NORMA TECNICA CEIEN Prima. Controlloriprogrammabili Parte1:Informazionigenerali TECNICHE DICONTROLLO E DIMISURA DEIPROCESSI

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1 NORMA ITALIANA CEI NormaItaliaa CEIEN DataPubblicazioe Classificazioe Edizioe Prima Titolo Fascicolo R Cotrolloriprogrammabili Parte1:Iformazioigeerali Title Programmablecotrolers Part 1:Geeraliformatio TECNICHE DICONTROLLO E DIMISURA DEIPROCESSI COMITATO ELETTROTECNICO ITALIANO CNRCONSIGLIO NAZIONALE DELLE RICERCHE AEIASSOCIAZIONE ELETTROTECNICA ED ELETTRONICA ITALIANA

2 SOMMARIO LapreseteNormasiapplicaaicotroloriprogrammabiliealeperifericheassociate,peresempio strumetidiprogrammazioeemessaaputo (PADT),apparecchiaturedi prova(te)eiterfacceuomo-macchia(mmi)ecc.leapparecchiaturepresei cosiderazioedalapresetenormasoo destiatealõuso elacategoriadisovratesioe I,i impiatiabassatesioei cuilatesioeomiale delõalimetazioedireteo supera1000v c.a.(50/60hz)o 1500V c.c.,perilcotroloeilcomado dimacchieeprocessiidustriali.icotroloriprogrammabilieleperifericheassociatevegoo cosideraticomecompoetidiu sistemadicotrolo e possoo essereforiticomeapparecchiaturasia apertachechiusa.no siapplica,pertato,alsistemaautomatizzato i cuiilsistemaacotrolore programmabileo cheuo deitaticompoetidibase,traiqualirietraacheilprogrammaapplicativo. PoichŽicotroloriprogrammabilisoo deicompoeti,lasicurezzageeraledelsistemaautomatizzato, compresaqueladelõistalazioeedelõapplicazioe,o rietraelõambito delapresetenorma.predei cosiderazioelõimmuitˆ delrumoreeletricoeilrilevameto deglieroridifuzioameto delsistemapc (cotroloreprogrammabile),peresempiolõuso delcotrolo di paritˆ,autodiagosticaecc. GliscopidelaNormasoo: -forireledeþizioieidetiþcarelepricipalicarateristichecheriguardao laselezioeelõapplicazioedeicotroloriprogrammabiliedeleperifericheassociate; -speciþcareirequisitimiimiperlecarateristichecostrutive,lasicurezzageeraleeleprove applicabiliaicotroloriprogrammabiliealeperifericheassociate; -deþireipricipalicampidiapplicazioe,leregolesitaticheesematiche,deigruppidibasesemplici macompletidielemetidiprogrammazioe,leproveapplicabilielemodalitˆco cuiicostrutori possoo ampliareo adatareisuddetigruppidibaseaipropri cotroloriprogrammabili; -forirealõutilizzatoreistruzioigeeraliediretiveperlõapplicazioe; -deþirelacomuicazioetraicotroloriprogrammabiliealtrisistemieletroiciutilizzado laspeci- Þcazioedeimessaggidi produzioe(mms)deþitaelapubblicazioeiso/iec LapreseteNormacostituiscelaristampasezamodiÞche,secodo iluovo progetodivesteeditoriale, delanormapariumeroededizioe(fascicolo 2491E). DESCRITTORI DESCRIPTORS processiidustriali idustrial-process;cotrolo delprocesso process cotrol;cotroloreprogrammabile programmablecotroler;geeralitˆ geeral; Nazioali COLLEGAMENTI/RELAZIONITRA DOCUMENTI Europei (IDT)EN : ; Iterazioali (IDT)IEC 131-1: ; Legislativi INFORMAZIONIEDITORIALI NormaItaliaa CEIEN Pubblicazioe NormaTecica CaratereDoc. Stato EdizioeI vigore Datavaliditˆ Ambito validitˆ Europeo Variati Nessua Ed.Prec.Fasc.Nessua Comitato Tecico 65-Cotroloemisuraeiprocessiidustriali Approvatadal PresidetedelCEI i Data CENELEC i Data Sottopostaa ichiestapubblicacomedocumeto origiale Chiusai data Gruppo Abb.9 SezioiAbb.A ICS CDU : LEGENDA (IDT)LaNormai oggetto ideticaalenormeidicatedopo ilriferimeto (IDT) CEI-Milao 1998.Riproduzioevietata. Tutiidiritisoo riservati.nessuapartedelpresetedocumeto pũessereriprodotao difusaco u mezo qualsiasisezailcoseso scrito delcei. LeNormeCEIsoo revisioate,quado ecessario,co lapubblicazioesiadiuoveedizioisiadivariati. éimportatepertatochegliutetidelestessesiacertio di esserei possesso delõultimaedizioeo variate.

3 EuropŠische Norm Norme EuropŽee Europea Stadard NormaEuropea EN Giugo1994 Cotrolloriprogrammabili Parte1:Iformazioigeerali Programmablecotrolers Part 1:Geeraliformatio CENELEC members are boud to complyw iththe CEN/CENELEC IteralRegulatios whichstipulate thecoditios forgivigthis Europea Stadard the status ofanatioalstadardwithoutayalteratio. Up-to-date lists ad bibliographical refereces cocerigsuchnatioalstadards maybe obtaied o applicatio to the Cetral Secretariat or to ay CENELEC member. This Europea Stadard exists i threeoficialversios (Eglish,Frech,Germa). A versio i ayotherlaguagead otified to the CENELEC CetralSecretariathas thesamestatus as theoficialversios. CENELEC members aretheatioalelectrotechical commitees of:austria,belgium,demark,filad, Frace,Germay,Greece,Icelad,Irelad,Italy,Luxembourg, Netherlads, Norway, Portugal, Spai, Swede,Switzerladad Uited Kigdom. IComitatiNazioalimembridelCENELEC soo teuti,i accordocolregolameto itero delcen/cene- LEC,ad adotarequestanormaeuropea,sezaalcua modifica,comenormanazioale. Glielechiaggioratieirelativiriferimetidi talinormenazioalipossoo essereotteutirivolgedosial Segretario CetraledelCENELEC o agliuficidi qualsiasicomitato Nazioalemembro. LapreseteNormaEuropeaesistei treversioiuficiali(iglese,fracese,tedesco). Uatraduzioeefetuatadau altropaesemembro, sotto lasuaresposabilitˆ,elasualiguaazioale eotificataalcenelec,halamedesimavaliditˆ. ImembridelCENELEC soo icomitatieletrotecici Nazioali dei segueti Paesi:Austria,Belgio,Daimarca,Filadia,Fracia,Germaia,Grecia,Irlada, Islada,Italia,Lussemburgo,Norvegia,Olada,Portogalo,Rego Uito,Spaga,SveziaeSvizzera. CENELEC 1994 Copyrightreserved to alcenelec members. IdiritidiriproduzioediquestaNormaEuropeasoo riservatiesclusivameteaimembriazioalidelcenelec. Comitato Europeo di NormalizazioeEletrotecica Europea CommiteeforElectrotechicalStadardizatio C E N E L E C SecrŽtariat Cetral: ruedestassart 35,B -1050Bruxeles ComitŽEuropŽe denormalisatio Electrotechique EuropŠisches KomiteefŸrElektrotechischeNormug

