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100 8537JI.1Yg2.5 1L;FrriT1-)L. 86 Martorell, -»J,af4--82Pfi I fljnf-4p ilipmtxj.r.behrman, 1993$, MXF-P[114-:#, nffiyfq-j#jd, -klf-ka_, 21(11): : P. Dasgupta, ±4-67'414,--,t[110-At", Clarendon V1N. -,1±; J. Strauss fri D. Thomas, 1998$, XXXVI(2)4: X itiAtVZ-- -filkiitalh),k *futim3-)-fil, 24/M-N "Attfc-JMOMIWNI-S. W", 89 VVW_P,, 1996$, **;k***-01'&-,j. 90 OMArto-Ti, TInr-MAPP , ilvz_;vaiviakii2ikja TritA (Bmi),iA-IMI4An KrAnT-htz2.LLit.. JAIVittkiati-Air]i iwmg-gwvrrn,-tep. AffiNifft* A A rni*matz -vtragfriftyl-i.t.m.cgia X+PIKTAIVitzfrje t)va bsg jnuijt, 1994*, *144-Vc (BMI) : A ffa-: P.S. Shetty Tfl W.P.T. James, pftvfogint-mifnlgr..&,z) 56-'4 o wf4agniffillis.cn Rptud.-A-q3-i5c. 91 J. Strauss, 1986, P_ATHIr-fAT-1,14' \II/t7J?», JA. ;6-i14-4-'49-f1.1, 94 ( 2 ) : A. 92 A. Croppenstedt frl C. Muller, 2000$, ((V. MIAR *A1-'&IRLL4111,3ii-g» 48 ( 3 ) : X. 93 S. Weir RI J. Knight, 2000*, Ifiktb o X111, 1r-*-k44, 94 A. Bhargava., 1997*, «r-fili vflinvir.-4ciraftlibm 44», itti14-41a-fij, 77: t, 95 S.S. Basta, M.S. Soekirman 11 D. Karyadi, 1979$, RIVE...4V_ halaik't%11-1lfrit)-')j», -ke1)1pj, 32: A ,J.M. Hershman, G.A. Melnick fill R. Kastner, 19864:-, ((- " ElliVONPri/Mi/MW», &Wf-J.T. Dunn, E.A. Pretell, C. H. Daza fill F.E. ViteriPMAnt-)74p.-*Jtii, :-KNVIt A fd-iata lt5021-q-0 iiibehrman qip-jr-rjhjr). -:,,V9LaN-87ffiqlg-Mt ra -9,-I:aff_82ffilgjF o 2001 *ft-tt-r.viiii_lit;r, 77

101 ±-51?-11tEM 99 S. Grantham-McGregor, L. Fernald fr1 K. Sethuraman, 1999 op».---*1)3,- liti: 20 ( 1 ) : 100 R-E'rEilliAtNUY,./kgrF- -. 5=-A/ILIMIAP--JAXiiif25-]ffi, 2000*, - -1-f.j1;)k»LAA07;1K-M--ti-: H E. 101 Hi. 102 AT-AilY.MA, 1Behrmanr141qM, T4; J. Behrman, 1996, anrm-,ttwili,mnp», 1 1 (1) : 23-27P,; S. Grantham- McGregor, L. Fernald Fl K. Sethuraman, 1999$, ((OAR 1*),..,\ig., 20 (1) : a; Grantham-McGregor, S.Feniald K. Sethuraman,rAlAff-99ffizjiJIJ n44+4 Martorell, lalf82pfiln][11,1t Behrman 104 PTE. 105 tempr, 2000, `fift: J. Arcand, mvtivs-±i'444-ahl&,.5o) 147 o 106 D. Bloom H J. Sachs, 19984:,»+10.Q0! i<.12 (MEPf/= L. Pritchett RI L. Summers, 1996*, ((r,' FliafAt»,, 31 (4) : ,o 108 L. Smith fill L. Haddad, 20001f-, it k*.. 47 El'T- X: ((W95M1I» lialip-t4e< AR, 171P7Aftti-AVqfnif R. Fogel, 1994, 4* -K ['UT Ht. N. : /1.1 14"-L-Ut)liafilng, 84 (3) p o 110 S. Arora, 1998*, fltlt- -1M14-Alk: AIR,.C11, I TfliTI:f2-A1.1410,20001f niitet4i- 4. T.)-114., *,-*);ft,ajt1,,s0-01--,-mv., -TJ X X XV sifr4f111 *RA, E, 20007J] H,, 78

102 Etwiti

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105 2001*ft-graVALlx;5? T./EM VitzElPti?'riata LLM =au hilttfitattty f- Fi (W.R: =100) V`111,gia. AJVA'- 'A+4Kag: 4M[10,fn Li 83

