1 Name Date Period Keystone Review Enzymes 1. In order for cells to function properly, the enzymes that they contain must also function properly. What can be inferred using the above information? A. Cells can function equally as well at all ph's. B. Cells do not function well at ph's that are too high or too low. C. Cells function best at high ph's. D. Cells function best at low ph's. 2. Lactase is an enzyme that breaks down the complex carbohydrate lactose into glucose and galactose, which can be absorbed by the bloodstream and carried to the body's cells. Lactose is found primarily in dairy products. What would most likely happen to a person who had a shortage of lactase? A. The person would not be able to digest any carbohydrates. B. The person would be unable to fully digest dairy products. C. The person's pancreas would not be able to regulate the body's blood glucose level. D. The person would develop an allergy for dairy products.
2 3. Which of the following describes the role that enzymes play in the process of metabolism? A. Enzymes store the chemical energy that is used to construct nucleic acids during metabolism. Enzymes carry the genetic instructions required for a cell to initiate metabolism. B. Enzymes increase the rate of the chemical reactions carried out during metabolism. C. D. Enzymes provide the chemical energy that is broken down and released during metabolism. 4. Hydrogen peroxide is a substance that is produced as a by-product of many cell processes. However, hydrogen peroxide is toxic to cells. In fact, if cells are unable to break down hydrogen peroxide, they become poisoned and die. The chemical reaction for the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide is shown below. What role does catalase play in this reaction? A. Catalase is a reactant that gets used up in the reaction. B. Catalase is an enzyme that speeds up the reaction. C. Catalase is a product that is created during the reaction. D. Catalase in an enzyme that slows down the reaction. 5. Siamese cats are characterized by light and dark regions of fur.
3 The darker parts occur on the cooler parts of the cat's body because the enzyme that catalyzes the formation of the dark pigment is more active when cool. This example shows that enzymes are affected by. A. temperature B. concentration C. ph D. all of these 6. The graph below shows the relationship between ph and three different digestive enzymes. Pepsin is found in the stomach. Salivary amylase is found in the mouth. And arginase is found in the liver. What does the graph indicate about the relative acidity of these three locations?
4 A. The mouth is more acidic than the stomach, which is more acidic than the liver. B. The stomach is more acidic than the liver, which is more acidic than the mouth. C. The liver is more acidic than the mouth, which is more acidic than the stomach. D. The stomach is more acidic than the mouth, which is more acidic than the liver. 7. A biochemist is attempting to replicate a chemical reaction that commonly takes place in cells. During the chemical reaction, starch is broken down into glucose. What will most likely happen if the biochemist adds an enzyme to the reactants? A. The reaction will take place at a higher temperature. B. The reaction will stop. C. The reaction will speed up. D. The reaction will slow down. 8. The graph below shows the relationship between ph and three different digestive enzymes. Which of the following conclusions can be drawn from this graph? A. Digestive enzymes are most active in an environment with a ph of 7. B. Enzymes operate most efficiently within a certain range of temperatures. C. Each enzyme operates best within a certain ph range. D. Enzymes are only able to operate in acidic environments.
5 9. Examine the diagram below. If the black line represents a reaction without an enzyme and the red line represents the same reaction with the addition of an enzyme, what can be said of the relationship between the use of an enzyme and the energy of the reaction? A. Less energy is released by a reaction with an enzyme. B. Less energy is released by a reaction without an enzyme. C. More energy is absorbed by a reaction with an enzyme. D. More energy is absorbed by reactions without an enzyme. 10. An enzyme is a biomolecule that increases the rate of a chemical reaction. Which of the following is true about enzymes? A. I and III only B. I and II only C. II only I. Enzymes are not consumed during a chemical reaction. II. Enzymes are specific to particular molecules. III. Enzymes increase the energy produced by a chemical reaction.
6 D. I, II, and III 11. Which of the following enzymes serve as catalysts in metabolism? A. I, II, and III only B. I, II, III, and IV C. I and II only D. IV only I. amylase II. lactase III. pepsin IV. polymerase 12. Examine the diagram of the enzyme catalase below: How does the structure of this enzyme help with its function? A. B. C. D. The enzyme's shape fits its substrate's shape, thus allowing the enzyme to catalyze the appropriate reaction. The enzyme's active site can change shape in order to match any substrates in need of a catalyst. The enzyme's substrate is a mirror image of the enzyme, thus allowing it to reverse any reactions initiated by the enzyme. The enzyme is much larger than its substrate, thus allowing the catalyzed chemical reaction to take place inside the enzyme.
