply them to the database i questio, or schedule for a later time. Figure 46: SQL Server Profiler Trace File Usig Database Tuig Template LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

74 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) Figure 47: SQL Server Database Tuig Advisor Report Recommedatios Security is a cosideratio whe usig database tuig. Database tuig is activated by a member of the sysadmi role. Oce database tuig has bee iitialized by a member of the sysadmi role, the you ca exted the right to ru database tuig to logis that have the db_ower role for a database. Ay user who is a member of the db_ower role ca ru the database tuig advisor for that database. Test Tip: The database tuig advisor is also executable via the commad lie with dta.exe versus usig the graphical flavor of it. The commad versio of dta.exe has a extesive list of sytax switches, which are easily accessed by typig dta.exe /?. Prep: Usig Database Tuig Advisor You maage a SQL Server 2008 istace called Racig\Performace. You create a workload with the SQL Server Profiler ad aalyze it with the database tuig advisor. Two statemets ru by users Mufflers ad Sparks are ot tued. You eed to tue these statemets, while maitaiig security. How will you achieve this? Solutio: Usig Database Tuig Advisor I this questio we are asked to suppress logi ames withi the database tuig advisor. The reaso is that whe user ames exist i the database tuig advisor it has impersoated the user whe ruig the statemets i questio. For database tuig to work it must be able to access the executio pla, which is possible via the SHOWPLAN permissio. The colum amed LogiName should be removed, which will allow database tuig to make recommedatios as it impersoates a user with the proper credetials. I ay type of security cotext questio o the exam with database tuig advisor avoid aswers that grat too much security ad those that grat security with o relatio to the issue at had. A example is a aswer that idicates you should assig users to the processadmi role to facilitate database tuig recommedatios. LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

75 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) Aalyzig Trace Data with SQL Server Profiler The SQL Server Profiler provides a great tool to capture the data eeded to optimize SQL Server database operatios ad esure you ca respod i a timely fashio to performace challeges. The exam objectives expect the ability to cofigure SQL Server Profiler to gather data for specific problem types ad esure you ca filter the data ad collect what is eeded i relatio to the problem uder ivestigatio. The SQL Server profiler is accessed via the Performace Tools program group, or by clickig o Tools i the SQL Server Maagemet Studio. The security required to ru the SQL Server Profiler is the same as the T-SQL statemets used to create traces. Users must have at least the ALTER TRACE permissio. Oe security ote is that if a user has VIEW SERVER STATE, ALTER TRACE, ad SHOWPLAN permissios they ca view the logi ad other security iformatio i the traces. This security aspect is importat to ote while evaluatig exam questios. It is very applicable whe aalyzig queries with SHOWPLAN results o. SQL Server Profiler comes with several default templates for moitorig ad icludes oes for moitorig stored procedures, T-SQL executio, ad tuig. Ay SQL Profiler moitorig sessio ca be saved as a template for future use. Saved SQL Profiler templates ca be exported ad imported by other SQL Server Profiler istaces. The SQL Server Profiler icludes a deadlock graph optio to help idetify deadlocks betwee processes. SQL Server Profiler traces ca be saved to the Widows Server file system or to a SQL Server table. SQL Server Profiler traces saved i tables ca be queries for additioal evet data. Figure 46 illustrates the SQL Server Profiler i actio, with evet class recordig. SQL Server Profiler is commoly used to: Idetify poorly writte or performig queries Fid deadlock causes Idetify the performace characteristics of stored procedure executio Moitor SQL Server audit activity, such as logis or logoffs Show graular user based activity with T-SQL use Collect data for performace testig or other replay activities Collect data for use i database tuig activities Prep: Usig SQL Server Profiler You maage a SQL Server 2008 istace. A applicatio team has asked for a XML formatted report that shows processes ad resources that are participatig i deadlocks. How ca you provide this quickly? Solutio: Usig SQL Server Profiler The solutio is to ru a SQL Server Profiler sessio ad select the Deadlock graph evet uder the Locks evets sectio. This supports collectig iformatio about resources ad processes that have become deadlocked. The SQL Server Profiler supports extractio of the Deadlock evets to a separate XML file. LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