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213 2001*V-9,-ajp)Inz 1 71K-AYfiffJniA-s'a_tilq3z1Em orlip?t-crfi-kt.w20001,17a- - 9)W,LWtIK,'tPAW, 2 RNA-RliA, 7K-TiNfill[YeaA_ILi;-f-t44A g*p] a A- MALI iti- t4110,, CA A A-fi-A. 'ff-i-tr7.: ; 1).,1R f[x* V-AM Alt ILF, *kg; A A -4-/k A- A AM1-1;YL-M-ty-: , H IA] X. 3 J. Decosas, 1996,* ((, X. (pta3) t4aTAgai.17/ LATIWg, A2A F7., A, HAE. 5 1R,,-111kigA-NtJZ-0JR-1_,aff-_2ffilffint PLL. 74B-01,1V't iti*jtj TIALU--rXIA 01,7 Pffi itnt_ja- 14-k,V'Scl1a 4-XA-EC._.37, 110];v'*I-MtLfAffi-T- Wifel)Lfria-- -mfinmo to 8 fk*1/1tarmfixt.i.m./-fty1-.2/tffag, Ifint4$4. 9 L. Bo11ingerf11.1. Stover, 1999,* ;A A ejil4-711,,,,,(31. X.1111/1.4 4)(4)+14IAJI-filri, P113;-ii**/J,g Yovliv a *, CA? M Haslwimmer, 11 _ 9-LV(14:I.-5ffilgitligPiq L-1,aff1.0ffilTIJE1'04+4; 1),la, TV.40;1,, 2000, M *ft. Cit A 4Lit A: '3 I.E.Engh,L. St1ouka1f11J. Du Guerny, 131[III4AW_;',, 1994b*, CAAA-VCAA1-..1) A2N firt: M. Haslwimmer, 14,»-LiiTT-4PhIffInV40 15Ijit:i_tff=13PA'Affint ftymil-x-st1999re,-rf ito 17 TV-(If- g1fral.mvt-ff7- LATRUIc, 911,P. Webbt1.1. von Braun, 1994, gla 5iI, )---dii -taji,4*, John Wiley & Sons *---(1-VA410M RJAiTNAMCA, ,2 21LIK;)?,, 19."_1.-i1V44- t tbia : Ei, 1NA0 20V MI=1 2000,-1f Wo 21 o 22 ri=1)ail-m. 1993, (0-A-it'LIV , Cr,JWrik-9-1E. 23-Ktt)1ANZTa4VP-,r-ILVM1IP-X, mafx-a-j f tt;(5i:. tal.11).l. Pelletier, K. Deneke, Y. Kidane, B. o 191

214 EtittrIV Haile LI F. Negussie, 1995f, ((VP----WJ'fA '",4- : AiMALLAFRITV01011)),, 20: P, o 24 *-±6-tg*PftY1-4-RiT, ET-, *AK; r,katfk* (pjawww.org.unicefmkr _LWM) o 2513 MMAHAM', **IriPfiMtgANMP---M.R.V VJLii fflpftwilr1w P. fi*-1m, 1999*, JktiAtt:E: W144A II)) 27 11±M-WiThx,11999*n1it0 28 LLRIAgt TA1T EAtt17-R 41ff, (WTO) 29 )r-big26prt ntv4. 30 Hir ±0 31 1ftM-41V-i, 24I gi nf n P;Vil, *, iktia *74 tr- fit 1998/ /014A, r4 ié,llri4e *12,Mo 33 fa LLAR -60 Elig a 'A o *IIJ 31%; Arr;ffi* Menjera, WOHY,Jfntit $, 1998/ X,,A4`, $14: -A4t020 cri gl-t- o Oaf izv, 200, EnitfiR 35 Iftvgivaittcg (r-frawww.fao.ore(m_lw41) o 36 Rio 37 VITAin*P-Ptf LLWafFIN,Vitklt A-nitdE, 1995/96ft, P.61 KM íftjr$±-mf4t L-Likkt*Ki M7% *tAit, 1999*, J.t_ : rm-R 39 _t ,, 1986*, 4.A...-Aft.iErsjit3i-,9-t,, o a, Enmg. IfL-ffi&i,o 42 HI. 43 M. Demeke, A. Said fíijt.s. Jayne, 1997$, t'fatl, , 44 JP-O'fklfJ : 'tit& «fft-ft,- -fffr4ft», AvAilfiR9-1 E. 45 DiAT-T-38fifir-j1141nf M. Demeke, 1999$, jk-11.1-k tb Yjt.A.-A7r`(:. qi) 192