7 13. An enzyme is a biomolecule that increases the rate of a chemical reaction. An enzyme is a kind of. A. inhibitor B. catalyst C. ribosome D. translator 14. Tobin perfomed an experiment in which he mixed varying amounts of enzyme with an excess amount of a certain molecule. He measured the rate of each reaction and recorded his data in the table below. Enzyme Concentration (millimoles) Reaction Rate (micromoles/minute) What can Tobin conclude about the relationship between the enzyme concentration and the reaction rate in the presence of excess molecules? A. The experiment is invalid because it was performed in the presence of excess molecules. B. There is an inverse relationship; as the enzyme concentration increases, the reaction rate decreases. C. There is no relationship between the enzyme concentration and the reaction rate. D. There is a direct relationship; as the enzyme concentration increases, the rate of reaction increases. 15. Which of the following can affect the function of a cell? A. high temperature B. high acidity C. low temperature D. all of these
8 16. All cells in multicellular organisms contain thousands of different kinds of enzymes that are specialized to catalyze different chemical reactions. Given this information, which of the following is most likely to be true? A. All cells contain exactly the same number of enzymes. B. All cells do not contain the same types of enzymes. C. All cells contain exactly the same types of enzymes. D. All cells do not contain enzymes. 17. Many of the biochemical reactions that occur within your cells are catalyzed by enzymes. Which of the following statements is true about most enzyme-assisted reactions? A. Enzymes are quickly used up during the reactions. B. They occur more quickly than reactions without enzymes. C. They can take place only within a ribosome. D. They can take place at any temperature or ph. 18.
9 Catalase is an enzyme that is found in all living tissues. Cells need catalase in order to function properly. Which of the following statements can be inferred using the above information? Cells only function within a specific temperature range because enzymes only function A. within a specific temperature range. B. Cells only function within a specific ph range because enzymes only function within a specific ph range. Cells can function equally as well at all ph's because enzymes are effective at all ph's. C. D. Cells can function equally as well at all temperatures because enzymes are effective at all temperatures. 19. Hydrogen peroxide is a substance that is produced as a by-product of many cell processes. However, hydrogen peroxide is toxic to cells. In fact, if cells are unable to break down hydrogen peroxide, they become poisoned and die. Catalase is an enzyme that is found in all living tissues. This enzyme speeds up the reaction that breaks down hydrogen peroxide into less harmful substances. What substances are formed as a result of this reaction? A. water and oxygen B. water and ozone C. hydrogen peroxide and water D. hydrogen peroxide and oxygen 20. The graph below shows the relationship between ph and three different digestive enzymes.
10 Pepsin is produced by cells lining the stomach. It catalyzes reactions needed to digest certain proteins. After leaving the stomach, food enters the small intestine. The ph of the small intestine is around 7. What would most likely happen to pepsin enzymes that traveled with the food from the stomach to the small intestines? A. The pepsin would begin to digest carbohydrates B. The pepsin would continue to digest proteins in the small intestine. C. The pepsin would turn into the enzyme arginase. D. The pepsin would become inactive.
11 21. The above graph shows how temperature affects the rate of a reaction that uses the catalase enzyme. What trend is shown by the graph? A. B. C. D. Between zero and twenty-seven degrees Celsius, the rate of the reaction increases as the temperature increases. Between sixty and one hundred degrees Celsius, the rate of the reaction decreases as the temperature increases. Between thirty-seven and sixty degrees Celsius, the rate of the reaction increases as the temperature increases. Between zero and twenty-seven degrees Celsius, the rate of the reaction decreases as the temperature increases. 22. Any factor that changes the shape of an enzyme can affect the enzyme's activity. Which of the following two factors affect an enzyme's operation the most? A. blood glucose level and ph B. temperature and ph C. amount of light and pressure
12 D. amount of light and temperature 23. Enzymes are catalysts. This means that they are able to speed up chemical reactions. Which of the following statements is also true of enzyme catalysts? A. They increase the energy that is released by reactions. B. They increase the energy that must be absorbed by reactions. C. They must be continuously replaced after each catalyzed reaction. D. They are not used up by reactions. 24. When cellular respiration occurs within a cell, carbon dioxide is formed as a waste product. The carbon dioxide is transported out of the cell and absorbed by the blood stream. There, the carbon dioxide undergoes a chemical reaction and forms carbonic acid within the blood. When the carbonic acid reaches the capillaries in the lungs, the enzyme carbonic anhydrase helps reverse the reaction, and the carbonic acid is converted back to carbon dioxide and water. Which of the following would most likely happen if a person's body stopped producing carbonic anhydrase? A. The blood's volume would increase until a hemorrhage occurred. B. The person would begin exhaling carbonic acid instead of carbon dioxide C. The person's breathing rate would slow down. D. The blood's acidity would increase and become toxic. 25. The diagram below represents an enzyme-substrate complex.