76 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) Figure 48: SQL Server Profiler XML Extract Scree for Deadlock Evets Aalyzig Performace Data with Dyamic Maagemet Views (DMV) SQL Server DMVs provide a rapid way to fid out the curret state of a SQL operatio. DMVs such as sys. dm_exec_query_stats provide istat poit i time data o the state of queries, while other DMVs show wait states ad may other elemets. The use of the DMV is predicated o a sapshot type data eed versus sustaied tredig provided by tools like Performace Moitor ad SQL Server Profiler. Queries with DMVs will retur server state iformatio ad ca provide the data required for diagosig issues or tuig performace. DMVs are grouped ito sectios of use ad spa the etire rage of SQL Server fuctios. DMV Categories Security Trasactios Operatig System Exteded Evets Service Broker Resource Goveror Replicatio Query Notificatios Objects I/O Idexes LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

77 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) Full-Text Search Executio Database Mirrorig CLR Chage Data/Audit Whe usig DMVs make sure you uderstad that there are thousads of possible T-SQL combiatios of DMV commad sytax (this will be covered o the exam). However, always prefix the ame of the view or fuctio by usig the sys. schema. The add the sytax for the fuctio you query. Security cosideratios require a miimum of SELECT permissio o the object ad VIEW SERVER STATE or VIEW DATABASE STATE permissios. A sample DMV query with results is show below. Figure 49: DMV of System Wait States LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

78 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) Prep: Usig DMV for Optimizig SQL Server You maage a server ruig SQL Server 2008 Eterprise. The accoutig departmet has reported a performace issue with their queries. They report they are ruig for 30 miutes versus the ormal time of 2 miutes. You have to track dow the sytax of this log ruig query. How will you solve this? Solutio: Usig DMV for Optimizig SQL Server The DMV sys.dm_exec_query_stats provides iformatio about queries ad lists their ruig times. This will provide the ame of the query that is ruig too log. Oce you have the ame idetified with the above DMV, the you ca specify a SELECT statemet to idetify the sytax of the query. Use the sytax SELECT * FROM sys.dm_exec_sql_text(<sql_hadle>). This will idetify the sytax of the query. Oce you have the sytax you ca aalyze why the query is ruig so log. This type of DMV questio o the exam expects a uderstadig of SQL Server T-SQL clause formattig. Some possible aswers will provide the proper sytax, but ot have required actors preset such as (). For example, this is a possible solutio aswer: SELECT * FROM sys.dm_exec_sql_text<sql_hadle>. However, examie this solutio closely ad otice the clause is ot valid. I this case you should avoid the use of WHERE clauses as this is a argumet ot a search. Other commo exam aswers i this area provide a DMV i the aswer that does ot correspod to the problem at had. I this case a log ruig query will ot require the use of sys.dm_exec_query_optimizer_ifo, for example, as this DMV is related to database work tuig, ot process ruig queries. Ay variatio of the hudreds of DMV categories are fair game o the exam, but you ca optimize your test chaces by esurig aswers follow the covetios of SQL T-SQL sytax, ad the DMVs apply to the issue i the questio. Performace Moitorig With the System Moitor The System Moitor available with Widows 2008 Server is aother tool you ca use to troubleshoot problems that are related to the server operatig system ad its hardware. The System Moitor has a large amout of available couters or classes of attributes that provide a array of detailed iformatio. The istallatio of SQL Server 2008 o a Widows 2008 server automatically adds i a class of performace couters for use i aalyzig parameters associated specifically with SQL Server. System Moitor is accessed via the Performace Moitor i the Admiistrative Tools program group. The System Moitor allows a collectio of data i a sapshot mode ad the tredig of data ad recordig of it to database tables or file format. The use of System Moitor ad its curret icaratio i Widows 2008 Performace Moitor is a etire subject ad sciece that eclipses the scope of this exam maual. System moitor use is primarily related to tredig memory use, CPU use, disk I/O, ad the large amout of couter objects available with each specific Widows 2008 Server subsystem or istalled applicatios. Iterpretig the results of System Moitorig data is the goal of the questios i this area of the exam. If you are moitorig server RAM ad Process: Workig Set of RAM shows Maximum use at 4 GB ad your server oly has 4 GB of RAM total the you kow a problem exists. You must also correlate settigs from SQL Server to what is observed i System Moitorig collected data. You become like a detective i that you must be able to pipoit what performace issues are occurig ad how they relate to SQL Server. Keep i mid that o the exam the primary hardware iflueces o SQL Server devolve to RAM, Disk speed, ad CPU use. LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

