1 Enzymes 1. All cells in multicellular organisms contain thousands of different kinds of enzymes that are specialized to catalyze different chemical reactions. Given this information, which of the following is most likely to be true? A. All cells do not contain enzymes. B. All cells contain exactly the same types of enzymes. C. All cells contain exactly the same number of enzymes. D. All cells do not contain the same types of enzymes. 2. Enzymes are catalysts. This means that they are able to speed up chemical reactions. Which of the following statements is also true of enzyme catalysts? A. They increase the energy that must be absorbed by reactions. B. They are not used up by reactions. C. They must be continuously replaced after each catalyzed reaction. D. They increase the energy that is released by reactions. 3. Suppose that enzyme X catalyzes a reaction that involves the breakdown of a molecule. The product of this reaction is an amino acid. What molecule is the enzyme breaking down? A. a lipid B. a protein C. a carbohydrate D. a mineral
2 4. When cellular respiration occurs within a cell, carbon dioxide is formed as a waste product. The carbon dioxide is transported out of the cell and absorbed by the blood stream. There, the carbon dioxide undergoes a chemical reaction and forms carbonic acid within the blood. When the carbonic acid reaches the capillaries in the lungs, the enzyme carbonic anhydrase helps reverse the reaction, and the carbonic acid is converted back to carbon dioxide and water. Which of the following would most likely happen if a person's body stopped producing carbonic anhydrase? A. The blood's volume would increase until a hemorrhage occurred. B. The person's breathing rate would slow down. C. The person would begin exhaling carbonic acid instead of carbon dioxide D. The blood's acidity would increase and become toxic. 5. The graph below shows the relationship between ph and three different digestive enzymes. Which of the following conclusions can be drawn from this graph? A. Digestive enzymes are most active in an environment with a ph of 7. B. Enzymes operate most efficiently within a certain range of temperatures. C. Enzymes are only able to operate in acidic environments. D. Each enzyme operates best within a certain ph range.
3 6. Catalase is an enzyme that is found in all living tissues. Cells need catalase in order to function properly. Which of the following statements can be inferred using the above information? Cells only function within a specific ph range because enzymes only function within a specific ph range. A. Cells can function equally as well at all temperatures because enzymes are effective at all temperatures. B. C. Cells only function within a specific temperature range because enzymes only function within a specific temperature range. Cells can function equally as well at all ph's because enzymes are effective at all ph's. D.
4 7. The graph below shows the relationship between ph and three different digestive enzymes. Pepsin is produced by cells lining the stomach. It catalyzes reactions needed to digest certain proteins. After leaving the stomach, food enters the small intestine. The ph of the small intestine is around 7. What would most likely happen to pepsin enzymes that traveled with the food from the stomach to the small intestines? A. The pepsin would turn into the enzyme arginase. B. The pepsin would begin to digest carbohydrates C. The pepsin would become inactive. D. The pepsin would continue to digest proteins in the small intestine. 8. Examine the following chemical reaction, which is catalyzed by the enzyme catalase: What molecule is catalase breaking down in this reaction? A. H 2 O 2 B. O 2 C. There are no molecules in this reaction. D. H 2 O
5 9. Each enzyme produced by the body is A. incomplete meaning it requires other parts before it is able to bind to a molecule. B. immature meaning it cannot catalyze a reaction until many years later. C. specific meaning it is only able to catalyze a reaction with a certain molecule. D. open meaning it is able to catalyze a reaction with any molecule. 10. Hydrogen peroxide is a substance that is produced as a byproduct of many cell processes. However, hydrogen peroxide is toxic to cells. In fact, if cells are unable to break down hydrogen peroxide, they become poisoned and die. The chemical reaction for the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide is shown below. What role does catalase play in this reaction? A. Catalase is an enzyme that speeds up the reaction. B. Catalase in an enzyme that slows down the reaction. C. Catalase is a reactant that gets used up in the reaction. D. Catalase is a product that is created during the reaction.