13 To which of the following could this complex best be compared? A. lock and key B. salt and pepper C. shoe and sock D. dime and penny 26. The graph below shows the reaction rates of four different chemical reactions. A reaction that is catalyzed by an enzyme usually absorbs less energy and is faster than normal reactions. Which of the reactions was most likely catalyzed by an enzyme? A. Reaction C B. Reaction A C. Reaction B D. Reaction D 27. Homeostasis is the ability of an organism to maintain a relatively stable internal environment. How would an organism's homeostasis be affected if it was not able to produce enzymes? A. Without enzymes, biochemical reactions would cease completely. B. Without enzymes, chemical reactions would not occur quickly enough to sustain life. C. Without enzymes, ribosomes would break down proteins, rather than build them. D. Without enzymes, the temperature inside cells would increase rapidly.
14 28. The above graph shows how temperature affects the rate of a reaction that uses the catalase enzyme. At what temperatures, approximately, is the enzyme denatured? A. between 37 C and 60 C B. between 60 C and 100 C C. between 27 C and 37 C D. between 0 C and 27 C 29. Examine the following chemical reaction, which is catalyzed by the enzyme catalase: What molecule is catalase breaking down in this reaction? A. There are no molecules in this reaction. B. H 2 O 2 C. O 2 D. H 2 O 30. Suppose that enzyme X catalyzes a reaction that involves the breakdown of a molecule. The product of this reaction is an amino acid. What molecule is the enzyme breaking down? A. a carbohydrate B. a lipid C. a mineral D. a protein Answers 1. B 2. B 3. C 4. B 5. A 6. D 7. C 8. C
15 9. D 10. B 11. A 12. A 13. B 14. D 15. D 16. B 17. B 18. A 19. A 20. D 21. A 22. B 23. D 24. D 25. A 26. C 27. B 28. B 29. B 30. D Explanations 1. Enzymes can only function within a narrow ph range. If the ph is too high (too basic) or too low (too acidic), the enzyme changes its shape and is no longer effective. Since enzymes play an important role in nearly all cellular processes, cells can only function within a specific ph range, too. Cells do not function well at ph's that are too high or too low. 2. Many people are lactose intolerant, meaning that they have difficulty digesting food that contains large amounts of lactose. This occurs because a person's body does not produce enough lactase enzyme, which is the enzyme needed to quickly breakdown lactose. 3. Enzymes increase the rate of the chemical reactions carried out during metabolism by lowering the activation energy necessary to initiate these reactions. Without enzymes catalyzing the chemical reactions that are performed during metabolism, cells would not be able to perform metabolism quickly enough to support life. 4. Catalase is an enzyme that is found in all living tissues. This enzyme speeds up the reaction that breaks down hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen.