79 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) Prep: Usig Performace Moitor to Optimize SQL Server Your SQL Server 2008 server has 16 GB of RAM ad supports several other applicatios. SQL Server Memory Cofiguratio Mi Server Memory = 4 GB Max Server Memory =8 GB The Sales group complais ofte of poor performace whe they use other applicatios o the server. How ca you improve performace without ay hardware ivestmets? System Moitor Couters: Couter Object Miimum Maximum Process: Workig Set 2 GB 3 GB SQL Server: Buffer Maager: Buffer Cache Hit Ratio SQL Server: Memory Maager: Total Server Memory (KB) GB 16 GB Solutio: Usig Performace Moitor to Optimize SQL Server Like so may exam questios always make sure you read the questio closely. I this case the questio does ot ask you to do aythig to icrease SQL Server performace. This questio poses a situatio where SQL Server is performig fie, but causig other server based applicatios to suffer. The couters reveal that SQL Server is oly usig a maximum of 3 GB of memory, yet cofigured to take a miimum of 4 GB from the operatig system s pool of memory. A simple decrease of the SQL Mi Server Memory to 3 GB will allocate 1 GB back to the server s operatig memory pool ad make it available to other server applicatios. This type of questio specifies that o hardware ivestmet occur i the solutio. Oe aswer will ivariably propose addig RAM, which is immediately ruled out. Ay solutios that propose icreasig resources to SQL Server are also wrog. Domai 8 Implemetig High Availability This collectio of software ad hardware based solutios for high availability combie to provide SQL Server the capability for cotiuous operatios, without dowtime. This exam domai expects fluecy with each method, what situatios to use them i, ad how to implemet ad maage them. SQL Server provides several methods to esure cotiuous operatios. Database mirrorig is a iheret SQL Server 2008 solutio, ad it allows the replicatio of all trasactios to a secod database with moitorig to decide whe it should take over. SQL Server is completely API aware of Microsoft Widows Server 2008 R2 s cluster capabilities, ad it will istall as a ative service. SQL Server clusterig usig the features of Widows 2008 R2 server provides the ability to protect agaist sigle server hardware failure, disk failure, or a failure of the SQL Server software bits. Trasactio log shippig provides protectio at the SQL Server layer by supportig database movemet of all trasactios to a secod database, which is i a sigle use mode ad ready to become the primary i case of failure. SQL replicatio supports the sychroizatio of data betwee databases i a cosistet state. Data is distributed via replicatio to differet SQL Server databases, ad whe ecessary, to mobile cliets. LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

80 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) Database Mirrorig SQL 2008 database mirrorig is a database availability solutio that literally mirrors all data from oe server database to aother, provided each database is o a differet SQL Server istace. Oe server is a primary copy or oe i use, ad the other is termed a stadby server. The SQL Server 2008 database mirrorig software ad admiistratio fuctios provide for the sychroizatio of data betwee the two databases i such a way that o trasactio is every dropped durig the failover to the secodary stadby database. The database mirror ca also use a stadby database copy without up to date sychroizatio, which ca result i some data loss, but still provide a server ready to pick up database operatios i the evet of a failure to the primary. Figure 50: Database Mirrorig Schematic LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