6 11. Examine the diagram below. If the black line represents a reaction without an enzyme and the red line represents the same reaction with the addition of an enzyme, what can be said of the relationship between the use of an enzyme and the energy of the reaction? A. More energy is absorbed by a reaction with an enzyme. B. More energy is absorbed by reactions without an enzyme. C. Less energy is released by a reaction with an enzyme. D. Less energy is released by a reaction without an enzyme. 12. Hydrogen peroxide is a substance that is produced as a byproduct of many cell processes. However, hydrogen peroxide is toxic to cells. In fact, if cells are unable to break down hydrogen peroxide, they become poisoned and die. Catalase is an enzyme that is found in all living tissues. This enzyme speeds up the reaction that breaks down hydrogen peroxide into less harmful substances. What substances are formed as a result of this reaction? A. hydrogen peroxide and water B. hydrogen peroxide and oxygen C. water and oxygen D. water and ozone 13. The diagram below represents an enzyme-substrate complex.
7 To which of the following could this complex best be compared? A. lock and key B. shoe and sock C. salt and pepper D. dime and penny
8 14. The above graph shows how temperature affects the rate of a reaction that uses the catalase enzyme. At what temperatures, approximately, is the enzyme the most effective? A. between 27 C and 37 C B. between 0 C and 27 C C. between 60 C and 100 C D. between 37 C and 60 C 15. An enzyme is a biomolecule that increases the rate of a chemical reaction. Which of the following is true about enzymes? A. I and III only B. I, II, and III C. I and II only D. II only I. Enzymes are not consumed during a chemical reaction. II. Enzymes are specific to particular molecules. III. Enzymes increase the energy produced by a chemical reaction. 16. Tobin perfomed an experiment in which he mixed varying amounts of enzyme with an excess amount of a certain molecule. He measured the rate of each reaction and recorded his data in the table below. Enzyme Concentration Reaction Rate
9 (millimoles) (micromoles/minute) What can Tobin conclude about the relationship between the enzyme concentration and the reaction rate in the presence of excess molecules? A. There is a direct relationship; as the enzyme concentration increases, the rate of reaction increases. B. There is an inverse relationship; as the enzyme concentration increases, the reaction rate decreases. C. The experiment is invalid because it was performed in the presence of excess molecules. D. There is no relationship between the enzyme concentration and the reaction rate. 17. Lactase is an enzyme that breaks down the complex carbohydrate lactose into glucose and galactose, which can be absorbed by the bloodstream and carried to the body's cells. Lactose is found primarily in dairy products. What would most likely happen to a person who had a shortage of lactase? A. The person would not be able to digest any carbohydrates. B. The person would be unable to fully digest dairy products. C. The person would develop an allergy for dairy products. D. The person's pancreas would not be able to regulate the body's blood glucose level.
10 18. Siamese cats are characterized by light and dark regions of fur. The darker parts occur on the cooler parts of the cat's body because the enzyme that catalyzes the formation of the dark pigment is more active when cool. This example shows that enzymes are affected by. A. concentration B. ph C. temperature D. all of these 19. Which of the following describes the role that enzymes play in the process of metabolism? Enzymes provide the chemical energy that is broken down and released during metabolism. A. Enzymes store the chemical energy that is used to construct nucleic acids during metabolism. B. Enzymes carry the genetic instructions required for a cell to initiate metabolism. C. Enzymes increase the rate of the chemical reactions carried out during metabolism. D.
11 20. Examine the diagram of the enzyme catalase below: How does the structure of this enzyme help with its function? A. The enzyme is much larger than its substrate, thus allowing the catalyzed chemical reaction to take place inside the enzyme. B. The enzyme's active site can change shape in order to match any substrates in need of a catalyst. C. D. The enzyme's shape fits its substrate's shape, thus allowing the enzyme to catalyze the appropriate reaction. The enzyme's substrate is a mirror image of the enzyme, thus allowing it to reverse any reactions initiated by the enzyme.
12 21. In order for cells to function properly, the enzymes that they contain must also function properly. What can be inferred using the above information? A. Cells function best at high ph's. B. Cells can function equally as well at all ph's. C. Cells do not function well at ph's that are too high or too low. D. Cells function best at low ph's. 22. Which of the following enzymes serve as catalysts in metabolism? A. IV only B. I, II, and III only C. I and II only D. I, II, III, and IV I. amylase II. lactase III. pepsin IV. polymerase
13 23. Homeostasis is the ability of an organism to maintain a relatively stable internal environment. How would an organism's homeostasis be affected if it was not able to produce enzymes? A. Without enzymes, ribosomes would break down proteins, rather than build them. B. Without enzymes, chemical reactions would not occur quickly enough to sustain life. C. Without enzymes, biochemical reactions would cease completely. D. Without enzymes, the temperature inside cells would increase rapidly. 24. Which of the following can affect the function of a cell? A. high acidity B. low temperature C. high temperature D. all of these 25. An enzyme is a biomolecule that increases the rate of a chemical reaction. An enzyme is a kind of. A. translator B. ribosome C. catalyst D. inhibitor 26. A biochemist is attempting to replicate a chemical reaction that commonly takes place in cells. During the chemical reaction, starch is broken down into glucose. What will most likely happen if the biochemist adds an enzyme to the reactants? A. The reaction will take place at a higher temperature. B. The reaction will speed up. C. The reaction will stop. D. The reaction will slow down.