16 5. Although enzymes are also affected by the ph and the concentration of the enzyme and substrate in their environment, this specific example shows that enzymes are affected by temperature. 6. Enzymes are well-adapted to function optimally in the places where they are found in the body. Knowing this, you can ascertain from the graph that the stomach has an average ph of 2, the mouth has an average ph of 7, and the liver has an average ph of Enzymes are substances that cause chemical reactions to occur faster. 8. All enzymes have a range of ph at which they are active, as well as an optimal ph at which they are most active. For example, salivary amylase is active in a ph range of 4.7 to 9.0, but it operates best in an environment with a ph of Many chemical reactions need energy to get them started. This energy is known as the activation energy. Enzymes help catalyze, or speed up, these chemical reactions by lowering the amount of activation energy needed for the reactions to proceed. Reactions that do not use an enzyme require more energy. 10. Enzymes are catalysts that increase the rate of chemical reactions by decreasing the amount of energy needed to activate the chemical reaction. Enzymes are not consumed during a chemical reaction and, therefore, once an enzyme has finished catalyzing one reaction, it can move on and catalyze another reaction. Enzymes are also specific to particular molecules based on their shape and size. Enzymes do not, however, increase the amount of energy produced by a chemical reaction. Only I and II are characteristics of enzymes. 11. Amylase, lactase, and pepsin play important roles in catalyzing the reactions that occur during metabolism. Amylase is an enzyme that aids in the digestion of carbohydrates. It is present in the saliva and pancreas of humans and catalyzes the breakdown of starches into smaller carbohydrates. Lactase is an enzyme that is found primarily in the small intestine, liver, and kidney. Lactase catalyzes the breakdown of lactose into simple sugars, such as glucose. Pepsin is an enzyme that aids in the digestion of proteins, such as those found in meat and eggs. Pepsin is primarily found in the gastric juice of the stomach. Only I, II, and III serve as catalysts in metabolism. Polymerase is an enzyme that plays an important role in the polymerization of new DNA and RNA molecules during DNA replication and transcription. 12. The shape of an enzyme determines how it works. Most enzymes have a surface with one or more deep folds. The folds make pockets, which are called active sites.
17 The active sites match folds in the substrate's surface. Once an enzyme binds to a substrate, the amount of energy needed to start a chemical reaction with the substrate is reduced. 13. Catalysts accelerate the rate of a chemical reaction. Chemical reactions that occur in living systems can be catalyzed by protein molecules called enzymes, which are a type of catalyst. 14. In the presence of excess molecules, there is a direct relationship between the enzyme concentration and the reaction rate. As the enzyme concentration increases, the reaction rate also increases. If this experiment were not performed with excess molecules, the results would initially be the same, but the reaction rate would eventually plateau once all the molecules were used up. 15. Most cell function best within a narrow range of temperature and acidity. At very low temperatures, reaction rates are too slow. High temperatures and/or extremes of acidity can irreversibly change the structure of most protein molecules. Even small changes in acidity can alter the molecules and how they interact. 16. In multicellular organisms, cells are specialized to perform specific functions in different areas of the body. Since cells perform different functions, they require different enzymes. Thus, all cells do not contain the same types of enzymes. 17. Most enzyme-assisted reactions occur more quickly than reactions without enzymes. Enzymes lower the energy that the reaction needs to begin, thus increasing the rate of the reaction. 18. The graph shows that catalase only functions within a specific temperature range. If the temperature is too high, catalase changes its shape and is no longer effective. Since catalase plays an important role in all cells, cells can only function within a specific temperature range. Although it is also true that cells can only function within a specific ph range, this fact cannot be inferred from the given information. 19. According to the chemical equation, water and oxygen are produced when hydrogen peroxide is broken down. The enzyme catalase speeds up this reaction. 20. As the graph shows, pepsin only remains active up to a ph of about 4.8. If the ph is any higher than this, the pepsin's folds will become so distorted that its active site will no longer function. Thus, pepsin is only able to catalyze the digestion of proteins in the highly acidic environment of the stomach. 21. In general, between zero and twenty-seven degrees Celsius, the rate of the reaction increases as the temperature increases. Then, between thirty-seven and sixty degrees Celsius, the rate of the reaction decreases as the temperature increases. Finally, between sixty and one