215 2001 gq-itav Iktt;R. LLj 1999*6)J27-30 HE MAN k-pt=ij--tfri`44mia)1mc f- -1"7.fM),I.-*#r-OfJf2-AAfriv-mg 47--E- f.,12000*ittj (kizriaff-t4_14v.vi Eirmitm4 f,1z2o00n*i/f*14) 1=4)7(4E-EIYAMiV17,-(±), _$E,Vt. itareit*, IL-1n StrigafORMOInjf) it, 48 fflh-za-1--nijeamglita-1--,1rivri:no 49 4V,T4Vith A ntait-9 Eti 50 VR_. -.7TrMII*Pt-Yz- r1i,,-1-1zij, 51t. Aki-ft)RnE 111E+41-0MiJ50%,, 52 ninki1994nfer-t )11,aff19ffiWIlril04+-4,, 54 /J\ I'FvO N-V2Nt. r_h5 %1 0% o Rtg fri-youtlf-a.x-iniltt14*pt/ VVIRIA/tN-#4-ftittlAz, 2001,* V-t-: X,i1f-AL-Jktfiktt_gE.4)*Sof'A.It4.-if''ft,1, 2001 JA9H, JO 56 leftt-vtfit-*-n q-v-itrnimv4,, 57 RP.1,AFIM'F, *-Hripmiln7Tai i-lfraffilamtawm *mks-a t, A f4e<, *AR. 58 W.UMWil., 2000,*.42.»+1 10) 59 ftai-r1--f-, 2000,* *fe;llv4e< 60 o ftyl-wfil, 1998*, *:21E, Pd-ThLLE-ri-E<, 4 R ffillf-iirt VA41.C, 1999*, ff-**-;"fz-34`_- 1k;YL, 'A27 P30 63 J.C. Knowles, E.M. PerniaR1M. Racelis, 1999*, 2.12.'A4>:.# )L4±77-»A R*13f-atHiT frii 998 *IYJJ, 1JA..XY-ErME4',.Elifk.)EAAET-A 70%, i*2e4u Fl atz.*111 30%f1150%1A o?1--ximfrifti4ffiak, ItEIVLET 1997 osils n71(, fx4te. 30%f150%ZiA ,* t 484,íz, LL AR trmai VA id- ja ( fji Klk[$ 1998* 68 VA,CV,, 1997 *, EAf*PI.Mqf)--Z», - III'rL3 AFPSOS/WP/31, fl±1_ tjtfi 193

216 , E(tftftEivu 69V Viag/g*EXI3f a-i;-fr ti -X, 1995,1f 4 V), -,, 0 A k- : TSS-14R- ii VIE/95/01T,..q. -, V A ff-±i,w, v. );--dt B1)3,---$t_. 70 ARAIIIYI-TfiA1),M),1k.. Mg, M t. -9I, -,H110A-1 n A o i fiii it -'0, 1ff A#1-414»*-A ).1.k ri<3 AR Al a. A- II fr- Mfa- A; o 71 _V Xiii ff-65pfti-.j I M r1/ R r'` PI 4..),K.'44;fi - -.`- 'r, 1995,*.0-7_Ti?I:4-470i Z,»Li'l 'Mum', crwirril 18-r--J-,.1i-iii, rft i'' PL, 73 P. Wolff, 1999*., AL:. 43 -OA.*, -;424-25:0., tt El a. re:nt3-'rfifia31.112, l'e`-ft, Frank Cass tkilie. 74 Pi it., fi: o 75- -P,i,t,a FT-='J, A 41 4_ -A t-, MPi o 76A: ik t.1.44:1-lavr Pb i l iract*wir, IlTran Thi Que, ,ki rii..iik., 4k A -. A, -.)t, Vt )jii TA, REA5-Ti o _II'-'A 16X. 78 kv; Ps Eh Mit A),I.k 4 A t't TT- a fi-ta P» Jt o 79 m ffiti,t4rh IliiMORVV-1'=-2,4niirfflaA.TVWV-Mt,frrriA AksikIVVIVIN*111601,1999-g*E13Ta-0--ti tjiltrg o -Ink rh il 4- f-;k Y-i.-A-1*-4g.A. e-j t A o OR VI ffai-t J» 2-'4, PI Lli Wk. I- -4 ffrp,, 1999,* %r: -M- 1,4.09\a,r5: ElIF-C-N)) 99/55- (19994F-7JA ) o 81A)MtaAFIA,.11-N141)-U-Ti 4 _1.,-4110,, 1998,* LI Fit4 _,I._!k ik. -,gig -AM it -' di It., ié, it )IRt4 X, 82 _ -:»IVriff-soPii I 83 Pi ili t R14.11 'ALLI-kg,,, 2000*, iT-A-1, 9 A f»,,111, 2 )114 E<, * E1-1h nAik'X')1)Ja'±-.1t (FAS. Barraclough, 1973 T ;')1i_i-J t<121k.gt4ig,x- Fli lq f;'#-i=gg i)11, Lexington, K( 'fa- - -)) ) o 86 A. de Janvry, E. Sadouletfll W. Wolford, 1998,1 4,i-j- 4-4k»tIVItIt/ft/fl, 'X' IlirrAfilIii, kif I.M2RX-If. 87 iatf(rimiaoyi,11, :(±01i1-,9-TANAtfai-Eltffit'lffr-4, YI11, PfiA toik if] it:t Ehl --1\-N A VIR. 190n, 1985 E.NIT4-1t±&Jj0.85, 1994-tiff24-.)0.86, 1993 P1;fM-Ygo.88, 19911fEA.1-.)J F. Vogelgesang, 1996,,T- M. _I TX41 fi'v'-- V -t-j A -44,-±±, "0-J W), CEPALitié,-, V 9bil ff-s6pfi. Ifii rilsi -,q 1'4 o VM1-44T, '4, -ffilabitivx, f-p-rw. _±J.,-Lo- - 1, --, p- - al 95-1:4, ej-t it 194