81 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) The figure above demostrates the elemets of a database mirrorig cofiguratio: Two SQL istaces are idetified, ad the a database is selected for mirrorig (i this case the db Parts). The mirrorig wizard is ru via SQL Server Maagemet Studio, or you ca use ALTER DB to setup mirrorig via T-SQL. A mode is selected for the mirrorig operatio. I most cases, for complete recoverability, use the High Safety mode with automatic failover, which requires a witess server. The witess fuctio works much like the witess server i Widows 2008 Server clusterig ad the quorum drive cocept: If the witess server loses coectio to the primary mirror server (Headers01) ad is coected to Headers02, a failover will occur (i.e., the secod database server i the mirrorig cofiguratio will serve as the primary database istace). Whe the server Headers01 comes back olie it will receive a message from the witess server that Headers02 is ow the primary server i the mirror setup, ad this will cause Headers01 to become the mirror database ad to sychroize trasactios. This is a very elegat solutio ad oe that i productio situatios iduces 2-5 secods of coectivity for applicatios such as.net web applicatios. Prep: SQL Server Database Mirrorig You maage multiple SQL Server 2008 servers for your compay. You set up database mirrorig. You use automatic failover. A uexplaied error occurs i the primary database i the mirrored databases. The curret database state is sychroizig. The witess state is ot workig. You eed to act quickly to fail the mirror over, ad data loss is acceptable. Solutio: SQL Server Database Mirrorig This exam style questio immediately should prompt you to kow the method of failover is ow the forced method. The forced method is oe used to force failover, but does ot guaratee that data loss will ot occur. This method of forcig a service chage is ormally used i a disaster recovery situatio, where the primary member of the mirror may ever come back olie. Oe other clue i the questio poitig to the direess of the situatio is that the curret database state is sychroizig, which meas they are ot sychroized aymore. Maual failovers require both the primary ad mirror server to be olie ad the database to be sychroized. Replacig the mirror server is ot a good solutio at ay poit i SQL Server database mirrorig operatios. There are may security cosideratios with SQL Server database mirrorig. Oe upper level cocer is if users are goig to logi to SQL Server databases with SQL credetials, the you must esure you create all logis ad database mappigs i the mirror target SQL Server because you caot mirror the master database o the primary mirror server, which houses all logis ad mappigs. Database object users ad assigmets will exist due to mirrorig. LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

82 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) SQL Server Clusters Microsoft SQL Server is a resource for clusterig with Microsoft Widows 2008 R2 clusterig services. This type of cluster provides complete failover i protectig the SQL Server istace from a failure due to ay type of hardware failure. I a Microsoft Widows 2008 cluster implemetatio, the SQL Server istace uses a shared disk resource ormally located o a SAN ad is set up from the start as a cluster from the SQL Server istallatio. A SQL Server cluster cosists of at least two servers cofigured to ru a SQL istace that is cofigured to work o both servers. The SQL cluster implemetatio creates a virtual SQL Server with its ow IP address ad dedicated set of disk resources. The SQL Server clusteraware istallatio will load the SQL bits to all servers idetified i the cluster setup at the same time durig istallatio. Widows quorum uses a quorum ad witess cocept to determie which cluster members are viable ad ca participate i supportig cluster resources. Widows clusterig uses a heartbeat based moitorig system to costatly iterrogate the status of cluster members. I best practice cases the Widows cluster ode heartbeat etwork iterface cards are dedicated to heartbeat operatios ad set up o a private VLAN for traffic segregatio to esure their fuctio is ot ecumbered by ormal Widows cluster server operatios. The emergece of Widows 2008 Hyper-V virtualizatio services has added a ew dimesio to cluster operatios with the capability of maagig cluster members as virtual guests. Widows 2008 Hyper-V hosts ca also be clustered at this time with Widows 2008 cluster services. Test Tip: A SQL Server cluster usig Widows 2008 R2 clusterig features is maaged from the Microsoft Widows 2008 R2 cluster admiistrator utility, NOT from SQL Server Cofiguratio for tasks such as restartig the SQL Service. Figure 51: SQL Server Cluster Implemetatio LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