4 CONTENTS INDICE Rif. Topic Argometo Pag. INTRODUCTION INTRODUZIONE 1 1 GENERAL 1.1 Scope. 1.2 Objectofthestadard. 1.3 Objectofthis part. 1.4 Normativerefereces. GENERALITË 2 Oggeto.2 Scopo delanorma.2 Scopo delapreseteparte.3 Riferimetiormativi.3 2 DEFINITIONS DEFINIZIONI 3 3 GLOSSARY 3.1 Baud. 3.2 Biarycharacter. 3.3 Biarydigit(bit). 3.4 Bit. 3.5 Character. 3.6 Characterset. 3.7 Data. 3.8 Directaddress. 3.9 Directaddressig Feedbackcotrol. 3.1 Hardware Hexadecimal Iitializatio Iterrupt Jump (ucoditioaljump,coditioaljump) Ope loop cotrol Parameter Program Redudacy Register Reliability Sequetialprogram Statemet Sytax Variable. GLOSSARIO 15 Baud.15 Caraterebiario.15 Cifrabiaria(bit).15 Bit.15 Caratere.16 Isiemedicarateri.16 Dati.16 Idirizzo direto.16 Idirizzameto direto.16 Cotrolo aretroazioe(adaelo chiuso).16 Hardware.16 Esadecimale.16 Iizializzazioe.17 Iterruzioe.17 Salto (salto icodizioato,salto codizioato).17 Cotrolo ad aelo aperto.17 Parametro.17 Programma.17 Ridodaza.17 Registro.17 A fidabilitˆ.18 Programmasequeziale.18 Istruzioe.18 Sitassi.18 Variabile.18 4 FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS 4.1 Basicfuctioalstructureofaprogrammable cotrolersystem. 4.2 Characteristics ofthesigalprocessigfuctio 4.3 Characteristics oftheiterfacefuctio to sesors ad actuators. 4.4 Characteristics ofthecommuicatio fuctio. 4.5 Characteristics ofthema-machieiterface(mmi) fuctio. 4.6 Characteristics oftheprogrammig,debuggig, moitorig,testigad documetatio fuctios. 4.7 Characteristics ofthepowersupplyfuctios. 4.8 Availabilityadreliability. 4.9 Ergoomiccharacteristics.. CARATTERISTICHE FUNZIONALI 18 Strutturafuzioaledi basediu sistema acotroloreprogrammabile.18 Carateristichedelafuzioedielaborazioe deisegali.20 Carateristichedelafuzioediiterfaccia co sesorieatuatori.23 Carateristichedelafuzioedicomuicazioe.23 Carateristichedelafuzioediiterfaccia uomo-macchia(mmi).24 Carateristichedelefuzioidiprogrammazioe,messa aputo,moitoraggio,provaedocumetazioe.24 Carateristichedelefuzioidialimetazioe.26 Dispoibilitˆeafidabilitˆ.26 Carateristicheergoomiche.27 Pagiav

5 ANNEX/ALLEGATO A ormative ormativo ANNEX/ALLEGATO B ormative ormativo ANNEX/ALLEGATO ZA ormative ormativo ILLUSTRATION OF PROGRAMMABLE CONTROLLER-SYSTEM HARDWARE DEFINITIONS TYPICAL INTERFACE DIAGRAM OF A PROGRAMMABLE CONTROLLER SYSTEM Other IteratioalPublicatios quoted i this Stadard with the refereces ofthe relevat Europea Publicatios ILLUSTRAZIONE DELLE DEFINIZIONIHARDWARE DIUN SISTEMA A CONTROLLOREPROGRAMMABILE 29 DIAGRAMMA DIINTERFACCIA TIPICO DIUN SISTEMA A CONTROLLOREPROGRAMMABILE 30 AltrePubblicazioiIterazioalimezioate elapresete Normaco riferimeto ale corrispodeti Pubblicazioi Europee 32 Pagiavi

6 FOREWORD PREFAZIONE The CENELEC questioaire procedure, performed forþdigoutwhetherorottheiterzataperstabilireselapubblicazioeiec Laproceduradel questioario CENELEC,utilizatioalStadard IEC 131-1(1992) could be (1992) poteva essere adotata seza modiþche accepted without textualchages,has show deltesto,hamostrato che o erao ecessarie thato commo modiþcatios wereecessary modiþche comuicenelec perlõaccetazioe fortheacceptaceas Europea Stadard. comenormaeuropea. The referece documet was submited to Ildocumeto diriferimeto stato sottoposto the CENELEC members for formal vote ad alvoto formaledei membri del CENELEC eapprovato dalcenelec come NormaEuropea was approved by CENELEC as EN o 8 March EN lÕ8 marzo Thefolowigdates wereþxed: Le datedi applicazioesoo lesegueti: latest dateofpublicatio ofa ideticalatioalstadard dataultimadi pubblicazioediuanormaazioaleidetica (dop) 1995/03/15 (dop) 15/03/1995 latest dateofwithdrawalofcoßictigatioalstadards dataultimadiritiro delenormeazioalicotrastati (dow) 1995/03/15 (dow) 15/03/1995 Forproducts whichhavecomplied withtherelevatatioalstadard before1995/03/15,as show bythemaufacturerorbyacertiþcatio body,this previous stadard maycotiue to applyforproductio util2000/03/15. Aexes desigated ÒormativeÓarepart ofthe bodyofthis stadard. I this stadard,aexes A,B ad ZA areormative. Periprodotiche,comeidicato dalcostrutoreo dau Orgaismo dicertiþcazioe,erao coformi ala relativa Norma azioale prima del 15/03/1995,laNormaprecedetepu cotiuare ad essere applicata per laproduzioe Þo al 15/03/2000. GliA legatiidicaticomeòormativiósoo parte itegratedelanorma. NelapreseteNorma,gliAlegatiA,B eza soo ormativi. ENDORSEMENT NOTICE AVVISO DIADOZIONE ThetextoftheIteratioalStadard IEC Iltesto delapubblicazioeiec 131-1(1992) (1992)was approvedbycenelec as aeuropea Stadard without aymodiþcatio. stato approvato dalcenelec comenormaeuropeasezaalcuamodiþca. Pagiavi

7 INTRODUCTION INTRODUZIONE This part ofiec 131costitutes part1ofaseries ofstadards o programmablecotrolers adtheirassociated peripherals ad should be read i cojuctio withtheotherparts ofthe series. Whereacoßictexists betwee this ad other IEC stadards (except basic safety stadards), theprovisios ofthis stadardshould be cosideredto gover i theareaofprogrammable cotrolers ad theirassociatedperipherals. Compliacewithparts 1ad 2 ofthis stadard caot beclaimed uless al tests adveriþcatios required i part 2 arecomplied with. See6.2 ofiec fordetails. IEC 131wilcosist ofthefolowigparts,of which this is the Þrst,uder the geeral title: Programmablecotrolers. Part1Ñ1992,Geeraliformatio Part2 Ñ 1992, Equipmet requiremets ad tests Part3 Ñ Programmiglaguages (beigprited) Part 4 Ñ Userguidelies (udercosideratio) Part5 Ñ Messagigservice speciþcatio (udercosideratio). LaPubblicazioeIEC 131-1costituiscelaprima Partedi uaseriedi Normerelative aicotrolori programmabiliealeperifericheassociateedeve essereletacogiutametealealtrepartidela serie. I caso dicotrasto tralapresetenormaealtre PubblicazioiIEC (ad eccezioe dele Norme sulasicurezzadi base),ledisposizioicoteuteelapresetenormadevoo essereriteuteprioritarieelcampo deicotrollori programmabiliedeleperifericheassociate. LarispodezaaleParti1e2 delapresete Normao pu essererivedicataseo soo stateeseguitetutteleproveeleveriþcherichieste elaparte2.peridetagli,vedere6.2 delapubblicazioeiec LaPubblicazioeIEC 131,ilcuititolo geerale ÒCotrolori programmabilió cosisterˆ dele seguetiparti: Parte1ÑIformazioigeerali(1992) Parte2 Ñ SpeciÞcazioieprovedeleapparecchiature(1992) Parte3 Ñ Liguaggidiprogrammazioe(1993) Parte4 ÑRaccomadazioi per lõutilizzatore (alo studio) Parte5 Ñ SpeciÞcazioediservizio dicomuicazioe(alo studio). 40 Pagia1di34