217 2001 i fez*r.,zik)lx;e 91 J. Heath f[l K. Deininger, 1997,* :rs- " th, " _±- A :, 1997*-3f]6FiWri-MAXPI--(Er:ViliS<IZZ, 92 C. Deere-fill M. Leon, 1997*, --12LT M dem-lka..*t ia 1L: 93 aft n1-4 tz F1 xj- A;VOL),..0=E - (±1964f111970f1A Tki0.7/zLiiInVfhAtal.'-Ltbri 7 JUÌi1,0<---31(111.1ri)g -TANA3V,A0.41L;01r/.1,9J0.251L:1(A. 94 P. Parera, 1998* HAT---.XY.118FILLI-ft&*f11±..itft.)2011)] 03.1*- ff.' 97 gat Rat-)ztlx, tvv.wp,51-fx LL/ait,1I )-j, $- 9± in o 95 Enitg.Ritk'd-fJf ( IBGE ), 1985,* H A. de Janvry, E. Sadou1etfl1W. Wolford, 86Pfi 96 P. Groppo, 1996,* e. ff, : P-7 t -,R o N14 ti,q k: 97 A. Buainain, ff7 it, ,1-#aa4r,: ( -TAU ) o 98 K. Deininger, 1998*, 3I-i&o, j57 ft, e.,,4,4,43001r1j/jkm., ftn-wrto 99 frie 1997*-A. -gt H1f3Zi1( A. Buainain, 911ATT-97ffi I f1j -tft*famvajf 40000Xit; frieftnfriv \lk:v1afilt[m110,(fgv*4$m-, Yv fift*tamtmja.itnrja1-itti11600xtt(k. Deininger, ff- 989i 11=flInt)i- j1) I3i, E VAR '1+1. PiE '1+4. 1/, YINPf,tolkR1K4IYA IVJT, 101 r;h1ati-'97pa'j I JIJ rrlisj/4 X [1314RiThEN1Iinj104ZA)-0, ittien6t1t44,1-ftaffi',3 101-yo 103 KI..aff-98Pfi I [11,3P RAM/Groupe Croissance, 1998*, ;)4A7, E) X, it 105 4P1 WM D-141, 2000,* 9 ) f3-}, L1EtIK,1-P-A,K; EIU, 2000 RJA4k;5(, 1 2 /I*, ittt; EIU1I<J*1`111*-4Rrs. 106Mi1, NfAfITA-S-d fij-* ( A c m ). TAM 99. (CAEU), (Gcc). NfkinTA*1M:, 13q Vie in Ifs ( A m u ) (ECO), (oic), 1996, WA- LA it, itiko T1L 107XiA TIA N1*,iiFÎf41#41-ri. o 195

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300 2001 ft-itra,v1k.1x;r, 14NpAn-iA-XwI-Lv5T, 1998-f, 111P1---A `41tLLiP4-X, ÇO 15tIJIL:aff1lffiqlg]n12T*4 (M41) 16 8ffil)11[Y]t M. Belhaj, 2000*,-;:;TO10-LT,J-370_*-',/}-i4-: (4. avr<jvgj ) o yil!www.handelsgu.sc/econ/eeu/ rbelhaj.htm. 18 PJ_Lo 19_IyiLaff11ffilfflinfV40 20 D.E. Wright, 1986*, =r4XfiJg. 0--ljtÍ1ntiv3.7ffr 1-tiLiA[11TZ-iifrvent0*(n_41.-TfM 23: D. Rose, C. Dewhurstfll W. Page, 1997,* Fkl )L,,A48ffiqlffIrrigt4t4. 23 C.E. Miller, L. Chang, V. Beal, R. McDowell, K. OrtmanfOT. LaCovey, 1992,* J&.174-Ai,MiArkk-if,ft, 111é-,LLEt4E<, *-4*, XEIV\IliffRAPHis; A. Joomaye, J. Knightf1IW. Routhier, 1999*, iks0)1sx.a-ii-f -,, A11-24H ittah: C3-INT/0/ , Mt.RI, IAEA: J.M. Stonehouse, J.D. MumfordfOG. Mustafa, 1998*, ±EtephritidA (Diptera: Tephritidae) EA.1f4 frtfg IP)>, 17 (2) : Joomaye, KnightfPRouthier, 25 Stonehouse, MumfordfliMustafa, 13-laff-23Pfiqlffinf XIIIVNIkn, 1995,* 4rcF,44t rt96-543/4aa "1-4-1-,bnktliv(, 27 VYLAff-i4PAlf-l'Ant4t *, D. Pimentel, L. Lach, Z. ZúñigaffilD. Morrison, 1999,* o 30?. --)-Lijiff28Pha2,1fflrro *, Ii, TIJ-9-: 18 (2) : :0 31 Vil,aff9ffiqIn1/044i1 CA11P:) o 32 E.N. Tambi, O.W. Maina, A.W. Mukhebif11T.F. Randolph, 33 00u, 1--1Ttliln4l4R4V.- -rfu.lfitt-7 ntipit-. 50%, E1]-TIV-Algti-vi.R50At, YJTIgati-L. TO-T-MR. tzn WAIff-S-Y:-/J,RP100.Mg, tf.m*11g-niitt, P.f-trt-12.5kn ML;lf-WiNR, 01,j y t o 34 VVIR9,, 1997*, +4-0Alty-1F6, t frt: M.J. Otte, 279