14 27. The above graph shows how temperature affects the rate of a reaction that uses the catalase enzyme. What trend is shown by the graph? A. B. C. D. Between thirty-seven and sixty degrees Celsius, the rate of the reaction increases as the temperature increases. Between zero and twenty-seven degrees Celsius, the rate of the reaction increases as the temperature increases. Between sixty and one hundred degrees Celsius, the rate of the reaction decreases as the temperature increases. Between zero and twenty-seven degrees Celsius, the rate of the reaction decreases as the temperature increases. 28. Many of the biochemical reactions that occur within your cells are catalyzed by enzymes. Which of the following statements is true about most enzyme-assisted reactions? A. Enzymes are quickly used up during the reactions. B. They occur more quickly than reactions without enzymes. C. They can take place at any temperature or ph. D. They can take place only within a ribosome.
15 29. The graph below shows the relationship between ph and three different digestive enzymes. Pepsin is found in the stomach. Salivary amylase is found in the mouth. And arginase is found in the liver. What does the graph indicate about the relative acidity of these three locations? A. The stomach is more acidic than the liver, which is more acidic than the mouth. B. The stomach is more acidic than the mouth, which is more acidic than the liver. C. The mouth is more acidic than the stomach, which is more acidic than the liver. D. The liver is more acidic than the mouth, which is more acidic than the stomach. 30. Any factor that changes the shape of an enzyme can affect the enzyme's activity. Which of the following two factors affect an enzyme's operation the most? A. amount of light and pressure B. amount of light and temperature C. temperature and ph D. blood glucose level and ph
16 Answers 1. D 2. B 3. B 4. D 5. D 6. C 7. C 8. A 9. C 10. A 11. B 12. C 13. A 14. A 15. C 16. A 17. B 18. C 19. D 20. C 21. C 22. B 23. B 24. D 25. C 26. B 27. B 28. B 29. B 30. C Explanations 1. In multicellular organisms, cells are specialized to perform specific functions in different areas of the body. Since cells perform different functions, they require different enzymes. Thus, all cells do not contain the same types of enzymes. 2. Imagine that you need to turn a nut onto the end of a bolt. You could do it by hand, but it would be faster and require less energy if you used a power tool instead. Then, once you were done with that bolt, you could use the same power tool on a different bolt. An enzyme is like a power tool because, by definition, catalysts speed up chemical reactions without being used up by the reaction. So, once an enzyme has finished catalyzing one reaction, it can move on and catalyze another reaction, because it is not used up by the reaction. 3. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. If the enzyme catalyzes a reaction that involves the breakdown of a protein, amino acids would result. Amino acids would not result if the molecule was a carbohydrate, lipid, or mineral. 4. Without carbonic anhydrase, the reaction that causes carbonic acid to become carbon dioxide and water would not take place quickly enough for the person to exhale enough carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide, in the form of carbonic acid, would build up in the bloodstream, causing the blood ph to rapidly decrease to toxic levels.