83 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) Figure 51 shows a simple Widows 2008 R2 SQL cluster with active/passive cofiguratio. The Widows cluster is comprised of two odes: Cluster01 ad Cluster02. Oce Widows 2008 R2 clusterig is cofigured, a third virtual or cluster ode is created, for example, ClusterNode. It is, however, comprised of the two physical servers listed above. This cluster ca ow provide failover for stadard Widows services: DHCP, file sharig, disk drives, ad other cluster available resources. Oce a cluster is established ad fuctioal, a SQL Server istallatio is possible that will detect the Widows cluster ad allow the ruig of the setup path to establish a SQL cluster istace. This will create the virtual SQL cluster SQL01 with its ow IP address. The SQL cluster istace will have several prerequisite resources to lauch, the primary oe beig the disk drives that are cluster accessible ad meet the defiitio of a shared cluster resource. The virtual SQL cluster istace amed SQL01 is what cliets ad applicatios would target i their coectio strig defiitios ad for other database operatios. The failover process ca idetify which cluster odes are available as possible owers of the cluster SQL istace. If Cluster02 was a failover host for Cluster01, ad Cluster01 suffered a bluescree/memory dump issue, the a failover of all SQL istaces ad services would occur to Cluster02. This is amazig techology ad represets a top-level solutio for protectig SQL Server availability. The failover process also provides quite a bit of maagemet support; you ca update ad patch servers i a cluster, as required, without dowtime as you failover resources to allow for the updates to occur. Server reboots ad other types of maiteace such as a RAM additio ca also occur durig the productio cycle of a day due to failover capability. Figure 52: Cluster Resources for a SQL Server Cluster Figure 52 shows a SQL Server cluster implemetatio with the established SQL Server cluster group ad member cluster resources such as Aalysis Service, DTC, SAN Drives, SQL Server virtual IP, SQL Server virtual ame, the SQL Server service, SQL Server Aget, ad full-text search. These cluster resources combie to form the SQL cluster istace. Agai, if the S Drive above is ot olie, the the SQL cluster will ot start as it is a depedet resource for the SQL Server service. For security, each ode i a SQL cluster will use the same service accouts to ru the SQL Server service. This accout should be protected ad maaged properly to esure it does ot lockout or become uavailable, as this will cause the SQL cluster to fail. Prep: SQL Server Clusterig You support six istaces of SQL Server 2008 ruig o differet computers cofigured as failover clusters. You are required to add a seveth SQL ode to the Widows 2008 failover cluster. The least amout of effort should be used. How will you accomplish this? LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

84 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) Solutio: SQL Server Clusterig This type of questio will preset several solutios that are desiged to test your kowledge of how to iitiate a clustered SQL istace. To cofigure a SQL Server istace as a ode i a cluster you must ru the SQL Server 2008 setup. This will preset you with the optio of addig a ode to a cluster. This is the same for removig a ode from a cluster. The SQL Server Maagemet Studio is of o use here, ad either is a T-SQL based solutio like sp_cofigure. Trasactio Log Shippig Trasactio log shippig is a older SQL Server method of high availability but oe that does ot have the expese of SQL Server clusterig. It does ot have the rapid failover capability of SQL database mirrorig but is very viable to esure your SQL database trasactios are replicated ad available for use i the evet of a problem to the database setup as the log shippig primary. Log shippig automatically seds trasactios from a primary database to a secodary database, o separate SQL Server istaces. The log shipped data is cotiuously applied to the secodary database as it arrives. A optio exists to use a third SQL istace to moitor the history ad status of all log shippig operatios betwee the primary ad secodary database. Test Tip: Log shippig secodary databases do ot automatically come olie for a failover operatio if the primary database fails. You must start the secodary database with a full restore of the primary database backup usig NORECOVERY or STANDBY. Log shippig coducts a series of SQL jobs to achieve the movemet of trasactios. A backup job occurs o the primary database every 15 miutes, but this is cofigurable. A copy job copies the primary database backups to the secodary server. The job is called Log Shippig Copy ad is created whe log shippig is created o the secodary server. A restore job is also created o the secodary server, which cotais the copied backup files, ad all the relevat backup history. Durig a log shippig recovery operatio the followig tasks are coducted: Apply ay ucommitted backups from the backup file share established for log shippig. Apply ay ucommitted trasactio log backups to the secodary database. Coduct a tail log backup of the primary database if it is available. Recover the secodary database to place it i a cosistet state, ad brig it olie. Advise cliets of the database istace ame where the previously primary database is ow ruig. If desired, set up other secodary log shippig targets for the ew primary database. LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