301 Vg VPM4109-*-9X0/3.1;3MA 35 P.R. Ellis F1 S.N. Putt, 1981*-, 4,41 ik Ikte_ MA o 36 J. Leslie, J. Barozzifl1M.J. Otte, 1997*, 1 11N3rAl ';f; AA 44-k *7fJ8-11 H j) , P,0 37 _VELITr--9ffi ij JEW] t4 ( 141R-)o 38 FLL ("A19A) o 39 R.F. Townsendf111-1.K. Sigwele, 1998,* +4- kl-±4fr4#+- It#A, DFID. 40-9,-1,a44_9ffir-Jimint NI. (32i) o 42 R. RepettoRIS.S. Baliga, 1996*, 141CAP,q, WRI. 43 i)o_affi-7pfilfil[1/ M. Fafchamps, 1999*, 4. -/»1;ffl. dri31ry4vf 5141'b,,], VW1M1).47.)(Immo 3, (( hi_f=c1*.rnirvalafli&a» 45 T. Reardon, Tr/II17, 1998,* ** ;X, 46 -ftv- -1J /twg, 1998, g)) HJO 47 L. GlowkarIC. De Klemm, 1999*, ((MT-TR, f.t.f2f; fn-dr*+1--tf.'ke-à: []]? RTO.T. Sandlund, P.J. ScheiffrA. VikengArn)va-OP'--4") Kluwerl: F/E o 48 J.D. Mumford, M. Temple, M.M. Quinlan, P. Gladders, J. Blood-Smyth, S. Mourato, Z. Makuchflil. Crabb, 2000*, NAFF4.0TfitAit 4'7,2,rjIk0 '!k 280

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307 FAO Agricultural Policy and Economic Development Series AGRICULTURAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ANALYSIS DIVISION AND POLICY ASSISTANCE DIVISION 1 Searching for common ground - European Union enlargement and agricultural policy (K. Hathaway and D. Hathaway, eds, 1997) 2 Agricultural and rural development policy in Latin America - New directions and new challenges (A. de Janvry, N. Key and E. Sadoulet, 1997) 3 Food security strategies - The Asian experience (P. Timmer, 1997) 4 Guidelines for the integration of sustainable agriculture and rural development into agricultural policies (J.B. Hardaker, 1997) FAO Economic and Social Development Papers AGRICULTURAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ANALYSIS DIVISION Forthcoming. The evolution of primary commodity terms of trade and the implications for developing countries (G.P. Zanias) 148 Agricultural investment and productivity in developing countries (L. Zepeda, ed., 2001) 147 Undernourishment and economic growth: the efficiency cost of hunger (J.L. Arcand, 2001) 146 Applications of the contingent valuation method in developing countries - a survey (A. Albertini and J. Cooper, 2001) 145 Two essays on climate change and agriculture - a developing country perspective (R. Mendelsohn and D. Tiwari, 2000) 144 Rural poverty, risk and development (M. Fafchamps, 2000) 143 Growth, trade and agriculture: an investigative survey (P.L. Scandizzo and M. Spinedi, 1998) 142 The political economy of the Common Market in milk and dairy products in the European Union (RE, Williams, 1997) 141 Economies in transition - Hungary and Poland (D.G. Johnson, 1997) 139 Population pressure and management of natural resources. Income-sharing and labour absorption in small-scale fisheries (J.M. Baland and J.-P. Plaffeau, 1996) 138 Economic development and environmental policy (S. Barret, 1996) 136 Growth theories, old and new and the role of agriculture in economic development (N. Stern, 1996) 135 The international dynamics of national sugar policies (T.C. Earley and D.W. Westfall, 1996) 134 Rural informal credit markets and the effectiveness of policy reform (A.H. Sarris, 1996) 133 Implications of regional trade arrangements for agricultural trade (T. Josling, 1997) 132 The economics of international agreements for the protection of environmental and agricultural resources (S. Barret, 1995) 131 Trade patterns, cooperation and growth (P L. Scandizzo_ 1995) 287