8 1 GENERAL GENERALITË 1.1 Scope TheIteratioalStadard IEC 131applies to programmable cotrolers ad their associated peripherals such as programmig ad debuggigtools (PADTs),testequipmet (TE) ad ma-machieiterfaces (MMls),etc. Equipmet covered i this stadard is iteded for use i overvoltage category II (seeiec ),i low voltageistalatios,wheretherated mais supplyvoltage does otexceed1000v a.c.(50hz/60hz),or 1500V d.c.,forthecotrol ad commad of machies ad idustrialprocesses. Programmable cotrolers ad their associated peripherals arecosidered as compoets ofa cotrol system ad maybe provided as eclosed or ope equipmet.therefore,this stadard does ot dealwiththeautomated systemi whichtheprogrammablecotrolersystem is but oe basiccompoetamogmayothers icludigits applicatio program. Siceprogrammablecotrolers arecompoet devices,overalautomated system safetyicludigistalatio ad applicatio is beyod the scopeofthis stadard.forfurtheriformatio, referto IEC whichis iteded tohelp users i reducigtherisks.however,electrical oise immuity ad error detectio of the PC-system operatio suchas theuseofparity checkig,self-testigdiagostics,etc.,areaddressed. 1.2 Objectofthestadard Oggeto LapreseteNormasiapplicaaicotroloriprogrammabili e ale periferiche associate, per esempio strumetidi programmazioeemessaa puto (PADT),apparecchiaturedi prova(te)e iterfacceuomo-macchia(mmi)ecc. Le apparecchiaturepresei cosiderazioe dallapresetenormasoo destiatealõuso ela categoriadi sovratesioeii(vedi PubblicazioeIEC ),i impiatiabassatesioe i cuilatesioeomialedelõalimetazioe direteo supera1000v c.a.(50h z/60h z)o 1500 V c.c.,per il cotrolo e il comado di macchieeprocessiidustriali. Icotrolori programmabilieleperifericheassociatevegoo cosideraticomecompoetidi u sistemadi cotrolo e possoo essereforiti comeapparecchiaturasiaapertachechiusa.la presetenorma,pertato,o siapplicaalsistemaautomatizzatoi cuiilsistemaacotrolore programmabileo che uo deitaticompoetidi base,traiqualirietraacheilprogrammaapplicativo. PoichŽicotroloriprogrammabilisoo deicompoeti,lasicurezzageeraledel sistemaautomatizzato, compresaqueladelõistalazioe e delõapplicazioe, o rietra elõambito dela presetenorma.periformazioipidetagliate, cosultarelapubblicazioeiec 131-4,chehalo scopo diaiutaregliutilizzatoriaridurreirischi.la presetenorma,ad ogimodo,predei cosiderazioelõimmuitˆ dalrumoreeletricoeilrilevameto deglierroridi fuzioameto delsistemacp(cotroloreprogrammabile),peresempio lõuso delcotrolo diparitˆ,autodiagosticaecc. Scopo delanorma Thepurposes ofthis stadard are: GliscopidelapreseteNormasoo isegueti: to establishthedeþitios ad idetifythe pricipalcharacteristics relevatto the selectio ad applicatio ofprogrammable cotrolers ad theirassociatedperipherals; to specifythemiimum requiremets for thefuctioalcharacteristics,servicecoditios,costructio characteristics,geeral safetyad tests applicableto programmable cotrolers ad theirassociatedperipherals; to deþe,foreachofthemostcommoly used programmiglaguages,majorþelds ofapplicatio,sytacticad sematicrules, simplebutcompletebasicsets ofprogrammigelemets,applicabletests ad meas by w hich maufacturers mayexpad or adapt those basicsets to their ow programmablecotrolerimplemetatios; forireledeþizioieidetiþcarelepricipali carateristichecheriguardao laselezioee lõapplicazioedeicotroloriprogrammabilie deleperifericheassociate; speciþcare i requisiti miimi per le carateristiche fuzioali,le codizioi di fuzioameto,lecarateristichecostrutive,lasicurezzageeraleeleproveapplicabiliaicotrolori programmabiliealeperifericheassociate; deþire,peroguo deiliguaggidi programmazioepidifusi,ipricipalicampidiapplicazioe,leregolesitaticheesematiche,dei gruppi di base semplici ma completi di elemetidi programmazioe,leproveapplicabili elemodalitˆ co cuiicostrutoripossoo ampliareo adatareisuddetigruppidibaseai propricotroloriprogrammabili; Pagia2 di34

9 to givegeeraltutorialiformatio ad applicatio guidelies to the user; to deþe the commuicatio betwee programmable cotrolers ad otherelectroic systems usig the Maufacturig Message SpeciÞcatio (MMS) deþed i ISO/IEC forire alõutilizzatore istruzioi geerali e diretiveperlõapplicazioe; deþire la comuicazioe tra i cotrolori programmabiliealtrisistemieletroiciutilizzado laspeciþcazioedeimessaggidiproduzioe (MMS) deþita ela Pubblicazioe ISO/IEC Objectofthis part Scopo delapreseteparte This part ofiec 131gives thedeþitios ad LapresetePartedelaPubblicazioeIEC 131 cotais aglossaryofterms usedi this stadard.itidetiþes thepricipalfuctioalchar- utilizzati elapresete Norma.Questa Parte forisceledeþizioieu glossario deitermii acteristics ofprogrammablecotrolersystems. idetiþcaioltrelepricipalicarateristichefuzioalideisistemiacotrolore programmabile. 1.4 Normativerefereces Riferimetiormativi The folowig ormative documets cotai Le Normesottoelecatecotegoo disposizioi provisios which,throughreferecei this text, che,tramiteriferimeto elpresetetesto,costituiscoo disposizioiperlapresetenorma.al costituteprovisios ofthis part ofiec 131.At thetimeofpublicatio,theeditios idicated mometo dela pubblicazioe dela presete werevalid.a lormative documets aresubject Norma,leedizioiidicateerao i vigore.tuttelenormesoo soggeteamodiþche e/o revi- to revisio,ad parties to agreemets based o this part ofiec 131areecouraged to ivestigatethepossibilityofapplyigthemostrecet soo ivitatiad applicare le edizioipireceti sioe,e gli utilizzatori delapresete Norma editios oftheormative documets idicated dele Norme sottoelecate (1).Presso i membri below (1).Members ofiec ad ISO maitai registers ofcurretlyvaliditeratioalstadards. aggioratidelenormei delaiec edelõiso soo dispoibiliglielechi vigore. 2 DEFINITIONS DEFINIZIONI Terms ot foud i the Iteratioal ElectrotechicalVocabulary(IEV)ad ofgeeraluse cheo appaioo elvocabolario Eletrotecico Nelpresetearticolo vegoo deþitiitermii i IEC 131aredeÞedi this clause.terms Iterazioale(IEV)echevegoo utilizzatiela whicharemorespeciþc to programmigla-pubblicazioeieguages,equipmetcharacteristics ortest proce- termiicheriguardao i maierapispeciþcai 131.Permotivi di chiarezza,i dures aredeþedi thecorespodigparts i liguaggi di programmazioe,le carateristiche orderto makethem self-readable. dele apparecchiatureo leprocedure di prova vegoo deþitieleparticorispodeti. 2.1 Applicatio program Programmaapplicativo A logicalassemblyofaltheprogrammiglaguageelemets ad costructs ecessaryfor liguaggio diprogrammazioecheservoo per Isiemelogico di tutti glielemetieicostrutidel theiteded sigalprocessigrequired forthe lõelaborazioedeisegaliecessarialcotrollo di cotrol ofamachieorprocess byapc-system. uamacchiao diu processo dapartedi u sistemacp.(vedisistemaautomatizzato,2.3.) (SeeAutomated system,2.3.) 2.2 Assigmet list A list showig the corespodeces betwee absoluteorlogicaladdresses adthesymbolic addresses assiged to them. 2.3 Automatedsystem Listadeleassegazioi Lista che eleca le corrispodeze tragli idirizziassolutio logiciegliidirizzisimboliciad essiassegati. Sistemaautomatizzato A cotrolsystem beyod the scopeofiec 131 Sistemadi cotrolo,cheo rietraelõambito i whichpc-systems areicorporated byorfor delapubblicazioeiec 131,i cuivegoo icorporatiisistemicp dao theuser,butwhichalso cotais othercompo- perlõutilizzatore,ma (1) EditorÕs Note:ForthelistofPublicatios,s eaexza. (1) N.d.R.PerlÕelecodelePubblicazioi,sirimadaalÕAlegato ZA. Pagia3 di34