18 hundred degrees Celsius, no reaction occurs; the rate of the reaction equals 0 ml/s. At these temperatures, the enzyme is denatured. 22. Most enzymes are only active within certain temperature and ph ranges. 23. Imagine that you need to turn a nut onto the end of a bolt. You could do it by hand, but it would be faster and require less energy if you used a power tool instead. Then, once you were done with that bolt, you could use the same power tool on a different bolt. An enzyme is like a power tool because, by definition, catalysts speed up chemical reactions without being used up by the reaction. So, once an enzyme has finished catalyzing one reaction, it can move on and catalyze another reaction, because it is not used up by the reaction. 24. Without carbonic anhydrase, the reaction that causes carbonic acid to become carbon dioxide and water would not take place quickly enough for the person to exhale enough carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide, in the form of carbonic acid, would build up in the bloodstream, causing the blood ph to rapidly decrease to toxic levels. 25. Enzymes have very unique shapes that allow them to bind to specific molecules and catalyze specific reactions. Thus, an enzyme-substrate complex can best be compared to a lock and key. 26. Enzymes reduce the activation energy (the energy reactants need to absorb) of chemical reactions. This allows the reaction to speed up. Reaction B was most likely catalyzed by an enzyme because it took a low amount of energy to start and the reaction was fast compared to Reactions C and D. 27. Most chemical reactions occur very slowly at low temperatures, including the temperatures found inside the bodies of most animals. Without enzymes, most of the vital chemical reactions that take place inside cells would occur so slowly that the organism would die before the necessary products were achieved. Enzymes allow the reactions to speed up to the rate necessary to keep the organism alive. 28. The enzyme catalase is most effective when the reaction rate is at its peak (1 ml/s). This occurs between 27 C and 37 C, approximately. Between approximately 60 C and 100 C, the rate of the reaction is equal to 0 ml/s. At these temperatures, the enzyme catalase is denatured. That is, the structure of the enzyme changes, so it is no longer able to catalyze reactions. 29. In the given reaction, hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) was broken down into water and oxygen in the presence of catalase. 30. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. If the enzyme catalyzes a reaction that involves the breakdown of a protein, amino acids would result. Amino acids would not result if the molecule was a carbohydrate, lipid, or mineral.
Enzymes 1. All cells in multicellular organisms contain thousands of different kinds of enzymes that are specialized to catalyze different chemical reactions. Given this information, which of the following
AS 91156 Demonstrate understanding of life processes at the cellular level. ENZYMES (2013: 2) The rate of photosynthesis is directly related to the availability of light. Normally, an increase in light
1. In the diagram below, which substance belongs in area Z? 5. The chart below indicates the elements contained in four different molecules and the number of atoms of each element in those molecules. A)
1. The diagram below represents a biological process 5. The chart below indicates the elements contained in four different molecules and the number of atoms of each element in those molecules. Which set
Name: Class: Date: Objectives * Measure the effects of changes in temperature, ph, and enzyme concentration on reaction rates of an enzyme catalyzed reaction in a controlled experiment. * Explain how environmental
Enzymes Essential Questions: What is an enzyme? How do enzymes work? What are the properties of enzymes? How do they maintain homeostasis for the body? What happens to the food we eat? It gets broken down!
1. 2 Enzymes Enzymes are referred to as biological catalysts they create new pathways that allow reactions to occur many times faster than uncatalysed reactions. Enzymes act on specific molecules called
Enzymes Honors Biology 2009 Hydrogen Peroxide H 2 O 2 H-O-O-H Antiseptic kills infective organisms? Cells produce as a waste (poison) Body enzymes (chemicals) can break it down, make it harmless Produced
Enzyme Lab DEFINITIONS: 1. Enzyme: 2. Catalase: 3. Catalyze: 4. Hydrolysis: 5. Monomer: 6. Digestion: BACKGROUND INFORMATION Many living tissues contain the enzyme catalase. This enzyme breaks down hydrogen
Biochemistry B.9.A compare the structures and functions of different types of biomolecules, including carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids B.9.D analyze and evaluate the evidence regarding
Chapter 3 Enzymes Vital mistake We may not be able to see them, but enzymes are absolutely crucial to the lives of ourselves and all other living organisms. The Quarter Horse (Figure 3.1) is a breed of
Enzymes: Practice Questions #1 1. Compound X increases the rate of the reaction below. Compound X is most likely A. an enzyme B. a lipid molecule C. an indicator D. an ADP molecule 2. The equation below
Endocrine System: Practice Questions #1 1. Removing part of gland D would most likely result in A. a decrease in the secretions of other glands B. a decrease in the blood calcium level C. an increase in
Catalase Enzyme Lab Background information Liver and other living tissues contain the enzyme catalase. This enzyme breaks down hydrogen peroxide, which is a harmful by-product of the process of cellular
Enzymes Spontaneous Reactions May occur quickly or slowly Enzymes speed up chemical reactions!! (But how, Ms. Robinson????) An enzyme is a macromolecule that acts as a catalyst a chemical agent that speeds
State that enzymes are globular proteins, with a specific tertiary structure, which catalyse metabolic reactions in living organisms State that enzyme action may be intracellular or extracellular Specificity,
10.2 The Human Digestive System pg. 411 The human digestive system is made up of a group of organs working together. The digestive tract is made up of the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and
reflect Have you ever been told to take your vitamins? Many caregivers tell this to their children daily. However, most people do not understand what vitamins and minerals do and why they are so important.