308 28 Agricultural taxation under structural adjustment (A.H. Sarris, 1994) 25 Transition and price stabilization policies in East European agriculture (E.M. Claassen,1994) 124 Structural adjustment and agriculture: African and Asian experiences (S. Subramian, E. Sadoulet and A. de Janvry, 1994) 121 Policies for sustainable development: four essays (A. Markandya, 1994) 115 Design of poverty alleviation strategy in rural areas (R. Gaiha, 1993) 110 Agricultural sustainability: definition and implications for agricultural and trade policy (T. Young and M.P. Burton, 1992) 107 Land reform and structural adjustment in sub-saharan Africa: controversies and guidelines (J-P. Platteau, 1992) 105 The role of public and private agents in the food and agricultural sectors of developing countries (L.D. Smith and A.M. Thomson, 1991) 104 Structural adjustment policy sequencing in sub-saharan Africa (N.J. Spooner and L.D. Smith, 1991) 103 The impact of structural adjustment on smallholders (J.-M. Boussard, 1992) 100 Structural adjustment and household welfare in rural areas: a micro-economic perspective (R. Gaiha, 1991) 99 Agricultural labour markets and structural adjustment in sub-saharan Africa (L.D. Smith, 1991) 98 Institutional changes in agricultural product and input markets and their impact on agricultural performance (A.M. Thomson, 1991) 90 The impact of stabilization and structural adjustment policies on the rural sector - Case studies of Cbte d'ivoire, Senegal, Liberia, Zambia and Morocco (E.-M. Claassen and P. Satin, 1991) Other titles Perspectives on agriculture in transition: analytical issues, modelling approaches and case study results (W.R. Poganietz, A. Zezza, K. Frohberg and K.G. Stamoulis, eds., 2001) Food, agriculture and rural development: current and emerging issues for economic analysis and policy research (KG. Stamoulis, ed., 2001) Integration of sustainable agriculture and rural development issues in agricultural policy. Proceedings of FAO/Winrock Workshop, May (S.A. Breth, ed., Winrock International, 1996) Halting degradation of natural resources - Is there a role for rural communities? (J.-M. Baland and J.-P. Platteau, FAO-Oxford University Press, 1996) To obtain the publications listed, please contact: Sales and Marketing Group, Information Division Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Viale delle Terme di Caracalla Rome, Italy Tel.: (+39) ; Fax: (+39)

309 2001 1ta A! MV171 IslEdr#- )6g: itji The State of Food and Agriculture 2007 includes a CD-ROM containing time series dcita for about 150 countries and the necessary software, FAOSTAT TS, to access and display these time series. FAOSTAT TS FAOSTAT TS software provides quick and easy access to structured annual time series databases. Even inexperienced computer users can use FAOSTAT TS, which does not require spreadsheet, graphics or database programs. FAOSTAT TS is fully menu-driven, so there are no commands to learn. Users can browse through and print graphs and tables, plot multiple-line graphs, fit trend lines and export data for use in other programs. FAOSTAT TS is trilingual (English, French, Spanish) and uses a standard menu format, FAOSTAT TS software is in the public domain and may be freely distributed. The data files accompanying the software, however, are under FAO copyright, and users must attribute FAO as the source. FAO may provide only very limited support to users of this software and the accompanying data and cannot assist users who modify the software or data files. FAO disclaims all warrants of fitness for the software or data for a particular use. Technical requirements FAOSTAT TS software requires a PC, DOS 3.0 or later version, 300 KB of available RAM and graphics capability. Graphics support is provided for all common graphics adapters (VGA, EGA, MCGA, CGA and Hercules monochrome). FAOSTAT TS will print graphs on Epson dot matrix, Hewlett-Packard and compatible laser printers. To use FAOSTAT TS with other printers, users can enable their own graphics printing utility before starting the program. One such utility is GRAPHICS.COM in DOS 2.0 or later version. Because of its use of DOS graphics modes, if FAOSTAT TS is run under MS- Windows or OS/2, it should be set to run in a full screen DOS session. Installation Before running FAOSTAT TS you must install the software and data files on your hard disk. Installation is automated through the INSTALL,BAT utility on the CD- ROM. To install from drive F: to drive C: - insert the CD-ROM in drive F: Type F: and press ENTER. Type INSTALL C: and press ENTER, Press any key. A C: \ SOFA01 directory is created and, after installation, you will already be in this directory. 289