10 ets icludigtheirapplicatio programs. checotieeachealtricompoeti,compresii corrispodetiprogrammiapplicativi. 2.4 Availability Thefractio oftimethatthesystem is actualy capableofperformigits missio. 2.5 Biarycodeddecimal(BCD) A umericalrepresetatio i whicheachdecimaldigitis represeted byagroup offourbits (biarydigits).thebits areassigedtherespective w eights Forexample,i biary codeddecimal,theumber14 is represeted as Dispoibilitˆ Frazioeditempo i cuiilsistema efetivametei grado dieseguirelasuafuzioe. DecimalecodiÞcato i biario (BCD) Rappresetazioeumericai cuiogicifradecimale viee rappresetata da u gruppo di quatro bit(cifrebiarie).aibitvieeassegato rispetivameteilpeso Nelcodicedecimalebiario,peresempio,ilumero 14 viee rappresetato come Boolea data Datarepresetedas asiglebiarydigit. Datibooleai Datirappresetaticomecifrabiariasigola. 2.7 Bus Oeormorecoductors used fortrasmitig sigals orpowerfrom oeormoresources to oeormoredestiatios. Bus Uo o picoduttoriutilizzatipertrasmetere segalio potezadauao pisorgetiauao pi destiazioi. 2.8 Byte A dataelemet oflegth8bits. Byte Uitˆ diiformazioecompostada8bit. 2.9 Catalogueddevice A devicethatis listed i themaufacturerõs catalogueofpc compoets Compoet Aydevice,uit,orapplicatio program which is apart ofa automated system.howeverits usei IEC 131is limited to maufacturerõs cataloguedparts ofpc-system. 2.1 Coect/discoect Dispositivo catalogato Dispositivo elecato elcatalogo deicompoeticpdelcostruttore. Compoete Qualuque dispositivo,uitˆ o programmaapplicativo facetepartedi u sistemaautomatizzato.lõutilizzo diquesto termieelapubblicazioeiec 131,tuttavia, limitato alepartidel sistemacpcatalogatedalcostrutore. Coetere/scoetere Make/breakalogicallik(suchas betwee a Realizzare/iterompereu colegameto logico MMIad ampu,evetualythroughcommuicatio devices).see Plug/uplug (2.47) for metemediatedispositivi di comuicazioe). (peresempio trauammieuampu,evetual- physicalcoectio/discoectio. Perlarealizzazioe/iteruzioe di u colegameto Þsico,vedereColegare/scolegare(2.47) Couplig(foriterferece) Accoppiameto(periterfereza) The mechaism by which a iterferece Meccaismo atraverso cui uasorgete di disturbo produce uõiterferezai u circuito di sourceproduces iterferecei asigalcircuit. segali Cross-referecelist A listshowigalthelocatios i apc program atwhichaselectedlist ofdataobjects is operated upo. Listadeiriferimeti Listacheelecatutelelocazioi di u programmapercp dovesioperasu uadetermiatalista di dati. Pagia4 di34

11 2.14 Curret sikig Theactofreceivigcurret Curret sourcig Theactofsupplyigcurret. Assorbimeto dicorrete A to diriceverecorrete. Emissioedicorrete A to diforirecorrete Datacommuicatio equipmet (DCE) Apparecchiaturaper comuicazioedati(dce) Theequipmetthatprovides thefuctios required to establish,maitai,ad termiate a rieastabilire,mateereeiterrompereu cole- Apparecchiaturacheforiscelefuzioiecessa- coectio,as welas thesigalcoversio, gameto,ochž lacoversioedeisegaliela ad the codigrequired forcommuicatio betwee datatermialequipmetad datacircuit. mialeperdatieilcircuito ditrasmissioe codiþcarichiestaperlacomuicazioetrailter- dati Datatermialequipmet (DTE) Equipmetcosistigofdigitaldevices ad istrumets thatcoverttheuseriformatio ito data sigals fortrasmissio,orrecovert the received datasigals ito useriformatio. Termialeperdati(DTE) Apparecchiatura composta dastrumeti e dispositividigitalichecovertoo leiformazioi delõutilizzatore i segali per la trasmissioe, oppurericovertoo isegaliricevutii iformazioiperlõutilizzatore Device Part ofapc-system Discoect Seecoect(2.1). Dispositivo Partedi u sistemacp. Scoetere VediCoetere(2.1) Duratio Durata Theamout oftimetake bya evet,actio, Quatitˆ di tempo richiesta da u eveto, etc. uõazioeecc Elemet Elemeto The portio ofagraphical laguage corespodigto a istructio i textuallaguage. de a uõistruzioe el liguaggio testuale.la Porzioe di u liguaggio graþco che corrispo- Theoperatio partad the operad partas parteoperazioeelaparteoperado soo speciþcatedalõappropriatacombiazioedisimboli speciþed byappropriatecombiatio ofgraphicad charactersymbols. graþciecarateri Executio Theprocess ofperformigtheoperatios ofa speciþed portio ofa applicatio program Fail-safeshutdow Esecuzioe A to dieseguireleoperazioi di uadetermiata porzioe di u programmaapplicativo. A resto i sicurezza TheabilityofaPC-system to haveits outputs Capacitˆdiu sistemacpdifarassumereale assumeapredeþed statew ithi aspeciþed delayafter detectig the occurece ofapower riodo ditempo speciþcato dopo averrilevato proprieusciteuo stato predeþito etro u pe- supplyvoltagedrop ora iteralfailure. uacadutadelatesioedialimetazioeo u guasto itero Image(iput/output (I/O image),image register) A portio of memory where l/o status (the image)is maitaied. Immagie(igresso/uscita(immagiediI/O), registro immagii) Porzioe di memoriai cui viee mateuto uo stato dii/o (immagie). Pagia5 di34

12 2.25 Iput Igresso 1)Thecurret,voltage,powerordrivigforce 1)Corete,tesioe,potezao forzamotrice applied to acircuitordevice;also caled iput valueoriput data. di valoreiizialeo datidiigresso. applicataau circuito o dispositivo;sioimo 2)Thetermials orotherplaces wherecurret,voltage,powerordrivigforcemaybe tesioe,lapotezao laforzamotriceposso- 2)Termialio altriputii cuilacorete,la applied to acircuitordevice;also caled iput termial. vo;sioimo ditermialediigresso. o essereapplicateau circuito o dispositi- 3)Dataw hichca beread bytheapplicatio 3)Datichepossoo essereletidalprogramma program from a iterfacebetwee theuser applicativo dauõiterfacciatralafuzioe di program executio fuctio ad aother esecuzioe del programma utilizzatore e fuctioaluitofthepc-system,as deþed uõaltra uitˆ fuzioaledel sistemacp,secodo quato deþito elapreseteparte i this part ofiec 131.Also caled program iput. delapubblicazioeiec 131.Sioimo diigresso delprogramma. (Seealso i IEC 131-2:Iput,digital,type1/type2). (Vedereache,elaPubblicazioeIEC 131-2, Igresso,digitale,tipo 1/tipo 2) Istructio A programmiglaguageelemetthatspeciþes a operatio ad the values orlocatio ofits operads.[iso/iec / modiÞed.] 2.27 Iteralfailure Istruzioe Elemeto del liguaggio di programmazioe chespeciþcauõoperazioeeivalorio lalocazioe dei suoi operadi. [Pubblicazioe ISO/IEC / modiÞcata.] Guasto itero A failure ivolvig the maufacturer-supplied GuastocheriguardalÕhardwareo ilsoftwareforito dalcostrutoredel sistemacp,adeccezioe hardwareorsoftwareofthepc-system,excludigtheapplicatio program. del programmaapplicativo Isolated(devices,circuits) Isolato (dispositivi,circuiti) Devices,circuits aresaid to beisolated where Dispositiviecircuitivegoo deþitiisolatiquado o esisteu colegameto galvaico thereis o galvaiccoectio betwee them. traloro Ladderdiagram (relayladderdiagram) Diagrammaacotati(diagrammaarel) Oeormoreetworks ofcotacts,coils,graphicaly represeted fuctios,fuctio blocks, presetategraþcamete,blocchi fuzioali,ele- Uao piretidi cotati,bobie,fuzioirap- dataelemets,labels,ad coectiveelemets, metidati,eticheteedelemetidi coessioe, delimited o theleftad (optioaly) o the delimitatesulasiistraed (evetualmete)sula right bypowerrails. destradabaredõalimetazioe Laguage Liguaggio 1) Fuctio blockdiagram (FBD)laguage 1) Liguaggio co diagrammi a blocchi fuzioali(fbd) A programmig laguage usig fuctio Liguaggio diprogrammazioecheutilizzai blockdiagrams forrepresetigtheapplicatio program forapc-system. tareilprogrammaapplicativo diu sistemacp. diagrammiablocchi fuzioaliperrapprese- 2) Graphicallaguage 2) Liguaggio graþco A programmig laguage based upo Liguaggio diprogrammazioe basato sula graphicalrepresetatio. rappresetazioegraþca. 3) Istructio list (IL) laguage 3) Liguaggio a listadi istruzioi (IL) A textualprogrammiglaguageusigistructios forrepresetigtheapplicatio utilizzaualistadiistruzioiperrappresetare Liguaggio di programmazioe testuale che program forapc-system. ilprogrammaapplicativo diu sistemacp. 4) Ladderdiagram (LD)laguage 4) Liguaggio co diagrammiacotati (LD) A programmiglaguageusigladderdiagrams forrepresetigtheapplicatio pro- diagrammiacotatiperrappresetareilpro- Liguaggio diprogrammazioecheutilizzai gram forapc-system. grammaapplicativo diu sistemacp. Pagia6 di34