CHAPTER 6 AN INTRODUCTION TO METABOLISM Section B: Enzymes 1. Enzymes speed up metabolic reactions by lowering energy barriers 2. Enzymes are substrate specific 3. The active site in an enzyme s catalytic
1.! What are enzymes? Be able to describe the chemical nature of enzymes and their function in biochemical reactions.! 2.! How do enzymes work, and why are they so specific? Be able to provide an overview
12.1 What are animals and plants built from? All living things are made up of cells. The structures of different types of cells are related to their functions. to relate the structure of different types
Biology 12 Metabolism Practice Test KEY Name: Section 1: What is an enzyme? 1. Which of the following statements is true about enzymes? a) 3D shape can vary and still be active b) they may catalyze only
Organic Molecules and Water 1. In most animal cells, a complex network of proteins provides which of the following? A. organization B. shape C. movement D. all of these 2. Technology Enhanced Questions
Working With Enzymes a world of learning Presented by Peter J Ball, Southern Biological. For further information, please contact the author by phone (03) 9877-4597 or by email email@example.com.
Metabolism & Enzymes 2007-2008 From food webs to the life of a cell energy energy energy Flow of energy through life Life is built on chemical reactions transforming energy from one form to another organic
Biology, 10e Sylvia S. Mader Lectures by Tariq Alalwan, Ph.D. Learning Objectives Define energy, emphasizing how it is related to work and to heat State and apply two energy laws to energy transformations.
SG Biology Summary notes Investigating cells Sub-topic a: Investigating living cells Cells are the basic units of living things (this means that all living things are made up of one or more cells). Cells
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Laboratory Exercise Three INTRODUCTION: The human digestive system consists of a tube running from the mouth to the anus with specialized regions for the breakdown of food. The food is
Keystone Review Practice Test Module A Cells and Cell Processes 1. Which characteristic is shared by all prokaryotes and eukaryotes? a. Ability to store hereditary information b. Use of organelles to control
Bio 20 Enzymes! In Nature, high temperatures cause chemicals to become highly reactive. BUT, high temperatures in cells cause PROBLEMS Ie.//a high fever causes the body to shut down or an egg in boiling
Investigation 2-13 ENZYME ACTIVITY How do abiotic or biotic factors influence the rates of enzymatic reactions? BACKGROUND Enzymes are the catalysts of biological systems. They speed up chemical reactions
Digestive System Lecture 5 Winter 2014 This lecture tells the story of the Flow of Matter from Food to Cells. The pictures are only there to help you visualize structures don t worry about names of structures
Chapter 2 The Chemistry of Life Worksheets (Opening image courtesy of David Iberri, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/file:camkii.png, and under the Creative Commons license CC-BY-SA 3.0.) Lesson 2.1: Matter
DNA Biotechnology and Enzymes 35 Background Unit 2~ Lesson 1 The Biotechnology Industry Biotechnology is a process (or a technology) that is used to create products like medicines by using micro-organisms,
Enzymes Activation Energy Chemical reactions require an initial input of energy activation energy large biomolecules are stable must absorb energy to break bonds cellulose energy CO 2 + H 2 O + heat Activation
Energy and Life Energy= the ability to do work Autotrophs= use sunlight, CO 2, and water to make their own food (sugars) PHOTOSYNTHESIS Heterotrophs= can t make their own food, they have to eat autotrophs
Digestive System The digestive system is made up of the digestive tract a series of hollow organs joined in a long, twisting tube from the mouth to the anus and other organs that help the body break down
Basic Chemistry: Practice Questions #1 1. Which substances are inorganic compounds? A. water and salts B. proteins and carbohydrates C. fats and oils D. enzymes and hormones 2. Which substance is an inorganic
Page1 Digestion Food travels from mouth esophagus stomach small intestine colon rectum anus. Food mixes with digestive juices, moving it through the digestive tract Large molecules of food are broken into
Introduction to Enzyme Kinetics: Assay of β-galactosidase Page 1: Introduction Enzymes are biological molecules that function as catalysts to facilitate specific chemical reactions. Any chemical reaction
Name Date Period Lab #18H The Biochemistry of Digestion Background: The most common organic compounds found in living organisms are lipids, carbohydrates, proteins and nucleic acids. Common foods, which
LAB 3: DIGESTION OF ORGANIC MACROMOLECULES INTRODUCTION Enzymes are a special class of proteins that lower the activation energy of biological reactions. These biological catalysts change the rate of chemical
The effects that are in play when the enzyme-substrate complex forms: The proximity effect: The orientation effect: The catalytic effect: The energy effect: The enzyme has to join up with the substrate
National 4&5 Biology Cells Topic Summary Notes Learning Outcomes (National 5 learning outcomes in shaded box) What you should know about CELL STRUCTURE 1 Label a typical animal cell with cell membrane,
Teacher Key Objectives You will use the model pieces in the kit to: Simulate enzymatic actions. Explain enzymatic specificity. Investigate two types of enzyme inhibitors used in regulating enzymatic activity.