310 Entering FAOSTAT TS To start the FAOSTAT TS software, if you are not already in the C:\SOFAO1 directory (as after installation): - Change to this directory by typing CD SOFA01 and pressing ENTER. From the command prompt in the SOFA01 directory, type SOFA01 and press ENTER. A graphics title screen will be displayed, followed by the main menu screen. If FAOSTAT TS does not start, graphs do not display correctly or the menus are difficult to read, your computer may not be compatible with the default functions of FAOSTAT TS. The use of a command-line option may help. You may try to start FAOSTAT TS with the -E parameter (by typing SOFA01-E) to disable its use of expanded memory. You may also force the use of a particular graphics or text mode by typing its name as a parameter (e.g. -EGA would force the use of EGA mode graphics). Language choices The initial default language for FAOSTAT TS is English. To change the default language to French or Spanish: Go to the FILE menu. Select LANGUAGE using the Arrow key (1) and press ENTER. Select your choice of language and press ENTER. The language selected will remain the default language until another is selected. Navigating the menus The main menu bar consists of FILE, DATA, GRAPH, TABLE and HELP menus. Most menu options are disabled until you open a data file. Navigate the menus by using the ARROW keys (T14-4) and make a selection by highlighting an item and pressing ENTER. To back out of a selection, press the ESC key. If you have a mouse, menu items can be selected with the mouse cursor. The left mouse button selects an item and the right mouse button acts as the ESC key. After you have made a menu selection, the menu will redraw and highlight a possible next choice. Several short-cut keys are available throughout the program: Key Fi ESC ALT+N ALT+X, ALT+Q Action HELP: Displays context-sensitive help text. ESCAPE: Backs out of the current menu choice or exits the current graph or table. NOTES: Displays text notes associated with the current data file, if the text file is available. This text may be edited. Notes will not appear while a graph is displayed. EXIT: Exits FAOSTAT TS immediately, without prompting. 290

311 Help You will see context-sensitive help displayed at the bottom of each screen. Press Fi for more extensive help on a highlighted option. Select HELP from the main menu to access the help information. Introductory information on the software, help topics and an "About" summary screen are available from the HELP menu. The HELP menu options call up the same windows obtained by pressing the Fi key at any of the menu screens: FAOSTAT TS displays the top-level help page. TOPICS lists the help contents. ABOUT shows summary program information. Opening a data file To display a list of FAOSTAT TS data files: Go to the FILE menu. Select OPEN. All of the FAOSTAT TS data files in the current directory are displayed. Initially, only SOFA01 will be present. Other FAOSTAT PC data files, version 3.0, can be used with FAOSTAT TS. Use the ARROW keys to highlight the file you wish to view and press ENTER to select it. Files are shown with the date of their last revision. You can also highlight your choice by typing the first letters of the file name. The current search string will appear in the lower left corner of the list. You can change the default data drive and directory from the file list by selecting the directory or drive of your choice. If a current data file is open, loading in a new file will return FAOSTAT TS to its defaults (time trend, no trend line, no user-specified units or scalar). Only one file can be loaded at a time. Once you have made a file selection, all the menu selections are activated. Selecting a data series Use the DATA menu to select or modify a data series or to fit a statistical trend. Select a data series by choosing the name of a country and a data element from scrolling menus. The first entry displays a list of country names, the second entry displays a list of data item names and the third displays a list of data element names. If you type the first letters of a name in a list, the menu selection bar will jump to the matching name. For example: Type NEW to skip to New Zealand. Press ENTER to select the highlighted name Displaying graphs and graph options The GRAPH menu allows you to view the data in chart form. You can display 291

312 time trends and table or column profiles. Options under the GRAPH menu change the data series shown as well as its display. For example, to show a plot of the data selected: - Go to the GRAPH menu. - Select DISPLAY. Many options to modify, save or print a graph are available only while the graph is on-screen. Remember to use the Fi help key for a reminder of your options. Graph action keys. You have several options when a graph is displayed: Press ESC to exit the graph and return to the main menu. Press Fi for help on the graph action keys. The help box lists the choices available while a graph is on-screen. You must exit the help box before making a selection. Press the ARROW and (n) PAGEUP, PAGEDOWN keys to change the series displayed. The plus key (+) allows you to add from one to three additional series to the one displayed. Press the MINUS key (-) to remove a series. To create a multiline chart: Display an initial series. Press the + key to add subsequent series to the chart, Press A to display a table of the axis data with statistics, Press T to show a table of the fitted trend data, the residuals and fit statistics (if a trend line is selected, see below). The INS key permits you to insert text directly on the graph. While inserting text, press Fi for help on your text options. You can type small or large, horizontal or vertical text. To print a graph, press P and select your choice of printer from the menu. The print output is only a screen dump of the display, so the quality is limited. To save a graph for later printing or viewing, press S. The graph image will be saved in the common PCX bitmap format. You can use the PRINTPCX program or other software to view or print multiple images later. PRINTPCX also permits you to convert colour PCX images into black and white images suitable for inclusion in a word processing document. Fitting trend lines To fit a statistical function to a data series, select FIT from the DATA menu. The options under FIT allow you to select the type of function, data year limits to include in the fit and a final projection year for a statistical forecast. By fitting a trend line (selecting the option under FIT) with a projection (selecting PROJECTION under FIT), a statistical forecast can be plotted. Use the + key to add a new data series to the graph, which can be made with only a few key strokes. Charting profiles The options under the GRAPH menu allow you to change the year span or style 292