85 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) Figure 53: Log Shippig Schematic Prep: SQL Server Log Shippig You maage several SQL Server 2008 servers. Headers02 is cofigured as a secodary log shippig server for Headers01. You are coductig maiteace o Headers01 ad eed to failover first to Headers02. What step should you perform first? Solutio: SQL Server Log Shippig I this case you would back up the trasactio log o Headers01 with the NORECOVERY optio, which will get the tail of the trasactio log ad allow you to brig the log shippig secodary database up to date with trasactios it may ot have from the previous logs shipped. This is plaed cutover, so there is ot a physical problem with the primary server, which would dictate differet actios o the log shippig target server. Some exam solutios appear valid but esure the above optios which direct you to coduct a backup of Headers01 with the COPY ONLY optio as this will ot provide the tail log iformatio eeded by the secodary. SQL Replicatio SQL Replicatio provides SQL Server the capability of pushig data to multiple edpoits i a cotrolled ad sychroized fashio. SQL Replicatio ca replicate data betwee SQL Server ad a cliet, such as a remote ivetory system or mobile otebook users. I the high availability space, SQL Replicatio ca replicate data from SQL istace to SQL istace. This ca also iclude supportig data warehousig or reportig. SQL Server replicatio uses a push or pull type model to replicate data predicated o stadard taxoomies of publisher, subscriber, publicatios, articles ad subscriptios. The publisher is a source database pushig data out to other istaces. The distributor is a database store that houses trasactio data about the replicatio process to iclude replicatio status, metadata, ad i some cases queues data for subscribers. The publisher ad distributor ca be the same database. Subscribers are databases that receive the publisher s data. A subscriber ca be bidirectioal i that it passes data back ad forth to publishers. A article is a database object i a publicatio. This ca be views, tables, or idexes. Data published as articles supports SQL Replicatio filterig, which is importat for determiig the data compositio of what is moved. A publicatio is a groupig or article, which ca be from more tha oe database. Lastly, the subscriptio is a request for data from a subscriber. The subscriptio determies what will be received, whe, ad where. Subscriptios are push or pull type replicatio. LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

86 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) SQL Replicatio is a feature that supports the followig types of publicatio: Merge Publicatio - A sapshot of the data occurs ad the chages are tracked with triggers. Whe subscribers coect up for the chages, all chages are published sice the previous replicatio. Trasactioal Publicatio/Trasactioal Publicatio With Updatable Subscriptios - A sapshot of the data occurs at the publicatio database ad the ay chages are delivered to the subscribers as they occur. With updatable subscriptios, chages made at the subscriber are applied back to the publisher. Sapshot Replicatio Sapshots are poit i time replicatios ad o updates are tracked. Figure 54: SQL Server Replicatio Usig Multiple Methods of Replicatio LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

87 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) Prep: SQL Server Replicatio You maage multiple SQL Server 2008 istaces. You have a mai office i Atlata ad a brach office i Seattle. The brach office is coected to corporate via a WAN coectio. There is oe SQL Server 2008 istace per office. The SQL Server 2008 istace i Atlata cotais a database amed Parts, ad a table with 2 millio rows amed Parts_Stock. You set up merge replicatio betwee the Parts_Stock table ad a table amed Parts_Stock i the remote database istace located i Seattle. A WAN failure for two days causes the most recet replicatio merge to expire. You eed to get the remote copy of Parts_ Stock up to date as quickly as possible. You should complete this without much effort. How will you solve this problem? Solutio: SQL Server Replicatio I this case you will create a ew subscriptio. A tablediff will idetify the table chages ad use the ew subscriptio to apply the differeces. You will ot eed to create a sapshot. This is the least cost i terms of badwidth ad effort for a solutio. aswers that focus o the publicatio portio of the replicatio setup i this case exped too much effort because it is harder to set up the publicatio side tha a subscriptio. LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