17 5. All enzymes have a range of ph at which they are active, as well as an optimal ph at which they are most active. For example, salivary amylase is active in a ph range of 4.7 to 9.0, but it operates best in an environment with a ph of The graph shows that catalase only functions within a specific temperature range. If the temperature is too high, catalase changes its shape and is no longer effective. Since catalase plays an important role in all cells, cells can only function within a specific temperature range. Although it is also true that cells can only function within a specific ph range, this fact cannot be inferred from the given information. 7. As the graph shows, pepsin only remains active up to a ph of about 4.8. If the ph is any higher than this, the pepsin's folds will become so distorted that its active site will no longer function. Thus, pepsin is only able to catalyze the digestion of proteins in the highly acidic environment of the stomach. 8. In the given reaction, hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) was broken down into water and oxygen in the presence of catalase. 9. Enzymes are specific; they fit certain molecules like a key fits a lock. This allows the enzyme to bind to the molecule and catalyze its reaction. 10. Catalase is an enzyme that is found in all living tissues. This enzyme speeds up the reaction that breaks down hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen. 11. Many chemical reactions need energy to get them started. This energy is known as the activation energy. Enzymes help catalyze, or speed up, these chemical reactions by lowering the amount of activation energy needed for the reactions to proceed. Reactions that do not use an enzyme require more energy. 12. According to the chemical equation, water and oxygen are produced when hydrogen peroxide is broken down. The enzyme catalase speeds up this reaction. 13. Enzymes have very unique shapes that allow them to bind to specific molecules and catalyze specific reactions. Thus, an enzyme-substrate complex can best be compared to a lock and key. 14. The enzyme catalase is most effective when the reaction rate is at its peak (1 ml/s). This occurs between 27 C and 37 C, approximately. Between approximately 60 C and 100 C, the rate of the reaction is equal to 0 ml/s. At these temperatures, the enzyme catalase is denatured. That is, the structure of the enzyme changes, so it is no longer able to catalyze reactions. 15. Enzymes are catalysts that increase the rate of chemical reactions by decreasing the amount of energy needed to activate the chemical reaction. Enzymes are not consumed during a chemical reaction and, therefore, once an enzyme has finished catalyzing one reaction, it can move on and catalyze another reaction. Enzymes are also specific to particular molecules based on their shape and size. Enzymes do not, however, increase the amount of energy produced by a chemical reaction. Only I and II are characteristics of enzymes. 16. In the presence of excess molecules, there is a direct relationship between the enzyme concentration and the reaction rate. As the enzyme concentration increases, the reaction rate also increases.
18 If this experiment were not performed with excess molecules, the results would initially be the same, but the reaction rate would eventually plateau once all the molecules were used up. 17. Many people are lactose intolerant, meaning that they have difficulty digesting food that contains large amounts of lactose. This occurs because a person's body does not produce enough lactase enzyme, which is the enzyme needed to quickly breakdown lactose. 18. Although enzymes are also affected by the ph and the concentration of the enzyme and substrate in their environment, this specific example shows that enzymes are affected by temperature. 19. Enzymes increase the rate of the chemical reactions carried out during metabolism by lowering the activation energy necessary to initiate these reactions. Without enzymes catalyzing the chemical reactions that are performed during metabolism, cells would not be able to perform metabolism quickly enough to support life. 20. The shape of an enzyme determines how it works. Most enzymes have a surface with one or more deep folds. The folds make pockets, which are called active sites. The active sites match folds in the substrate's surface. Once an enzyme binds to a substrate, the amount of energy needed to start a chemical reaction with the substrate is reduced. 21. Enzymes can only function within a narrow ph range. If the ph is too high (too basic) or too low (too acidic), the enzyme changes its shape and is no longer effective. Since enzymes play an important role in nearly all cellular processes, cells can only function within a specific ph range, too. Cells do not function well at ph's that are too high or too low. 22. Amylase, lactase, and pepsin play important roles in catalyzing the reactions that occur during metabolism. Amylase is an enzyme that aids in the digestion of carbohydrates. It is present in the saliva and pancreas of humans and catalyzes the breakdown of starches into smaller carbohydrates. Lactase is an enzyme that is found primarily in the small intestine, liver, and kidney. Lactase catalyzes the breakdown of lactose into simple sugars, such as glucose. Pepsin is an enzyme that aids in the digestion of proteins, such as those found in meat and eggs. Pepsin is primarily found in the gastric juice of the stomach. Only I, II, and III serve as catalysts in metabolism. Polymerase is an enzyme that plays an important role in the polymerization of new DNA and RNA molecules during DNA replication and transcription. 23. Most chemical reactions occur very slowly at low temperatures, including the temperatures found inside the bodies of most animals. Without enzymes, most of the vital chemical reactions that take place inside cells would occur so slowly that the organism would die before the necessary products were achieved. Enzymes allow the reactions to speed up to the rate necessary to keep the organism alive. 24. Most cell function best within a narrow range of temperature and acidity. At very low temperatures, reaction rates are too slow. High temperatures and/or extremes of acidity can irreversibly change the structure of most protein molecules. Even small changes in acidity can alter the molecules and how they interact. 25. Catalysts accelerate the rate of a chemical reaction. Chemical reactions that occur in living systems can be catalyzed by protein molecules called enzymes, which are a type of catalyst. 26. Enzymes are substances that cause chemical reactions to occur faster.