13 5) Structured text (ST)laguage 5) Liguaggio testualestrutturato (ST) A textualprogrammiglaguageusigassigmet, sub-program cotrol, selectio utilizzaistruzioidiassegazioe,dicotrolo Liguaggio di programmazioe testuale che ad iteratio statemets to represettheapplicatio program forapc-system. perrappresetareilprogrammaapplicativo di dei sottoprogrammi,di selezioeeiterazioe 6) Textuallaguage u sistemacp. A system cosistigofawel-deþed,usualyþite,setofcharacters;rules forcom- Sistemachecomprede u isiemedicarateri 6) Liguaggio testuale biigcharacters withoeaotherto form be determiato,geeralmeteþito,regoledi words orotherexpressios;ad aspeciþc combiazioedeicarateriperformareparole assigmet ofmeaigs to some ofthe o altreespressioieassegazioedisigiþcati words orexpressios. speciþci ad alcueparoleo espressioi Logiccotrol system Sistemadicotrollo logico A cotrolsystem i whichdeþiteoutput sigal Sistemadi cotrolo i cuidetermiatistatidei states arefuctios ofthestates oftheiput sigals i keepigw iththerules ofboolea alge- segalidiigresso secodo leregole delõalgebra segalidi uscitasoo fuzioi degli statidei bra. booleaa Mai processiguit(mpu) Theportio ofthepc-system whichiterpretes orexecutes the(mai part ofthe)applicatio program.thempu mayiclude powersupply, memory,ad l/os.seeaexb ofthis partad also 3.1ad 3.6 ofiec Ma-machieiterface(MMI) A maufacturerõs catalogued peripheral equipped withpushbutos,lamps,keyboards, displays orequivalet,iteded as operatoriterface,such as motor cotrol/moitor pael, geeralpurposeoperatoriterface,etc. MMls maybe part ofthepermaetistalatio (e.g.mouted o frot paels,doors,boards, etc.)orot Mea timebetwee failure(mtbf) Uitˆ dielaborazioepricipale(mpu) PorzioedelsistemaCPcheiterpretao esegue il(lapartepricipaledel)programmaapplicativo.lampu pu compredere alimetazioe, memoriaeigressi/uscite.vederelõa legato B delapreseteparte,ochž 3.1e3.6 delapubblicazioeiec Iterfacciauomo-macchia(MMI) Periferica catalogata dal costrutore,dotata di pulsati,idicatori,tastiere,schermio equivaleti,destiata a essere usata come iterfaccia operatore, per esempio paelo di cotrollo/moitoraggio del motore,iterfacciaoperatoredi uso geeraleecc. Le MMIpossoo essereistalatei maierapermaete(peresempio motatesu paelifrotali,porte,piastreecc.)o meo. Tempo medio traguasti(mtbf) Forastated period i thelifeofafuctioal Peru determiato periodo divitadi uõuitˆ uit,themea valueofthelegthoftimebetwee cosecutivefailures uderstatedcodicorretradueguasticosecutivielecodizioi fuzioale,valoremedio deltempo cheitertios.[iec 902/P ] speciþcate.[pubblicazioeiec 902/P ] 2.35 Memoryutilizatio Theamout ofmemoryrequired foraspeciþed part ofaprogram. Utilizzo dimemoria Quatitˆ dimemoriaecessariaperuadetermiatapartedi u programma Network A maximalitercoectedgroup ofgraphical laguageelemets,excludigtheleftadright powerrails ofladderdiagrams. Rete G ruppo completo dielemetiitercoessidel liguaggio graþco,escluselebaredõalimetazioesiistraedestradei diagrammiacotati. Pagia7di34

14 2.37 O-lie A PC-system is said to beòo-lieówhe itis i activecotrol ofamachieorprocess. I liea U sistemacpvieedeþito Òi lieaóquado ha ilcotrolo ativo di uamacchiao u processo Operatigsystem MaufacturerÕs provided fuctios iteded to maage iteral PC-system iterdepedet fuctios (see4.2.1) Operatio 2.40 Output Sistemaoperativo Fuzioiforite dal costruttore e destiate a gestirelefuzioiiterdipedetiiterealsistemacp(vedi 4.2.1). Operazioe A deþed actio,amely,theactofobtaiiga AzioespeciÞca;i altritermii,lõato diotteereu risultato dauo o pioperadi coforme- result from oeormoreoperads i accordacewitharulethatcompletelyspeciþes the meteauaregolachespeciþcaperitero ilrisultato di tutte le combiazioi di operadi result foraypermissiblecombiatio ofoperads (seeistructio,2.26). ammesse(vediistruzioe,2.26). Uscita 1)Thecurret,voltage,powerordrivigforce 1)Corete,tesioe,potezao forzamotrice deliveredbyacircuitordevice,also caled foritadau circuito o dispositivo;sioimo output value. di valoredi uscita. 2)Thetermials orotherplaces wherecurret,voltage,powerordrivigforcemaybe tesioe,lapotezao laforzamotriceposso- 2)Termialio altriputii cuilacorete,la deliveredbyacircuitordevice,also caled o essereforitedau circuito o dispositivo; output termials. sioimo ditermialedi uscita. 3)Dataw hichca bew rite bytheapplicatio program to a iterfacebetwee the applicativo i uõiterfacciatralafuzioe di 3)Datichepossoo esserescritidalprogramma userprogram executio fuctio ad aotherfuctioaluitofthepc-system,as de- uõaltra uitˆ fuzioaledel sistemacp,se- esecuzioe del programma utilizzatore e Þedi this part ofiec 131.Also caled codo quato deþito elapreseteparte program output. delapubblicazioeiec 131.Sioimo di uscitadelprogramma Overvoltagecategory See1.4.39ofIEC ad IEC PC program Syoymous withapplicatio program. Categoriadisovratesioe Vedi1.4.39delaPubblicazioeIEC ela PubblicazioeIEC ProgrammaperCP Sioimo diprogrammaapplicativo PC-system SistemaCP Syoymous withprogrammablecotrolersystem. Sioimo disistemaacotroloreprogrammabile Peripheral Catalogued device iteral or exteral to the permaet programmablecotrolsystem,the fuctio ofw hich is to program,supervise, moitor,testadrecordtheoperatio ofthe PC-system. Periferica Dispositivo catalogato,itero o estero alsistemaacotrolore programmabile permaete, chehalafuzioediprogrammare,coordiare, moitorare,provareeregistrareilfuzioameto delsistemacp Peripheral(permaet,trasportable,portable, Periferica(permaete,trasportabile,portatile, had-heldportable,o-liepluggable) palmare,colegabilei liea) 1)Permaet peripheral (permaetly istaled) Peripheralwhichis apart ofthepermaet istalatio ofthepc-system. 1)Periferica permaete (istalatai maiera permaete) Periferica che faparte dela coþgurazioe permaetedelsistemacp. Pagia8 di34