88 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) Questios Chapter 1 1. You work as the DBA for a medium-sized orgaizatio. Oe of the employees i the Accoutig departmet has asked for your assistace. She eeds a solutio that will allow her to trasfer data from a MySQL database ito a SQL Server database. Additioally, the data must be modified i several ways durig the process. Which SQL Server add-o compoet will meet her eeds? Select the best aswer. A. SSAS B. SSRS C. SSIS D. Database Mirrorig 2. You are cofigurig database mail ad have bee asked to esure that fault tolerace is provided i order to accommodate for radom mail server outages. Which of the followig actios ca provide this fault tolerace? Select the best aswer. A. Set the loggig level to verbose B. Cofigure multiple mail profiles C. Cofigure the accout retry delay to 90 secods D. Set the database executable miimum lifetime to 900 secods 3. You are usig a mail server to sed mail from SQL Server 2008 s database mail feature. The mail server has itermittet problems that may cause it to be uavailable for 30 to 90 secods. You caot use ay other mail servers. What database mail cofiguratio parameters may help esure that messages are delivered? Choose TWO. A. Accout retry delay B. Create additioal profiles C. Loggig level D. Accout retry attempts Chapter 2 1. Whe you cofigure a alert i the SQL Server Aget, oly two respose optios are provided. What are these TWO optios? Choose TWO. A. Execute job B. Notify operator C. Shutdow server D. Check the itegrity of a database LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

89 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) You are cofigurig a alert. Based o the scree i Exhibit 1, what is the value of buffer cache hit ratio that would fire the alert? Select the best aswer. A. Less tha 7.8 percet B. Less tha 78 percet C. Greater tha 78 percet D. Greater tha 7.8 percet Exhibit(s): 3. You maage a sigle SQL Server 2008 istace with a sigle database called Egieerig that is i the Simple recovery mode. You have bee creatig Full backups every ight for several moths. Now, the database has grow so large that the full backups take more tha two hours. You wat to perform Full backups every weeked ad a differet type of backup ightly. You must use the built-i backup feature of SQL Server What kid of backup ca you perform that cooperates with the weeked Full backups, but requires less time? Select the best aswer. A. Icremetal B. Modified C. Trasactio Logs D. Differetial LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

90 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) Chapter 3 1. You are the DBA for a large SQL Server 2008 database applicatio. Whe you arrived at work this morig, you had several messages waitig from users. The users were complaiig that they caot access the data. They are receivig access deied errors. All users could access the data the previous day. At the ed of the day yesterday, you performed the followig tasks:-maual backup of the database-maual sapshot of the database-modified the owership of the call_routig table-added seve ew userswhich actio is the likely cause of the problem? Select the best aswer. A. Maual backup of the database B. Maual sapshot of the database C. Added seve ew users D. Modified the owership of the call_routig table 2. You are ruig SQL Server 2008 Eterprise Editio. You wat to eable a server-level audit procedure usig SQL Server Audit. What THREE steps are required to implemet a server-level audit procedure? Choose THREE. A. Create a server audit specificatio B. Eable the audit C. Create a audit object D. Create the server-level permissio for the audit 3. You are istallig a test server that will ru SQL Server 2008 Eterprise Editio. The istallatio OS will be Widows Server You wat to esure that remote coectios are ot allowed. How will you cofigure the istallatio so that oly local coectios are allowed but outgoig etwork coectios ca be made? Select the best aswer. A. Uplug the etwork cable B. Disable the TCP/IP provider C. Block TCP port 21 i the firewall D. Use the sp_cofigure Block Net-Co, 1 commad Chapter 4 1. You are creatig a backup pla. Part of the pla icludes the backup of the trasactio logs for your databases. All databases ru o SQL Server 2008 Stadard Editio ad the OS used is Widows Server You pla to use the followig code to backup the trasactio logs: BACKUP LOG database_ame TO DISK= logback.bak ;I additio to backig up the log, what would this code do? Select the best aswer. A. Trucate the log B. Backup the database C. Restore the database D. Trucate the database LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