19 27. In general, between zero and twenty-seven degrees Celsius, the rate of the reaction increases as the temperature increases. Then, between thirty-seven and sixty degrees Celsius, the rate of the reaction decreases as the temperature increases. Finally, between sixty and one hundred degrees Celsius, no reaction occurs; the rate of the reaction equals 0 ml/s. At these temperatures, the enzyme is denatured. 28. Most enzyme-assisted reactions occur more quickly than reactions without enzymes. Enzymes lower the energy that the reaction needs to begin, thus increasing the rate of the reaction. 29. Enzymes are well-adapted to function optimally in the places where they are found in the body. Knowing this, you can ascertain from the graph that the stomach has an average ph of 2, the mouth has an average ph of 7, and the liver has an average ph of Most enzymes are only active within certain temperature and ph ranges.
1. The diagram below represents a biological process 5. The chart below indicates the elements contained in four different molecules and the number of atoms of each element in those molecules. Which set
12.1 What are animals and plants built from? All living things are made up of cells. The structures of different types of cells are related to their functions. to relate the structure of different types
SG Biology Summary notes Investigating cells Sub-topic a: Investigating living cells Cells are the basic units of living things (this means that all living things are made up of one or more cells). Cells
Digestive System Lecture 5 Winter 2014 This lecture tells the story of the Flow of Matter from Food to Cells. The pictures are only there to help you visualize structures don t worry about names of structures
Page1 Digestion Food travels from mouth esophagus stomach small intestine colon rectum anus. Food mixes with digestive juices, moving it through the digestive tract Large molecules of food are broken into
Digestive System The digestive system is made up of the digestive tract a series of hollow organs joined in a long, twisting tube from the mouth to the anus and other organs that help the body break down
Name: 6023-1 - Page 1 1) Which one of the following situations indicates a serious organ system malfunction? A) Mitochondria stop functioning in a unicellular organism exposed to pollutants. B) White blood
Throughout each unit, assessments are incorporated into lessons. These assessments are activities that occur within the context of each lesson providing the guidelines for assessing students' progress.
The Digestive System You are what you eat! Try to label the diagram (PENCIL!!) What is Digestion? Digestion: the breakdown of large macromolecules (proteins, fats, carbohydrates) into smaller molecules
The Excretory and Digestive Systems 38.2 The Process of Digestion Organs of the Digestive System The digestive system includes the: Mouth Pharynx Esophagus Stomach Small and large intestine. Other structures
Topic 3.0 Healthy human function depends on a variety of interacting and reacting systems Organ Systems Organ systems must have the ability to to changes within and outside of your body to maintain life
Topic 4: Digestion and Nutrition THE CONTENTS OF FOOD Food contains nutrients: Nutrients include: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Nutrients must be small enough to enter our cells. If they are too large they must be digested
BIO 137: CHAPTER 1 OBJECTIVES 1. Define the terms anatomy and physiology, and explain their relationship using an example of a human structure with its corresponding function. A. ANATOMY = the study of
Engage: Brainstorming Body s Record the structures and function of each body system in the table below. Body Nervous Circulatory Excretory Immune Digestive Respiratory Skeletal Muscular Endocrine Integumentary
Discover Biology 'N' Level Science Chapter 1 Chapter 1: The Science of Life A biologist studies all living things. In order to carry out the scientific method, we need to ask questions. Discover Biology
STO-143 Gene Switches Teacher Information Summary Kit contains How do bacteria turn on and turn off genes? Students model the action of the lac operon that regulates the expression of genes essential for
