Essential Question: What was the impact of European imperialism in Africa and India?

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1 Essential Question: What was the impact of European imperialism in Africa and India?

2 Unit X Quiz 2 1. When did the Suez Canal open? 2. Why was it initially difficult for European powers to control their empires? 3. What was the British Raj? 4. How did Europeans adapt their lifestyles to tropical regions? 5. What was the Indian practice of sati? What happened to the practice under British rule?

3

4 From 1880 to 1914 European nations used imperialism to dominate the continent of Africa

5 The arrival of Europeans The changed Industrial Africa Revolution Before Europeans, During the Africa Age of Exploration, led to imperialism in was divided Europeans into tribal explored clans the Africa African in the coast mid-1800s and brought African slaves to their colonies in America and powerful Islamic kingdoms

6 In the 1870s, the discoveries of a missionary named David Livingstone increased European interest in Africa Reports of large deposits of natural resources & the rise of nationalism in Europe set off a race for African colonies Social Darwinism, steamboats, & industrial weapons encouraged the conquest of Africa The first Europeans to explore the interior of Africa were missionaries & explorers

7 The race for African colonies was so fierce that Europeans became afraid wars would break out In 1884, 14 nations Any Quick nation class could discussion: claim met at the Congress of What land in kind Africa of rules by notifying do you Berlin to set the rules think other they nations came & up showing with? for colonizing in Africa it could control the area No African nations were invited to attend; No concern was given to ethnic divisions in Africa

8 By 1914, Europeans controlled 90% of Africa France took most of west Africa Belgium claimed the Congo in central Africa Germany had many colonies throughout Africa These nations used African colonies to gain diamonds, tin, gold, rubber & built cash-crop plantations

9 The most dominant imperial power in Africa was Great Britain England South Africa Egypt British industry fueled demand for raw materials Britain claimed colonies in Egypt & in East Africa India In 1882, Britain seized control of the Suez Canal from a French company Britain seized control of South Africa from the Dutch Many citizens in England dreamed of a British colony from Capetown to Cairo

10 The most important empire-builder in Africa was British businessman, Cecil Rhodes His DeBeers Company created diamond mines in South Africa Rhodes gained new colonies for Britain in southern Africa Rhodes used his wealth to build railroads & telegraph lines in Africa

11 What was the impact of European imperialism in Africa? Europeans introduced new technologies like railroads, telegraph lines, & steamboats Europeans brought an end to the slave trade but transportation routes only connected areas that benefited European businessmen but Africans were paid low wages & exploited

12 What was the impact of European imperialism in Africa? but Africans were taught European culture Europeans profited off Africa s raw materials & Europeans built schools, churches, & hospitals cheap African labor Africans were unable to rule themselves, participate in voting, or learn professional skills In South Africa, the British segregated society called apartheid which remained in place for over 100 years

13 Africans rebelled against European rule, but were defeated due to advanced European weaponry

14 Africa remained under the control of European imperialists from the 1880s until the 1950s & 1960s

15 Essential Question: What was the impact of British imperialism in India?

16 During the Age of Imperialism from 1850 to 1914, Europeans dominated Africa & Asia During this era, no nation could match the industrial, military, or colonial power of Britain

17 Britain had so many colonies that it was said that the sun never set on the British Empire Among all of Britain s colonies, the most valuable was India How did India become the brightest jewel in the crown?

18 After Vasco da Gama s discovery of a water route to India in 1498, European trade with India increased In the 1600s, Europeans gained a foothold in the Indian Ocean trade

19 The British East India Company was formed to trade exotic Asian goods in Europe & America The East India Company set up trade posts in major port cities in India By 1700, India s Mughal Empire was in decline & small states ruled by a maharajah were formed Conflicts between Hindus & Muslims further weakened India The East India Co gained more control of India

20 The East India Company made huge profits creating plantations to harvest tea, coffee, cotton, & opium Raw materials like cotton helped fuel Britain s industrial revolution Opium was refined in India & smuggled into China; Opium addition helped the British gain access to Chinese trade The East India Company sold cheap, British-made textiles to Indian people

21 From 1750 to 1850, the British East India Co ruled most of India with little interference from Britain To protect their trade & territories, British officials hired Indian soldiers called sepoys

22 Execution of sepoys By the 1850s, Indian resentment for the British was growing In 1857, rumors spread that sepoy gun cartridges supplied by the British by were greased with pork & beef fat Hindu & Muslim sepoys were outraged & rebelled against the British The Sepoy Mutiny lasted over 1 year; The British gov t had to send troops to help the East India Co

23 The Sepoy Mutiny was a turning point in Indian history British Queen Victoria assumed the title of Empress of India In 1858, the British gov t took control from the East India Company & ruled India directly; British rule was called the Raj & lasted until 1947 The British government made important improvements in India including railroads, telegraph & telephone lines, roads, canals, dams, bridges Britain also built schools, hospitals, irrigation projects, & medical improvements

24 British rule hurt the native Indian economy, further divided social classes, increased hostility between Muslims & Hindus The British emphasis on cash-crop plantations led to food shortages & famine in India (7 million Indians died due to starvation in 1876)

25 India was not the only European colony in Southeast Asia The Dutch East India Co gained control of the East Indies in the 1600s The Dutch profited from rubber, tin, oil resources & cash-crop plantations

26 India was not the only European colony in Southeast Asia In the 1840s, France seized control of Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia in Indochina The French profited from rice plantations

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