15 2) Trasportableperipheral 2) Perifericatrasportabile Peripheralwhichis ot apermaet part of Perifericacheo fapartedelacoþgurazioepermaeteechepu esserecolegata theistalatio ad whichis coectableto thesystem bymeas ofcables orcords with alsistemapermezzo dicavi o cordoi dotatidi coectors or other meas to establish coetorio altridispositiviperstabilirelacomuicazioeco ilsistema. commuicatio withthesystem. 3) Portableperipheral 3) Perifericaportatile PeripheralspeciÞcalydesiged to becarried byhad. trasportataamao. PerifericaspeciÞcameteprogetataperessere 4) Had-held portable 4) Palmare SeeEquipmet,had held portable VediApparecchiatura,palmare,i dela ofiec PubblicazioeIEC ) O-liepluggable 5) Colegabilei liea SeeEquipmet,o-liepluggable of VediApparecchiatura,colegabilei liea,i IEC delaPubblicazioeIEC Permaetistalatio Theportio ofthepc-system w hichmust be preset to perform the iteded applicatio fuctios (seeaexa) Plug/uplug Istalazioepermaete Parte del sistemacp che deve essere presete per poter eseguire le fuzioi applicative previste(vedi A legato A). Collegare/Scolegare Make/breakaphysical coectio (e.g.usea Realizzare/iterompereu colegameto Þsico physicalcoectorforiterfacigaperipheral (peresempio,utilizzare u coetoreþsico per oramoduletotherest ofthepc-system).see iterfacciareuaperifericao u modulo co il Coect/discoect (2.1) for logical coectio/discoectioruzioe di u colegameto logico,vedereco- resto delsistemacp).perlarealizzazioe/iteretere/scoetere(2.1) Powerrail Verticallies boudigad coected to ladder diagrams o theleftad,optioaly,o the right Pluggable See Equipmet, o-lie pluggable of IEC Programmablecotroller(PC) BaredÕalimetazioe Lieeverticalidi delimitazioecolegateaidiagrammi a cotati sulasiistra ed,evetualmete,suladestra. Collegabile Vedi Apparecchiatura, colegabile i liea, i delaPubblicazioeIEC Cotrolloreprogrammabile(CP) A digitaly operatig electroic system, desiged for usei a idustrialeviromet, stiato alõuso i ambito idustriale,cheutilizza Sistemaeletroico afuzioameto digitale,de- whichuses aprogrammablememoryfortheiteralstorage ofuser-orieted istructios for itera di istruzioi orietate alõutilizzatore per uamemoriaprogrammabile per lõarchiviazioe implemetigspeciþc fuctios suchas logic, lõimplemetazioe di fuzioispeciþche,come sequecig,timig,coutigadarithmetic,to quelelogiche,di sequeziameto,ditemporizzazioe,di coteggio e di calcolo aritmetico,per cotrol,throughdigitaloraalogiputs ad outputs,various types ofmachies orprocesses.boththepc ad its associated peripherals cheaalogici,varitipidimacchieo processi.sia cotrolare,mediateigressieuscitesiadigitali aredesiged so thattheyca beeasilyitegratedito a idustrialcotrolsystem ad easily getatii modo dapoteresserefacilmeteite- ilcpcheleperifericheassociatesoo statipro- usedi altheiriteded fuctios. gratii u sistemadi cotrolo idustrialeeutilizzatii tutelefuzioipreviste. Pagia9di34

16 2.51 Programmablecotrollersystem (PC-system) Sistemaacotroloreprogrammabile(sistemaCP) A user-builtcoþguratio,cosistigofaprogrammable cotrolerad associated periphertadau cotrolore programmabile e dalepe- CoÞgurazioerealizzatadalÕutilizzatore,formaals,thatis ecessaryfortheiteded automated system.itcosists ofuits itercoected tizzato previsto.tale sistema composto da rifericheassociate,ecessariaalsistemaautoma- bycables orplug-i coectios forpermaetistalatio ad bycables orothermeas tiaiesto (perlõistalazioepermaete),op- uitˆ itercoessemediatecaviocolegame- forportable ad trasportable peripherals (see puremediatecavi o altrimezzi(perleperifericheportatilietrasportabili).(vedia legato aexa). A.) 2.52 Programmigad debuggigtool (PADT) A catalogued peripheral to assist i programmig,testig,commissioigad troubleshootigthepc-system applicatio,program documetatio ad storagead possiblyto beused as MMls.PADTs aresaid to bepluggable whe theymaybe plugged or uplugged ataytime itotheirassociatediterface,without ayrisk to the operators adtheapplicatio.i alother cases,padts aresaid to beþxed. Strumeto diprogrammazioeemessaaputo (PADT) Periferica catalogata che serve come strumeto diprogrammazioe,prova,messai fuzioee ricercaguastiperlõapplicazioedelsistemacp, ochž perladocumetazioeearchiviazioe del programma,echepu essereevetualmete utilizzatacome MMI.IPADT vegoo deþiti colegabili quado possoo esserecolegati o scolegatii qualsiasimometo dalõiterfaccia associatasezacomportarerischiperglioperatorielõapplicazioe.i tuttiglialtricasi,ipadt vegoo deþitiþssi Real umber A umberwithadecimalpoit Relayladderdiagram Syoymous withladderdiagram (2.29). Numeroreale Numero co separatoredecimale. Diagrammaarel Sioimo didiagrammaacotati(2.29) Remoteiput/output statio (RIOS) Stazioediigresso/uscitaremota(RIOS) A maufacturerõs catalogued part ofapc-system icludigiput ad/oroutput iterfaces al- checompredeiterfaccediigresso e/o uscita Partedi u sistemacp,catalogatadalcostrutore, lowed to operateolyuderthehierarchyof e che pu fuzioare solo sotto lagerarchia themai processiguit(mpu)fori/o multiplexig/demultiplexig ad data preprocess- la multiplazioe/demultiplazioe di I/O e la delõuitˆ dielaborazioepricipale(mpu)per ig/postprocessig.therios is olypermited pre/postelaborazioe dei dati.a larios cosetito u fuzioameto autoomo limitato, limited autoomous operatio,e.g.uderemergecy coditios such as breakdow ofthe per esempio i caso di emergeza come u commuicatio likto the MPU orofthempu guasto del colegameto co lampu o dela itself,orwhe maiteacead troubleshootigoperatios areto beperformed. MPU stessa,oppurequado si devoo eseguire operazioidimautezioeericercaguasti Restart(cold r.,hot r.,warm r.) 1) Cold restart RestartofthePC-system ad its applicatio program after al dyamic data (variables suchas I/O image,iteralregisters,timers, couters,etc.,ad program cotexts) are resetto apredetermied state.a cold restart maybe automatic(e.g.afterapowerfailure,aloss ofiformatio i thedyamic portio(s)ofthememory(ies),etc.)ormaual(e.g.push-buto reset,etc.). Riavvio (afreddo,immediato,acaldo) 1) Riavvio a freddo Riavvio delsistemacpedelsuo programmaapplicativo dopo chetutiidatidiamici (levariabiliqualiimmagiedii/o,registriiteri,temporizzatori, cotatori ecc. e i cotesti del programma)soo statiriportatiauo stato predeþito.ilriavvio afreddo pu essereautomatico (peresempio dopo uõiteruzioedicorete,uaperditadi iformazioielao ele porzioidiamichedelao delememorieecc.)o mauale(peresempio,co pulsatediriavvio). Pagia10di34