Name: Class: Date: Human Body Review #3: Digestive System Modified True/False Indicate whether the sentence or statement is true or false. If false, change the identified word or phrase to make the sentence
Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Lipids The three nutrients needed by the body in the greatest amounts are carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids. Nutrients in Food All of these nutrients are called organic compounds,
Some Background Concerning Life Science Content Standards for Fifth-Grade Teachers: Human Body Systems by Ellen Deehan, M.S. Contents 1. Introduction 2. Biological Context: Internal Structures of Organisms
From food webs to the life of a cell energy Metabolism & Enzymes energy energy Flow of energy through life Life is built on chemical reactions sun transforming energy from one form to another organic molecules
Throughout each unit, assessments are incorporated into lessons. These assessments are activities that occur within the context of each lesson providing the guidelines for assessing students' progress.
Cellular Respiration: Practice Questions #1 1. Which statement best describes one of the events taking place in the chemical reaction? A. Energy is being stored as a result of aerobic respiration. B. Fermentation
Human Physiology Lab (Biol 236L) Digestive Physiology: Amylase hydrolysis of starch Introduction Enzymes are proteins composed of amino acid building blocks. Enzymes catalyze or increase the rate of metabolic
Chapter 3 Cell Processes and Energy 1 Chapter 3 Objectives Section 1: Chemical Compounds in Cells 1. Define elements and compounds 2. Explain how water is important to the function of cells 3. Identify
Laboratory 5: Properties of Enzymes Technical Objectives 1. Accurately measure and transfer solutions with pipettes 2. Use a Spectrophotometer to study enzyme action. 3. Properly graph a set of data. Knowledge
INTRODUCTION TO ENZYMES Enzymes are usually proteins (some RNA) In general, names end with suffix ase Enzymes are catalysts increase the rate of a reaction not consumed by the reaction act repeatedly to
Name: 6023-1 - Page 1 1) Which one of the following situations indicates a serious organ system malfunction? A) Mitochondria stop functioning in a unicellular organism exposed to pollutants. B) White blood
Earth s Cycles 1. Models are often used to explain scientific knowledge or experimental results. A model of the carbon cycle is shown below. Which of the following can be determined based on this model?