Study Island Cell Energy Keystone Review 1. Cells obtain energy by either capturing light energy through photosynthesis or by breaking down carbohydrates through cellular respiration. In both photosynthesis
Unit B Understanding Animal Body Systems Lesson 1 Understanding Animal Digestion 1 Terms Absorption Amino acids Anus Avian Bile Cecum Chyme Crop Cud Digestion Digestive system Enzymes Eructated Feces Gizzard
The Digestive System Magic School Bus Digestive System Brainpop Digestive System 1 Functions of the Digestive System: 1. Break up food into smaller pieces 2. Absorbing nutrients into the blood 3. Excreting
Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Stored Energy What is Photosynthesis? plants convert the energy of sunlight into the energy in the chemical bonds of carbohydrates sugars and starches. SUMMARY EQUATION:
The Digestive System Video on the digestive system (5 min) The digestive system is responsible for the breakdown of the we eat so that it can be absorbed into the. There are four main stages of the digestive
By Casey Schmidt and Wendy Ford Body systems Digestive System Circulatory System Respiratory System Excretory System Immune System Reproductive System Nervous System Muscular System Skeletal System Endocrine
Digestive System Notes Structure Function Relation Mouth cavity Mechanical digestion by teeth; chemical digestion of starch by saliva. Salivary glands Three pairs of glands which secrete saliva containing
Study Guide Cells Unit Test Matching. Write the letter of the correct response on the line. You may use the responses more than once. A. proteins B. simple carbohydrates C. complex carbohydrates D. lipids
Chapter 49 - Nutrients and the Digestive System I. Nutrients (chemical substances necessary for organisms to grow and function properly) 6 basic nutrients - 4 food groups (milk, meat, fruit and vegetable,
Concept 1 - Thinking Practice 1. If the following molecules were to undergo a dehydration synthesis reaction, what molecules would result? Circle the parts of each amino acid that will interact and draw
Digestive System Functions A. Gastrointestinal Processes 1. Ingestion: placing food in mouth (voluntary) 2. Propulsion: moving food through GI tract a. Peristalsis: alternating waves of contraction and
Overview... 1 What is the Outreach Program?... 1 Concepts... 2 Objectives... 3 Arizona Science Standards... 3 College and Career Ready ELA Standards... 4 Next Generation Science Standards... 4 Learning
7 Answers to end-of-chapter questions Multiple choice questions 1 B 2 B 3 A 4 B 5 A 6 D 7 C 8 C 9 B 10 B Structured questions 11 a i Maintenance of a constant internal environment within set limits i Concentration
THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM What is digestion? Digestion is the process of breaking down food so that it's small enough to be absorbed and used by the body for energy or in other bodily functions. Digestion involves
Unit I: Introduction To Scientific Processes This unit is an introduction to the scientific process. This unit consists of a laboratory exercise where students go through the QPOE2 process step by step
CHAPTER 3 THE CHEMISTRY OF ORGANIC MOLECULES 3.1 Organic Molecules The chemistry of carbon accounts for the diversity of organic molecules found in living things. Carbon has six electrons, four of which
Proteins Rubisco monomer = amino acids 20 different amino acids polymer = polypeptide protein can be one or more polypeptide chains folded & bonded together large & complex 3-D shape hemoglobin Amino acids
The Digestive System What do you know?? quiz-digestive-health Digestion Videos The Digestive System Inside-Dr-Ozs-Digestive-System-Video Now it is your turn to recreate the digestive system. How is food
Elements in Cells The living substance of cells is made up of cytoplasm and the structures within it. About 96% of cytoplasm and its included structures are composed of the elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen,
Worksheet 13.1 Chapter 13: Human biochemistry glossary α-helix Refers to a secondary structure of a protein where the chain is twisted to form a regular helix, held by hydrogen bonds between peptide bonds
CHAPTER 7 CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION 7.2 Cells: A Look Inside Imagine a factory that makes thousands of cookies a day. Ingredients come into the factory, get mixed and baked, then the cookies are packaged.