17 2) Hot restart Restart after pow er failure w hich occurs withi the process depedet maximum timealowed forthepc-system to recover as iftherehad bee o pow erfailure. A li/o iformatio ad otherdyamicdata as w elas theapplicatio program cotext arerestored or uchaged. Hot restartcapability requires aseparately poweredrealtimeclockortimerto determieelapsedtimesicethepowerfailure was detected ad auseraccessiblemeas to program theprocess depedet maximum timealow ed. 3) Warm restart Restartafterapowerfailurewithauserprogrammed predetermied set of dyamic dataad asystem predetermied applicatio program cotext.a warm restart is idetiþed byastatus ßag or equivalet meas made available to the applicatio program idicatigthatthepowerfailure shutdow ofthepc-system w as detectedi theru mode. 2) Riavvio a caldo Riavvio,dopo uõiterruzioedicorete,che avvieeetro iltempo massimo dipedete dalprocesso cosetito alsistemacpperripredereilfuzioameto comeseo sifosseveriþcataalcuaiteruzioe. TuteleiformazioidiI/O eglialtridatidiamici,ochžilcotesto delprogrammaapplicativo,vegoo ripristiatio rimagoo ivariati. Ilriavvio immediato richiede u temporizzatoreo u orologio i tempo realeco alimetazioeseparata,perdetermiareiltempo trascorso dal rilevameto delõiteruzioe di corete,euo strumeto accessibilealõutilizzatore per programmare il tempo massimo dipedetedalprocesso cosetito. 3) Riavvio programmato Riavvio,dopo uõiterruzioedicorete,co u isiemedidatidiamiciprestabilito e programmato dalõutilizzatoreeu cotesto del programmaapplicativo prestabilito dalsistema. Ilriavvio acaldo vieeidicato dau segalatoredi stato,o dauo strumeto equivalete messo adisposizioedelprogrammaapplicativo,chesegalachelo spegimeto delsistemacpperiterruzioedicorete stato rilevato elmodo diesecuzioe Restart(automatic,cotroled,maualof protected output) See ofiec Riavvio (automatico,cotrolato,mauale delõuscitaproteta) Vedi delapubblicazioeiec Rug A etworki aladderdiagram program withits atachedleft powerrailad optioalyatached right powerrail. Retecompleta Rete,i u programmaperdiagrammiacotati, co lacorrispodetebaradõalimetazioesiistraed,evetualmete,destra Sca time SeeTime(2.68). Tempo discasioe VediTempo (2.68) Sequetialcotrol system Sistemadicotrollo sequeziale A cotrolsystem i whichtheidividualsteps Sistemadi cotrollo i cuilesigolefasidielaborazioevegoo eseguitesecodo u ordie areprocessedi apredetermiedorder,progressio from oesequecestep to the ext prestabilito e i cuiilpassaggio dauafasea beig depedet o deþed coditios beig quelasuccessivadipede dalsoddisfacimeto satisþed.such a system may be time-depedet,i whichthestep trasitio coditios are tipo possoo esseredipedetidaltempo,qua- di determiate codizioi.isistemi di questo fuctios oftimeolyorexteral-evet depedet,wherethecoditios arefuctios ofi- uicamete fuzioi del tempo,dipedeti da do lecodizioiditrasizioedelefasisoo put sigals olyorcombiatios ofthese(ad evetiesteri,quado lecodizioisoo uicamete fuzioi dei segalidi igresso,oppure perhaps morecomplex)coditios. dipedetidauacombiazioediquestecodizioi(o dicodizioipicomplesse). Pagia11di34

18 2.61 Sequetialfuctio chart (SFC) A graphicalrepresetatio ofasequetialprogram cosistigofitercoected steps,actios ad directedliks withtrasitio coditios Serial(datatrasmissio) Diagrammafuzioalesequeziale(SFC) RappresetazioegraÞcadi u programmasequezialecompostadafasiitercoesse,azioiecolegametiorietatico codizioiditrasizioe. Seriale(trasmissioedati) A system wherei thebits ofacharacteroccur Sistemai cuiibit di u caraterevegoo trasmessiserialmete eltempo.latrasmissioe serialyi time.implies olyasigletrasmissio chael. dei datiavvieesu u caaleuico Sikmode output A modeofoperatio ofsolid stateoutput devices i w hichthedevicecotrols thecurretfrom the load,i.e.whe the output is eergized it coects theload to theegative polarityofthe supply Software Uscitai modo diassorbimeto Modo operativo deidispositivi di uscitaastato solido i cuiildispositivo cotrolalacorete proveietedalcarico; i altritermii,quado lõuscitavieemessasotto tesioe,ilcarico viee colegato alapolaritˆ egativadelõalimetazioe. Software 1)Computerprograms,routies,programmig 1)Programmi per elaboratore,sottoprogrammi, laguages ad systems. sistemieliguaggidi programmazioe. 2)Thecolectio ofrelated utility,assembly 2)Isiemedeiprogrammidiutilitˆ,degliassemblatoriedeiprogrammidialtro tipo che per- ad otherprograms thataredesirable for properlypresetigagive machieto a metoo dipresetareadeguatameteuadetermiatamacchiaau utilizzatore. user. 3)Detailed procedures to befolowed,whetherexpressed as programs foracomputer or come programmi per u elaboratore, sia 3)Procedure detagliatedaseguire,espressesia as procedures fora operatororayother comeprocedure destiateau operatoreo perso. ad altrepersoe. 4)Documets, icludig hardware mauals 4)Documeti, compresi disegi e mauali ad drawigs,computerprogram listigs delõhardware,diagrammi e listati dei programmiperelaboratoreecc. ad diagrams,etc. 5)Items such as those listed above,as cotrasted withhardware. 5)Elemeticomequelisopraelecati,i cotrapposizioealõhardware Sourcemode output A modeofoperatio ofsolid stateoutput devices i whichthedevicecotrols thecurretto theload,i.e.whe theoutput is eergized,it coects theload to the positive polarityofthe supply System software Uscitai modo diemissioe Modo operativo deidispositivi di uscitaastato solido i cuiildispositivo cotrolalacorrete iviataalcarico;i altritermii,quado lõuscita vieemessasotto tesioe,ilcarico vieecolegato alapolaritˆ positivadelõalimetazioe. Softwaredisistema Softwarewrite by the device maufacturer Softwarescrito dalcostruttoredel dispositivo whichdeþes theoperatio ofthedevicewith chedeþisceilfuzioameto deldispositivo orw ithout a applicatio program.typicalya stesso co o sezaprogrammaapplicativo.g e- colectio ofsubrouties whichacts as a iterpreteri covertigtheistructios oftheusgrammichefugedaiterpretepercovertirele eralmetesitratadi u isiemedisotoproer-etered applicatio program ito the machiecoderequired bythedevicehardware. dalõutilizzatore el codice macchia richiesto istruzioi del programmaapplicativo immesso dalõhardware del dispositivo Testequipmet (TE) Apparecchiaturadi prova (TE) A maufacturerõs catalogued peripheral Perifericacatalogatadalcostrutore,dotatadi pulsati, idicatori, tastiere, schermi o equivaleti equipped withpushbutos,lamps,keyboards, displays,orequivalet,etc.,fortroubleshootig ecc.,cheserveperilrilevameto guastidelsistema ofthepc-system ad/orthecotroled applica- CPe/o delõapplicazioecotrolata.le TE vego- Pagia12 di34

