Chapter 15, Section 5. Turning the tide of the War

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1 Chapter 15, Section 5 Turning the tide of the War

2 Battles General Battles Result Ambrose Burnside Fredericksburg (C/S) The Union suffered 13,000 losses Joseph Hooker Chancellorsville (C/S) Union force was smashed, Stonewall Jackson died

3 Battles General Battles Results George Meade Ulysses Grant Gettysburg (N/U) major turning point of war Vicksburg (N/U) another turning point of war Union victory that forced Lee out of the North and cost Lee nearly a third of his soldiers-over 28,000, who could not be replaced; Union casualties were more than 23,000. City is captured by the Union, and the North now controls all of the Mississippi River. Union now has upper hand in war.

4 Battles General Battles Results Ulysses Grant William Sherman Petersburg (N/U) Atlanta (N/U) Lee s army is trapped The city of Atlanta is captured. William Sherman Ulysses Grant March to the Sea (N/U) Richmond (N/U) The South s people and land are devastated by total war. Confederate national capital is taken and Lee is forced to surrender his army.

5 The End of the War Lincoln looked ahead to victory in a speech in 1863 called, The Gettysburg Address. The capture of Atlanta gave Lincoln a victory in the presidential election.

6 **Grant headed for Richmond - series of costly battles -Lee dug in at Petersburg, near Richmond -after 9 months Grant took Petersburg & Richmond Lee s surrender at Appomattox Court House on April 9, 1865 bringing an end to the Civil War. -Soldiers had to turn over rifles, but kept horses -Officers kept their pistols -Grant ordered Union troops to stop cheering because, The war is over. The rebels are our countrymen again. (know this quote)

7 Key results of the Civil War Number of Union soldiers killed in the Civil War: 360,000 Number of Confederate soldiers killed in the Civil War: 260,000 Key Results of the Civil War It reunited the nation. It put an end to slavery.

8 Chapter 15 Final Study Guide

9 People Lincoln: His main goal was to restore the Union. Effects of the Emancipation Proclamation: People changed the war into a struggle for freedom. Dashed hopes that Britain would help the South.

10 Leadership (Presidents) Qualities Abraham Lincoln Jefferson Davis *President of the *President of Union Confederacy - was a good leader - went to West Point - a good war planner - served as Sec. of War - accepted criticism - widely respected

11 Military Leaders George McClellan Commander of Union troops at start of war; very cautious; fired by Lincoln Ulysses S. Grant Commander of Union troops after McClellan is fired by Lincoln; accepted Lee s surrender Robert E. Lee Commander of Confederate troops Did not want to fight against Union did to protect his home state.

12 Key Points to Know First Battle of Bull Run: (won by South) Established that the war would not end quickly; would be a long and costly struggle More men were killed by disease than battle Total War civilians suffer same hardships as soldiers. Destroy everything useful to war.

13 Cause and Effect A cause is something that makes something else happen. Out of two events, it is the event that happens first. To determine the cause, ask the question "Why Did it Happen?" An effect is what happens as a result of the cause. Of two related events, it s the one that happens second or last. To determine the effect, ask the question "What Happened?"

14 African Americans served in the army and navy as: - soldiers (not until 1863 and only in segregated units) - cooks - wagon drivers - hospital aides

15 How Women Participated - disguised themselves as men to fight as soldiers. - served as spies - work in factories - operated farms and businesses - Clara Barton nursed on the battlefields and started American Red Cross

16 Places Border states: The Union s control over these states helped the Union war effort. Know all four at the start of the war can add W. Virg. First Battle of Bull Run: Established that the war would not end quickly, would be long, costly, and bloody; neither side was prepared for war

17 Places Shiloh: Helped the Union control western Tennessee Antietam: Was the bloodiest day of the Civil War Union claims this as a victory; Lincoln used this battle to issue Emancipation Proclamation

18 Gettysburg: Places Lee s army escaped, but suffered 28,000 casualties; losses could not be replaced considered turning point because of loss of human life. Vicksburg: (turning point) led to Union control of the Mississippi R. Battles in northern Virginia/Petersburg: Grant trapped Lee soldiers and supplies ran low.

19 Economic challenges In the North: Congress levied the first income tax to pay war costs. Increased currency supply led to inflation and higher prices In the South: soaring costs food shortages High inflation Also charged income tax

20 Disruptions/Divisions North People opposed to war caused trouble copperheads Peace protests Wealthy bought their way out lead to riots South People were opposed to war Were more interested in states rights Poor people had to fight rich man s war Both Lincoln and Davis suspended habeas corpus to control disruptions and riots.

21 Things Ironclads: protected from cannon fire used against Union naval blockade used to help Union gain control of the Mississippi

22 Things Railroads: The North had many more miles of railroad tracks than the South Manufacturing: The North s capabilities were much greater than the South s

23 Things New Rifles and cannons were deadlier than earlier weapons: More accurate Had a longer range Faster to reload

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