Becoming a World Power. The Imperialist Vision. Imperialism (cont) Americans wanted to develop overseas markets

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1 Becoming a World Power The Imperialist Vision Imperialism economic and political domination of a strong nation over a weaker one Became popular with countries in Europe Imperialism (cont) Protectorates countries under the guidance and guardianship of an imperial power New sources of raw materials New trade markets Advantages over rivals Imperialism (cont) Americans wanted to develop overseas markets Make money & keep economy strong Social Darwinists believed that nations were also competing and only the strongest would survive 1

2 Imperialism (cont) Captain Alfred T. Mahan published The Influence of Seapower Upon History, A large navy was essential to protect trade Overseas territory was necessary for naval bases Imperialism (cont) The United States had an interest in Hawaiian sugar industry Strips the king of much of his power U.S. builds naval base at Pearl Harbor Imperialism (cont) Queen Liliuokalani comes into power in 1891 Tries to restore power to her throne American planters resist and depose her Sanford B. Dole heads new government Petition to be let into the U.S. Became a U.S. territory in 1900 The Spanish-American War Cuba was a Spanish colony which mainly exported sugar 1868 Cuban rebels attempted to gain their independence but failed Cuba José Martí writer, poet & leader of the Cuban revolution Attempted to raise money and support for Cuba s independence 1895 Martí starts a second, more successful rebellion Gains control of eastern Cuba 2

3 Yellow Journalism sensational, biased, and often false reporting for the sake of attracting readers U.S. newspapers began to influence American opinion about Cuba Enrique Dupuy de Lôme Spanish ambassador to the US, wrote a letter describing President McKinley as weak New York Journal printed the letter Americans become angered 1898 U.S.S. Maine, mysteriously explodes 266 American sailors are killed Americans blame Spain The U.S. fights the war on two fronts: April 1898 US navy blockades Cuba May 1898 US navy, led by Commodore George Dewey, attacks Spanish fleet in Battle of Manila Bay in the Philippines 3

4 US army was poorly trained and equipped More died from disease and mishaps than battle One fourth of the soldiers fighting in Cuba were African American June 1898 American troops advance toward Santiago in Cuba Battle of San Juan Hill Charge of the Rough Riders, led by Colonel Leonard Wood and Theodore Roosevelt August 1898 Spain surrenders In any moment of decision, the best thing you can do is the right thing. The worst thing you can do is nothing 4

5 Treaty of Paris (Dec. 10, 1898) Cuba gains independence, U.S. gets Puerto Rico, Guam, and Philippines U.S. paid $20 mil for Philippines The linked image cannot be displayed. The file may have been moved, renamed, or deleted. Verify that the link points to the correct file and location. The Philippines Emilio Aguinaldo s troops attacked American soldiers America set up reconcentration camps to separate guerrillas from civilians Thousands died from disease and starvation William Taft introduced reforms in education, transportation, and health care Hostilities stopped by 1902 Puerto Rico Foraker Act (1900) makes Puerto Rico an unincorporated territory 1917, Puerto Ricans were made citizens of the U.S. 1947, Puerto Rico was allowed to elect its own governor Cuba The Platt Amendment to the Cuban Constitution specified: could not make a treaties U.S. can buy or lease naval stations debts had to be kept low U.S. allowed to protect Cuban independence and keep order Influence in China 1894 Japan and China went to war over control of Korea Japan won and gained Manchuria War proved that: China was weak Japan had successfully adopted western technology China (cont) Russia, worried about Japan s rising power, forced Japan to give Manchuria back to China Sphere of influence an area owned by one country but controlled by another foreign power 5

6 China (cont) Open Door Policy all countries should be allowed to trade with China America sent notes to all countries with influence in China, asking them to keep ports open to all nations China (cont) America as a World Power Boxer Rebellion a secret Chinese group tried to end foreign control in China More than 200 foreigners were killed or taken prisoner An international force stopped the rebellion in 1900 Sept. 6, 1901 McKinley is shot and killed Theodore Roosevelt is the youngest person to become president Wanted the U.S. to become a world power Duty to shape the less civilized parts of the world Russo-Japanese War Roosevelt negotiated peace and won Nobel Prize in 1906 Relations between Japan and US worsened, they both wanted influence in China Both agreed to uphold Open Door Policy Speak softly and carry a big stick; you will go far. 6

7 The Great White Fleet Roosevelt sent 16 U.S. battleships to sail around the world as a show of the country s military might Did not help relations with Japan Hay-Pauncefote Treaty (1901) gave U.S. exclusive rights to build and control a proposed canal through Central America 1903 Panama declares independence from Columbia Supported by America Construction on the Panama Canal began in 1904 and took 10 years to complete 50 miles long 27,500 workers died during construction Shortened distance from Atlantic to Pacific Ocean by 8,000 miles 7

8 Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine U.S. would intervene in Latin American affairs when necessary to maintain stability in the Western Hemisphere First applied to Dominican republic Latin America resented America s growing influence Dollar Diplomacy Taft believed if American business leaders supported Latin American and Asian development, everyone would benefit Increase trade American businesses increase profits Latin American countries would rise out of poverty and social disorder 8

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