19 tio.tes aresaid to bepluggablewhe they o deþitecolegabiliquado possoo esserecollegateo scolegatei qualsiasimometo dalõiter- maybe plugged or uplugged ataytimeito theirassociated iterface,w ithout ayriskto facciaassociatasezacomportarerischi per gli theoperators adtheapplicatio.i alother operatorielõapplicazioe.i tutiglialtricasi,le cases TEs aresaid to beþxed.tes maybepermaetlyistaled orot.tes areiteded for istalatei maierapermaeteo meo eposso- TE vegoo deþiteþsse.le TE possoo essere usebyauthorized persoel. o essereutilizzatesolo dapersoaleautorizzato Time(delay,executio,respose,sca, trasfer) 1) Delaytime,digitaliput (TID),aalog iput (TAID) Thedelayecoutered bythesigal (*) as it passes throughtheiput Þlter (from the Þeld iput termial(s)totheiput coversio circuitboudary). 2) Delaytime,digitaloutput (TQD),aalog output (TAQD) Thedelayecoutered bythesigal (*) as it passes through the output Þlter (from the output iterfaceboudaryto the Þeld output termial(s). 3) Resposetime,aalog Thetimerequired,folowigtheiitiatio of aspeciþed stimulus to asystem,fora output goigi thedirectio ofecessarycorrectiveactio to ÞrstreachaspeciÞed value. 4) Sca time(tsc) Thetimeelapsedbetwee two subsequet iitiatios ofthesameportio oftheapplicatio program,icludigthetimerequired to updatethei/o imagetable,whereapplicable. 5) Totalsystem resposetime,digital(trt) Thetimeelapsed betwee achagei iput sigalstateattheþeld iput termials ad the correspodigchagei theoutput sigal(s) state(s)at the Þeld output termials.trt is thesum ofalidividual(partial)times ecoutered bythesigal(iformatio)as itpasses throughthepc-system from theþeld iput iterfaceto the Þeld output iterface. G eeraly al partial times mayvary depedigupo maycoditios suchas the hardwarecoþguratio,e.g.rios commuicatio liks thatmayafecttit ad TQT, themethod used to acquiread process data(periodicsca,iterrupts,etc.),theistataeous load ofthe applicatio program,etc. 6) Trasfertime,digitaliput (TIT),aalogiput (TAIT) The time required by the sigal (*) to pass Tempo (diritardo,esecuzioe,risposta, scasioe,trasferimeto) 1) Tempo diritardo,igresso digitale(tid),igresso aalogico (TAID) Ritardo registrato dau segale (*) duratelõattraversameto delþltro diigresso (dalo dai termialidiigresso delcampo allimitedel circuito dicoversioediigresso). 2) Tempo diritardo,uscitadigitale(tqd),uscita aalogica(taqd) Ritardo registrato dau segale (*) duratelõattraversameto delþltro di uscita (dallimite delõiterfacciadi uscitaal o aitermialidi uscitadelcampo). 3) Tempo dirisposta,aalogico Tempo ecessario,dopo lõivio diuo stimolo speciþco au sistema,afþchž uõuscitache vaeladirezioedelõazioecoretivarichiestaraggiugau valorespeciþcato. 4) Tempo di scasioe(tsc) Tempo cheitercoretradueativazioisuccessivedelastessaporzioedelprogrammaapplica- tivo,compreso,seapplicabile,iltempo ecessario peraggiorarelatabeladeleimmagiidii/o. 5) Tempo dirispostatotaledelsistema,digitale(trt) Tempo cheitercoretrau cambiameto di stato delsegalediigresso suitermialidiigresso dalcampo eilcorispodetecambiameto distato delo deisegalidi uscitasui termialidi uscitadalcampo.iltrt lasommaditutiitempiidividuali(parziali)registratidalsegale(iformazioe)metreatraversa ilsistemacp dalõiterfacciadi igresso dal campo alõiterfacciadi uscitadalcampo. I geerale,tutiitempiparzialipossoo variareasecodadi uaseriedicodizioicome lacoþgurazioedelõhardware(peresempio, colegametidelarios chepossoo ißuire su TIT etqt),ilmetodo usato peracquisire edelaborareidati(scasioeperiodica,iterruzioiecc.),ilcaricameto istataeo delprogrammaapplicativo ecc. 6) Tempo di trasferimeto, igresso digitale (TIT),igresso aalogico(tait) Tempo ecessario al segale (*) per passare (*)Fordigitaliputoroutput,sigalis syoymous with0/1or1/10 trasitio.foraalogiput,sigalis syoymous withoticeable chageofaalogvalueofthemeasuredsigal.foraalogoutput, TAQD is theaalogresposetimeofthedigital-to-aalogoutputcircuitry. (*)PerlÕigresso o lõuscitadigitale,ilsegalesioimoditrasizioe 0/1o 1/0.PerlÕigresso aalogico,ilsegalesioimo di variazioe dirilievodelvaloreaalogico delsegalemisurato.perlõuscitaaalogica,iltaqd iltempo di rispostaaalogicadelacircuiteriadi uscitadigitale-aalogica. Pagia13 di34

20 (trasfer)from theiput coversio circuit boudaryto the datastoragei ampu memory(e.g.to bemade availableto the applicatio program). 7) Trasfer time,digitaloutput (TQT),aalog output (TAQT) The time required by the sigal (*) to pass (trasfer)from thedatastoragei ampu memory(siceitwas elaborated bytheapplicatio program)to the output storageat theoutput iterfaceboudary. 8) Usertaskexecutio time(tut) Thetimerequired byampu to caryout a speciþed portio ofauserõs applicatio program (e.g.astatemet,aprogram module,etc.),icludigreadigfrom memory ad storigtheresult,ad additioaltime required bythesystem software. 9) Totaliput system trasfer time (trasferirsi)dallimitedelcircuito dicoversioe diigresso alõuitˆ diarchiviazioedatidi ua memoriadelampu (peresempio,peressere dispoibileperilprogrammaapplicativo). 7) Tempo ditrasferimeto,uscitadigitale(tqt, uscitaaalogica(taqt) Tempo ecessario al segale (*) per passare (trasferirsi) dalõuitˆ diarchiviazioe datidi uamemoriadelampu (dopo che stato elaborato dalprogrammaapplicativo)alõuitˆ diarchiviazioediuscitasituataallimitedelõiterfacciadi uscita. 8) Tempo diesecuzioecompiti utilizzatore(tut) Tempo ecessario alampu pereseguireua porzioespeciþcadi u programmaapplicativo delõutilizzatore(peresempio u euciato, u modulo diprogrammaecc.),compresala leturadalamemoriaelõarchiviazioedelrisultato,eiltempo supplemetarerichiesto dal softwaredisistema. 9) Tempo ditrasferimeto totaledelsistema di igresso Fordigitaliput:sum oftid ad TIT. PerlÕigresso digitale:sommadi TID e TIT. Foraalogiput:sum of TAID ad TAIT. PerlÕigresso aalogico:sommadi TAID etait. 10)Totaloutput system trasfertime 10)Tempo ditrasferimeto totaledelsistema di uscita Fordigitaloutput:sum of TQT ad TQD. PerlÕuscitadigitale: sommadi TQT e TQD. Foraalogoutput:sum oftaqt ad TAQD. PerlÕuscitaaalogica:sommadi TAQT etaqd Time ofday Thetimew ithi a24-hour day,represeted accordigto ISO Timer(of-delaytimer,o-delaytimer) Oradelgioro Tempo alõitero di uagioratadi24 ore,rappresetato secodo laiso Temporizzatore(ritardoalÕeccitazioe,ritardo aladiseccitazioe) 1) O f-delaytimer 1) Ritardo alõeccitazioe A fuctio blockdelayigaboolea iput Blocco fuzioalecheritardau igresso booleao per u periodo di tempo speciþcato for a speciþed duratio whe chagig from oeto zero. quado passadauo azero. 2)O-delaytimer 2) Ritardo aladiseccitazioe A fuctio blockdelayigaboolea iput Blocco fuzioalecheritardau segalediigresso booleao peru periodo ditempo spe- sigalforaspeciþed duratio whe chagigfrom zero to oe. ciþcato quado passadazero auo Userprogram Syoymous w ithapplicatio program (2.1). Programmautilizzatore Sioimo diprogrammaapplicativo (2.1) Userprogram memory Theportio ofthepc memoryreserved forthe storageofapplicatio programs. (*)Fordigitaliputoroutput,sigalis syoymous with0/1or1/10 trasitio.foraalogiput,sigalis syoymous withoticeable chageofaalogvalueofthemeasuredsigal.foraalogoutput, TAQD is theaalogresposetimeofthedigital-to-aalogoutputcircuitry. Memoriaperprogrammiutilizzatore Porzioe delamemoriadel CP riservata alõarchiviazioedeiprogrammiapplicativi. (*)PerlÕigresso o lõuscitadigitale,ilsegalesioimoditrasizioe 0/1o 1/0.PerlÕigresso aalogico,ilsegalesioimo di variazioe dirilievodelvaloreaalogico delsegalemisurato.perlõuscitaaalogica,iltaqd iltempo di rispostaaalogicadelacircuiteriadiuscita digitale-aalogica. Pagia14 di34

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