313 of the graph display (options LIMITS and STYLE, respectively), or to switch from a time trend to a table or column data profile (VIEWPOINT). The VIEWPOINT option is an easy means to compare data for a particular year. Viewpoint If you want to change from a time series display to a country or item profile display for a given year, select VIEWPOINT from the GRAPH menu. Select DISPLAY from the GRAPH menu, and the profile will be drawn. The initial profile display is for the last year of historical data. To change the year, use the ARROW (n) keys. Press Fi for help. For a tables profile (profile of data across countries), you can either choose the tables to be displayed or let FAOSTAT TS select the top members and array them in order. A limit of 50 items can appear in one profile. By selecting TOP MEMBERS instead of SELECTED MEMBERS, FAOSTAT TS will sort the values in the file and display a ranking of table or column values. Viewing tables The TABLE menu allows you to look at data in a tabular format and to define subset tables that may be saved and imported into other software packages. Go to the TABLE menu. - Select BROWSE DATA to view individual data tables from the current file, When viewing tables, a help bar appears at the bottom of the screen. Press PAGEUP or PAGEDOWN to change the table displayed or press ALT+1 or ALT+2 to choose from a list of tables. Use the ARROW keys (Tsl,->) to scroll the columns and rows. Series data The SERIES DATA option under the TABLE menu displays the last data series selected, including summary statistics. This is the series used to plot a graph. To change the series, you must make a new choice from the DATA menu. The SERIES DATA screen can also be displayed while you are in a graph by pressing the letter A. If more than one series has been plotted, only the last series is shown. The range of years used for the series and statistics can be adjusted through the LIMITS option under the GRAPH menu. To view country or item profile lists and statistics, select VIEWPOINT from the GRAPH. You can quickly see a list of the tables with the greatest values (for example, countries with the highest commodity consumption) by choosing a table profile from VIEWPOINT and selecting the TOP MEMBERS option. Then select SERIES DATA from the TABLE menu to view the list, or select DISPLAY from the GRAPH menu to plot a chart. Trend data If the FIT option has been selected (from the DATA menu) for a time trend, 293

314 then the values composing the trend can be displayed with the TREND DATA option. Summary statistics for the original series and for the trend as well as residual values are included. The list scrolls with the ARROW keys, and you can toggle between the axis and trend data with the A and T keys. Exporting data The EXPORT option under the FILE menu allows you to export FAOSTAT TS data into other file formats or to create custom tables for viewing or printing. By selecting EXPORT, you will jump into another set of menus. To select the tables and columns you want to view or save, go to the DATA menu. You must mark your choice of options with the + key. To undo all your selections quickly, select RESET MARKS. To arrange, view, save or print data, go to the options under EXPORT (in the FILE menu): FAO TABLE creates a table with data from the last four available years. VIEW displays a temporary text file of the data selected. It is a convenient way to view a subset of the tables and columns in a FAOSTAT TS file and can also be used to see the effects of the ORIENTATION or LAYOUT selections before using the SAVE or PRINT option. SAVE displays a list of file formats to let you save your data choices in a file. You will be prompted for a file name. If you need to export FAOSTAT TS data for use with other software, use this menu item. The WK1 and DBF file format selections are not affected by the LAYOUT options (see below). PRINT prints your current table and column selections. Many printers cannot print more than five columns of FAOSTAT TS data. Select VIEW to check the table width before printing. LAYOUT allows you to display years across rows or down columns. The default direction is down columns. To get back to the main FAOSTAT TS menu or to clear your selections and create more tables, go the RETURN option. Making notes To read or edit textual information on the current data file, select NOTES from the FILE menu. You can also call up the Notes box by pressing ALT+N at any of the menus. The option NOTES allows you to read or edit text associated with the data file. DOS shell and exit The DOS SHELL option under the FILE menu returns you to the DOS prompt temporarily but keeps FAOSTAT TS in memory. This is not the normal way to exit the program. It is useful if you need to execute a DOS command and wouid like to return to the same data file. The data file itself is dropped from memory and reloaded on return, so default values will be in effect. 294

315 Exiting FAOSTAT IS To exit FAOSTAT TS: Go to the FILE menu. Select EXIT, The Alt+X or Alt+Q key combinations are short cuts to exit the program from almost any screen. 295

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