Digestion DIGESTION is the physical and chemical breakdown of feeds as they pass through the gastrointestinal tract. The structures of the gastrointestinal tract include the mouth, the esophagus, the stomach,
Introduction to the Cell: Plant and Animal Cells Tissues, Organs, and Systems of Living Things Cells, Cell Division, and Animal Systems and Plant Systems Cell Specialization Human Systems All organisms
B2 Cells, Tissues and Organs 5 minutes 5 marks Page of 7 Q. The diagram shows a bacterium. On the drawing, name the structures labelled A, B, C and D. (Total 4 marks) Q2. (a) The diagrams show cells containing
Gene Regulation -- The Lac Operon Specific proteins are present in different tissues and some appear only at certain times during development. All cells of a higher organism have the full set of genes:
Enzyme Action: Testing Catalase Activity (Method 1 O 2 Gas Sensor) Computer 2 Many organisms can decompose hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) enzymatically. Enzymes are globular proteins, responsible for most
KEY CONCEPT The overall process of photosynthesis produces sugars that store chemical energy. Radiant Energy Chemical Energy A. Organisms are classified according to how they obtain energy. 1. Autotroph/Producers
Name: ate: 1. Which structure is outside the nucleus of a cell and contains N?. chromosome. gene. mitochondrion. vacuole 2. potato core was placed in a beaker of water as shown in the figure below. Which
The human body is composed of countless millions of units called cells. In an animal like a human there are many different types of cells, with different structures. They are specialised so that they can
http://faculty.sau.edu.sa/h.alshehri Definition: Proteins are macromolecules with a backbone formed by polymerization of amino acids. Proteins carry out a number of functions in living organisms: - They
Cellular Respiration Cellular Respiration Text, Diagrams, Assessments, and Link to Standards Focus Questions 1) What is cellular respiration? 2) How is cellular respiration connected to breathing? 3) If
AP BIOLOGY CHAPTER 7 Cellular Respiration Outline I. How cells get energy. A. Cellular Respiration 1. Cellular respiration includes the various metabolic pathways that break down carbohydrates and other
ATOMS AND BONDS Atoms of elements are the simplest units of organization in the natural world. Atoms consist of protons (positive charge), neutrons (neutral charge) and electrons (negative charge). The
Lesson 3: Blood glucose Inquiry Focus: How does the body deliver the energy in food to its parts? Student Learning Objectives: By the end of the lesson, students will be able to do the following: Describe
Cell Structure & Function! Chapter 3! The most exciting phrase to hear in science, the one that heralds new discoveries, is not 'Eureka!' but 'That's funny.! -- Isaac Asimov Animal Cell Plant Cell Cell
Home Economics The parts of the digestive system and their functions It is not necessary to carry out all the activities contained in this unit. Please see Teachers Notes for explanations, additional activities,
Chapter 15, Digestive System - ANATOMY OF THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM I. The basic function of the digestive system is. This process is called. II. List 2 other names for the digestive tract: A. B. III. The digestive
Advanced Subsidiary GCE Biology Unit F214 - Communication, Homeostasis and Energy - High banded OCR has produced these candidate style answers to support teachers in interpreting the assessment criteria
Lec.13 Medical Physiology Z.H.Al-Zubaydi Functions of the Digestive System The major functions of the digestive tract include the following six processes, summarized in Figure 1: 1. Ingestion Food must
Note Taking Guide Topic # 3024 Comparative Digestive Systems Digestive Systems Overview 1. Digestion Digestion: Food enters the mouth and goes through mechanical and chemical changes as it passes through
1. An autotroph is an organism that a. extracts energy from organic sources b. converts energy from sunlight into chemical energy c. relies on the energy produced by other organisms as an energy source
Plant and Animal Cells a. Explain that cells take in nutrients in order to grow, divide and to make needed materials. S7L2a b. Relate cell structures (cell membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm, chloroplasts, and
Biology 1406 Exam 2 - Metabolism Chs. 5, 6 and 7 energy - capacity to do work 5.10 kinetic energy - energy of motion : light, electrical, thermal, mechanical potential energy - energy of position or stored
Is ATP worth the investment? ATP (adenosine tri-phosphate) can be thought of as the currency of the cell. Most cellular metabolic processes cost a certain amount of ATP in order to happen. Furthermore,
Name: Questions on The Nervous System and Gas Exchange Directions: The following questions are taken from previous IB Final Papers on Topics 6.4 (Gas Exchange) and 6.5 (Nerves, hormones and homeostasis).