91 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) You are the DBA for a small compay i Florida. You must restore a database amed Sales to 3:17 yesterday afteroo. The curret date is Wedesday, Jue 3, A full backup is made every ight to a file amed day-fback.bak. The trasactio log is backed up each day at 12 PM ad is backed up to a file amed day-log.bak. Each week, the files are overwritte. Which THREE of the followig four commads would accurately restore the database to the desired poit-i-time if ru i the proper order? Choose THREE aswers. A. RESTORE LOG Sales FROM DISK= TUESDAY-log.bak WITH NORECOVERY, STOPAT = Ju 2, 2009, 3:17 PM ; B. RESTORE DATABASE Sales WITH RECOVERY; C. RESTORE DATABASE Sales FROM DISK= TUESDAY-fback.bak WITH NORECOVERY; D. RESTORE LOG Sales FROM DISK= TUESDAY-log.bak WITH NORECOVERY, UNTIL = Ju 2, 2009, 3:17 PM ; 3. You are creatig a Maiteace Pla usig the wizard. You wat to make sure the database is ot corrupt ad perform a complete backup of the database. I Exhibit 1, what optios should you check? Choose TWO. A. Rebuild Idex B. Back Up Database (Full) C. Shrik Database D. Check Database Itegrity Exhibit(s): LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

92 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) Chapter 5 1. You are the DBA for a carefully plaed database. I spite of the itesive plaig, the data files are still growig very large. You ve bee asked to look for a solutio that reduces the storage space cosumed by the database. The performace of the database is ot a issue, as the users have bee very happy with the performace; however, space is quickly ruig out o the server ad the server admiistrator has idicated that more drive space caot be purchased util the ext budget cycle. What feature ca be used to coserve storage space? Select the best aswer. A. Data compressio B. Trasparet data ecryptio C. Table partitioig D. Filestreams 2. What kids of pages exist i a SQL Server idex? Choose THREE. A. Itermediate pages B. Leaf pages C. Root pages D. Brach pages 3. You are attemptig to create a idex with the WITH ONLINE = ON clause. However, it is ot workig. You are ruig the SQL Server istace o Widows Server 2008 Stadard Editio ad the SQL Server istace is ruig the Stadard Editio of SQL Server Service pack 1 has ot bee applied to the Widows Server. Several users are coected to the database. Why is the idex commad ot workig? Select the best aswer. A. Because Widows Server 2008 Eterprise Editio is required B. Because users are coected C. Because service pack 1 has ot bee applied D. Because SQL Server 2008 Eterprise Editio is required 4. A database uses the collatio amed Frech_CI_AI. Without lookig at documetatio, what would this collatio ame tell you by itself? Choose three. A. Case isesitivity B. Accet isesitivity C. The Frech codepage is used D. Albaia icos LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

93 Maual SQL Server 2008 Implemetatio ad Maiteace (70-432) Chapter 6 1. You must cofigure a SQL Server Aget job to use a proxy accout for access to the Widows file system. The job rus o a SQL Server 2008 Stadard Editio server. You have take the followig steps:1. Right-click o the Credetials folder ad select New Credetial.2. I the New Credetial widows eter a Credetial ame of OSCommad ad select a user with appropriate permissios as the idetity ad provide a password.3. Click OK to create the Credetial.Whe you attempt to create the job step ad use the proxy accout, you see the Ru As optio show i Exhibit 1. What steps do you eed to take to use the proxy accout based o the OSCommad credetial? Select the best aswer. A. You must use the CREATE JOB STEP commad sice proxies are ot available i the GUI iterface. B. Proxies are oly supported o Eterprise Editio. C. Create a ew Operatig System (CmdExec) proxy i the Proxies cotaier withi the SQL Server Aget ode. D. The proxy accout is cofigured as the ower of the job ad ot usig the Ru As parameter of a step. Exhibit(s): LearSmart Cloud Classroom: Video Traiig s Mauals

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