Human Biology Higher Homework: Topic Human Cells Sub-topic3: Cell Metabolism 1. During which of the following chemical conversions is A T P produced? A B C D Amino acids protein Glucose pyruvic acid Haemoglobin
Animal Systems: The Digestive System Tissues, Organs, and Systems of Living Things Cells, Cell Division, and Animal Systems and Plant Systems Cell Specialization Human Systems The Digestive The Circulatory
CHAPTER 4: ENZYMES Enzymes are biological catalysts. There are about 40,000 different enzymes in human cells, each controlling a different chemical reaction. They increase the rate of reactions by a factor
Chapter 5: Microbial Metabolism 1. Enzymes 2. ATP Production 3. Autotrophic Processes 1. Enzymes Biochemical Reactions All living cells depend on biochemical reactions to maintain homeostasis. All of the
Lee 1 Jessica Lee AP Biology Mrs. Kingston 23 October 2013 Abstract: The purpose of this lab is to investigate the impact of temperature, substrate concentration, enzyme concentration, and the presence
Lab: Enzyme Catalysis (Modified AP Lab 2A) Name College Biology Hour Date Paula Donham, Olathe East High School, firstname.lastname@example.org Adapted from: AP Biology Labs; Brad Williamson of Olathe, KS;
Take notes while watching the following video tutorials to prepare for the Metabolism Part 1 Activity. Carbohydrates Part 5: Catabolism Stage 1 (Hydrolysis) & Stage 2 (Glycolysis) An overview of catabolism
The Digestive System You are what you eat! Try to label the diagram (PENCIL!!) What is Digestion? Digestion: the breakdown of large macromolecules (proteins, fats, carbohydrates) into smaller molecules
Topic 3.0 Healthy human function depends on a variety of interacting and reacting systems Organ Systems Organ systems must have the ability to to changes within and outside of your body to maintain life
Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Proteins 3.2 Organic vs. Inorganic compounds Organic compounds contain carbon and are found in living organisms Exceptions: hydrocarbonates, carbonates, oxides of carbon. Inorganic
1. A covalent bond between two atoms represents what kind of energy? a. Kinetic energy b. Potential energy c. Mechanical energy d. Solar energy A. Answer a is incorrect. Kinetic energy is the energy of
First Catalysts Manganese dioxide (a black powder) will catalyze the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide. Car exhaust pipes use catalytic converters help convert carbon monoxide (CO) and unburned hydrocarbons
The Excretory and Digestive Systems 38.2 The Process of Digestion Organs of the Digestive System The digestive system includes the: Mouth Pharynx Esophagus Stomach Small and large intestine. Other structures
PISA Style Scientific Literacy Question Read the text about exercise. Sioned and Nia are exercising at the gym. They will each spend 30 minutes on their exercise programmes. Sioned is walking at a steady
Homework Due in Lab Week 2 Homework #4 (pages 9, 10 & 11) Biomolecules PreLab #2 (handout up front and on Instructor Website) Biological Molecules Enzymes Enzymes One of the most important groups of proteins
LESSON 2.4 Getting Started Objectives 2.4.1 Explain how chemical reactions affect chemical bonds. 2.4.2 Describe how energy changes affect how easily a chemical reaction will occur. 2.4.3 Explain why enzymes
Exampro GCSE Biology B3.3 Homeostasis Foundation tier Name: Class: Author: Date: Time: 80 Marks: 80 Comments: Page of 35 Q. People with kidney disease may be treated by dialysis. The diagram shows a dialysis
B2 Revision Subject Module Date Biology B2 13 TH May (am) Useful websites www.aqa.org.uk This website contains the specifications that we follow and also has a large number of past papers and mark schemes
Chapter 6: Digestion, Absorption and Metabolism-The Link Between Food and Energy Food provides us with (1) energy (ATP) for body processes, (2) heat for body temperature regulation and (3) the chemical
Matthew Przybysz Bio Lab Report 11/18/12 OBJECTIVE: The objective of this lab was to determine if LACTAID really works to digest milk sugar, lactose. If lactaid is added to milk, glucose will be detected
Energy & Enzymes Life requires energy for maintenance of order, growth, and reproduction. The energy living things use is chemical energy. 1 Energy exists in two forms - potential and kinetic. Potential
Name: Date: Activity Sheets Enzymes and Their Functions amylase What are Enzymes? starch glucose Enzymes are compounds that assist chemical reactions by increasing the rate at which they occur. For example,
Enzymes and Metabolic Pathways Un-lecture! Numbers correspond to the slides, which are in your lecture notes and also posted on-line on the announcements page. 1. Characteristics of enzymes.we went over
BIOLOGY 2a SUMMARY SHEET B2.1.1 CELLS Most human and animal cells have the following parts. NUCLEUS controls the activities of the cell CYTOPLASM where most of the chemical reactions take place CELL MEMBRANE
Objectives Students will explore the importance of chemical reactions in biology Students will discuss the role of enzymes as catalysts in biological reactions. Students will analyze graphs showing how
Name Date Class Chapter Review Cell Processes Part A. Vocabulary Review Directions: Select the term from the following list that matches each description. active transport energy enzyme inorganic compound
Your consent to our cookies if you continue to use this website.