TEACHING LEARNING COLLABORATIVE (TLC) LIFE SCIENCE The Digestive System Grade 5 Created by: Shelly Bell (Kelseyville Elementary School), Bart Pontoni (Riviera Elementary School), Shane Lee (Pomo Elementary
Photosynthesis Definition The process by which cells harvest light energy to make sugars (glucose). -Sugar is used to power the process of cellular respiration, which produces the ATP that cells utilize
Transcription and Translation of DNA Genotype our genetic constitution ( makeup) is determined (controlled) by the sequence of bases in its genes Phenotype determined by the proteins synthesised when genes
DNA, RNA, Protein Synthesis Keystone 1. During the process shown above, the two strands of one DNA molecule are unwound. Then, DNA polymerases add complementary nucleotides to each strand which results
An Overview of Photosynthesis Photosynthesis-Review 1. Photosynthesis uses the energy of sunlight to convert water and carbon dioxide into high-energy sugars and oxygen. 6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 +
Human Anatomy III: Respiratory, Urinary & Digestive Systems The Respiratory System Major functions include: Obtaining oxygen Removing carbon dioxide Maintenance of ph balance Respiration may be accomplished
Review Questions Photosynthesis 1. Describe a metabolic pathway. In a factory, labor is divided into small individual jobs. A carmaker, for example, will have one worker install the front windshield, another
Biology I Chapter 8/9 NOTEBOOK #1 Interest Grabber Suppose you earned extra money by having a part-time job. At first, you might be tempted to spend all of the money, but then you decide to open a bank
Biology 1of 51 8-3 The Reactions of Photosynthesis 2of 51 Inside a Chloroplast Inside a Chloroplast In plants, photosynthesis takes place inside chloroplasts. Plant Chloroplast Plant cells 3of 51 Inside
Balancing chemical reaction equations (stoichiometry) This worksheet and all related files are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, version 1.0. To view a copy of this license, visit
RNA & Protein Synthesis Genes send messages to cellular machinery RNA Plays a major role in process Process has three phases (Genetic) Transcription (Genetic) Translation Protein Synthesis RNA Synthesis
CELLS: PLANT CELLS 20 FEBRUARY 2013 Lesson Description In this lesson we will discuss the following: The Cell Theory Terminology Parts of Plant Cells: Organelles Difference between plant and animal cells
B2 H Mock Exam October 204 B2. - B2.6 64 minutes 64 marks 5x 4x2 2x3 Page of 34 Q. The diagram shows a cell. (a) (i) Use words from the box to name the structures labelled A and B. cell membrane chloroplast
Induction of Enzyme Activity in Bacteria:The Lac Operon Preparation for Laboratory: Web Tutorial - Lac Operon - submit questions I. Background: For the last week you explored the functioning of the enzyme
Sub-Topics Include: 2.1 Cell structure 2.2 Transport across cell membranes 2.3 Producing new cells 2.4 DNA and the production of proteins 2.5 Proteins and enzymes 2.6 Genetic Engineering 2.7 Respiration
Chapter 5 The Structure and Function of Macromolecule s Most Macromolecules are polymers: Polymer: (poly: many; mer: part) Large molecules consisting of many identical or similar subunits connected together.
What are Cells? By: Byron Norelius About Cells A cell is the basic unit of life. All living organisms are composed of one (unicellular) or more (multicellular) cells. In unicellular organisms, like many
Biology Chapter 7 Practice Test Multiple Choice Write the letter that best answers the question or completes the statement on the line provided. 1. The work of Schleiden and Schwann can be summarized by
The 6 th International Junior Science Olympiad Training Programme KEEPING HEALTHY SECTION 2: DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Notes to Teachers Learning Objectives: Processes of nutrition in human (0.25 hr) General plan
REVIEW for BIOLOGY UNIT TEST NOTE: The Unit Test will cover everything we have learned in the Biology Unit, starting from cell structures, cell division, various organ systems, disorders, organ donation,
Animal Nutrition What do animals need to live? Animals make energy using: food food oxygen Animals build bodies using: food for raw materials amino acids, sugars, fats, nucleotides O 2 ATP energy for synthesis
Chapter 15 Digestion and Nutrition Digestive System: Digestion refers to the mechanical and chemical breakdown of foods so that nutrients can be absorbed by cells. Consists of the canal which is all of
AP * BIOLOGY GENE REGULATION Teacher Packet AP* is a trademark of the College Entrance Examination Board. The College Entrance Examination Board was not involved in the production of this material. Pictures
7. Why do leaves turn color in the fall? 8. How are photosystems I and II different? How are they related? 9. What is the source of energy for dark reactions? 10. Describe the C3 cycle. 11. What is the
Name Digestive System and Body Metabolism Notes Ch 14 Digestion Breakdown of ingested food Absorption of nutrients into the blood Metabolism Production of cellular energy ( ) Constructive and degradative
Chapter 18 Regulation of Gene Expression 18.1. Gene Regulation Is Necessary By switching genes off when they are not needed, cells can prevent resources from being wasted. There should be natural selection