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1 Chapter 5 An Emerging g World Power Imperialism strong g nations extend their political, military, and economic control over weaker nations Causes of Imperialism Economic raw materials natural resources extractive economies new markets US overproduction Military protect interests around the world refueling stations Alfred Mahan The Influence of Sea Power Upon History 1900 US had world s 3 rd largest navy Social / Nationalist Social Darwinism US needed to keep up with Europe spread Christianity manifest destiny frontier was a safety valve Frederick Turner America s First Steps Toward World Power 1

2 Power in the Pacific Trade with Japan 1853 Com. Matthew Perry Japan opened trade 1867 Midway Islands annexed 1875, 1887 treaties with Hawaii trade naval base at Pearl Harbor Purchase of Alaska 1867 Sec. of State William Seward $7.2 million Seward s Folly, Seward s Icebox doubled size of US rich in natural resources Latin America Pan-American Conference 1889 economic cooperation Pan-American Highway System Venezuela Border Dispute 1895 Britain violated Monroe Doctrine resolved by arbitration US Acquires Hawaii Planters Increase Power US tariffs on sugar raised prices planters feared profit loss 1891 King Kalakaua died Queen Liliuokalani took over stripped power from white planters 1893 Sanford Dole led revolt Liliuokalani overthrown 2

3 US Annexes Hawaii President Harrison signed treaty of annexation Senate did not approve treaty President Cleveland Hawaiians did not support annexation apologized for US actions President McKinley favored annexation (1898) Spanish-American War Section 2 Spanish-American War Causes of War Cuban Rebellion US investments in sugar 1895 Jose Marti started rebellion guerrilla warfare Gen. Weyler The Butcher reconcentration camps 200,000 died US property destroyed Yellow Journalism Yellow Press The Yellow Kid exaggerated stories to sell papers 3

4 William Randolph Hearst New York Journal Joseph Pulitzer New York World February 1898 de Lome Letter called McKinley weak and stupid Hearst t published letter in the Journal jingoism aggressive nationalism USS Maine Explosion McKinley sent USS Maine to Havana protect Americans Feb. 15, 1898 Maine exploded 266 Americans died 4

5 US Goes to War McKinley investigation said cause was a mine 1976 investigation fire near munitions bunker Remember the Maine Spain s concessions too late April 19 Congress passed 4 resolutions Teller Amendment US would not annex Cuba Philippines Spanish-American War Comm. George Dewey May 1 defeated Spanish fleet 400 Spaniards died, d 1 American died d Emilio Aguinaldo Filipino rebels 11,000 US troops assisted Spain surrendered in August Cuba June 1898 US troops landed staging in Tampa, FL captured Guantanamo Bay Problems for Troops poorly trained and supplied out of date weapons wool uniforms rotting, contaminated food 5

6 Rough Riders Rough Riders Theodore Roosevelt July 1, 1898 San Juan Hill Kettle Hill assisted by blacks from 9 th and 10 th Cavalry Spain Surrenders July 3 Navy s escape failed US troops also took control of Puerto Rico 3000 deaths US Casualties only 380 in combat rest tdi died d of fdi disease, food poisoning i yellow fever malaria Effects of War Sec. of State John Hay splendid little war Treaty of Paris December 1898 Spain gave up Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam US paid $20 million for Philippines Philippines McKinley y Filipinos not able to govern themselves US would educate and civilize 6

7 America s New Role American Anti-Imperialist League William Jennings Bryan Mark Twain violation of principles of government Treaty of Paris vote 57 to 27 passed by ONE vote! Election of 1900 McKinley chose war hero Roosevelt as running mate won election US now had an empire and new status in world affairs Section 3 The United States and East Asia How did the United States extend its influence in Asia? Guerrilla War in Philippines Filipinos Rebel Emilio Aguinaldo led insurrection against the US believed in self-rule 7

8 Warfare Against US US outmanned, overpowered the Filipinos guerrilla warfare US used concentration camps insurgents tortured and killed End of the War Aguinaldo captured in 1901 US 5000 dead Filipinos 20,000 dead US 100,000 troops $150,000 million William H. Taft - Governor Reforms lead to Self-Rule 1901 censored the press arrested t d rebels limited self-rule built schools, roads, bridges 1916 Jones Act promised independence for Philippines 30 years later 1946 after US liberated Philippines from Japan during World War II US Pursues Interests in China 8

9 Spheres of Influence Britain, France, Germany, Russia full access to China ports, markets US did NOT have any spheres US Demands Equal Trade Open Door Policy Sec. of State John Hay Open Door Note US demanded equal opportunities for trade in China Boxer Rebellion Boxers martial arts celebrated Chinese customs criticized Western ways rebelled against foreign devils May 1900 Rebellion began killed foreign missionaries seized diplomatic district in Beijing US, European, Japanese forces 20,000 soldiers (2000 Americans) indemnity payments angered Chinese nationalists Open Door Policy Reaffirmed US preserve Chinese territorial rights US wanted free trade in China US indemnity money used for scholarships for Chinese students Tensions Rise between US and Japan 9

10 Russo-Japanese War (1904) Japan upset by Russian troops in Manchuria Japan attacked Russia over 100,000 Russian casualties Roosevelt wins Prize Nobel Peace Prize helped negotiate end to war in 1905 Portsmouth, New Hampshire Anti-Asian Asian Prejudice West Coast 1906 San Francisco School Board banned Asian children infuriated Japan Theodore Roosevelt Gentlemen s Agreement Great White Fleet new force of navy ships 1907 Roosevelt sent force on a good will cruise around the world 16 new battleships demonstrated America s new military power Section 4 The United States and Latin America What actions did the United States take to achieve its goals in Latin America? 10

11 Puerto Rico 1900 Foraker Act US President to appoint gov t leaders Rights of Puerto Ricans? Supreme Court rulings did not have same rights as Americans 1917 Puerto Ricans given more citizenship rights Still not equal to Americans Cuba US stayed until 1902 helped rebuild nation s economy Platt Amendment Cuba no treaties US access to 2 naval bases US can intervene Big Stick Diplomacy Theodore Roosevelt speak softly and carry a big stick use force to deal with foreign nations Panama Canal Need for a canal French began project concession from Colombia wanted to sell to US - $40 million Colombia REJECTED sale! Panama Revolts TR sent warships to Panama Panama revolted Colombia did not resist Panama now independent 11

12 Canal Zone 10 mile wide strip $10 million to Panama $250,000 annually US Builds Canal 35,000 workers from 95 nations diseases eliminated mosquito problem 5000 died Panama Canal 1904 Roosevelt Corollary US to serve as police in Latin America prevent Europe from interfering Latin America resentful Taft s Policies Open Door Policy in Asia stability y in Latin America Dollar Diplomacy dollars for bullets invest money in foreign nations Wilson s Foreign Policy moral diplomacy promote human rights and opportunity opposed TR and Taft s policies Wilson uses Force 1915 Haiti protect US investments US took over financial affairs Dominican Republic Mexico 12

13 Mexican Revolution Dictator Diaz overthrown Victoriano Huerta took over gov t of butchers Wilson favored Venustiano Carranza Huerta Wilson sends Troops 1914 US sailors arrested troops sent to Vera Cruz Carranza takes over revolt by Francisco Pancho Villa Pancho Villa Dispute Intensifies 1916 US withdrew support Villa killed 18 Americans in NM John Pershing 10,000 troops failed to capture Villa Pershing US pulled out of Mexico in 1917: World War I US now emerged as a WORLD POWER! 13

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