GEORGIA AMERICAN REVOLUTION

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1 GEORGIA in the AMERICAN REVOLUTION

2 AMERICA HEADS TOWARD INDEPENDENCE: Until 1763, independence was unthinkable!!! Great Britain was the greatest, most powerful nation on earth, and the American colonists were proud to an important part of the British Empire but in a little over 10 years, the Americans went from being proud British subjects to fighting the mother country in an all-out War for Independence!!! Note: In 1707, the Kingdoms of England and Scotland united to form Great Britain.

3 AMERICA HEADS TOWARD INDEPENDENCE: HOW DID THIS HAPPEN???

4 Lesson One (SS8H3a) The student will explain the immediate and long-term causes of the LONG-TERM CAUSES OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION: 1. The French & Indian War

5 LONG-TERM CAUSES OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION: 1. The French & Indian War With Spain no longer a major threat, France emerged as the greatest rival to Great Britain By 1756, France and Britain had built huge empires in North America and were competing to become the strongest world power.

6

7 LONG-TERM CAUSES OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION: 1. The French & Indian War War (called The Seven Years War in Europe) broke out between the two nations over disputed lands in the Ohio River Valley

8 LONG-TERM CAUSES OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION: 1. The French & Indian War Both sides had important allies in the fight Algonquin Indians Spain Iroquois & Creek Indians American Colonies

9 LONG-TERM CAUSES OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION: 1. The French & Indian War The war was extremely brutal (Indians would attack civilian settlements and often murder entire families, including infants, using a tactic known as scalping) Fortunately, the fight never reached Georgia in the deep south.

10 LONG-TERM CAUSES OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION: 1. The French & Indian War By 1763, Britain had defeated France and her allies, and had forced France to sign the Treaty of Paris of According to the peace treaty: - France gave up all of its colonies in North America - Spain was forced to give La Florida to Britain but was granted most of France s territory west of the Mississippi River.

11 LONG-TERM CAUSES OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION: 1. The French & Indian War BEFORE 1763 AFTER 1763

12 LONG-TERM CAUSES OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION: 1. The French & Indian War The Treaty of Paris of 1763 impacted Georgia in two important ways: - It removed the Spanish threat to Georgia from La Florida - It changed Georgia s western border from the Pacific Ocean to the Mississippi River

13 LONG-TERM CAUSES OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION: 1. The French & Indian War The war, though it was a great victory, presented Great Britain with two major, unforeseen problems: - The British were going to have to defend the colonies from hostile Indians west of the Appalachians who had been allies of the French or had been promised land by the British. - The war was extremely expensive, and Great Britain was left with a tremendous national debt

14 What do you remember about the French and Indian War??? 1. Spain was England s biggest rival for dominance in North America. 2. All of the Indians sided with France during the French & Indian War. 3. Florida became English territory as a result of the French & Indian War. 4. France won the French & Indian War. 5. The treaty ending the war was the Treaty of Paris of In Europe, the French & Indian War was called the Ten Years War. 7. The British allowed France to keep some of its North American colonies. 8. At the end of the French & Indian War, Britain paid off all of the national debt.

15 LONG-TERM CAUSES OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION: 2. The Proclamation of 1763 The new King of England, King George III, wanted to avoid conflict with Indians west of Appalachians, and wanted to build up colonial settlements east of the Appalachians.

16 LONG-TERM CAUSES OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION: 2. The Proclamation of 1763 Even though many colonists had hoped to move west after the French were removed, King George III prohibited any colonist from moving beyond the Proclamation Line.

17 LONG-TERM CAUSES OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION: 2. The Proclamation of 1763 Many of the colonists felt cheated and were angry. For the first time, Americans began openly expressing displeasure with Great Britain.

18 LONG-TERM CAUSES OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION: 3. The Stamp Act King George III felt that the French & Indian War had been fought to protect the American colonies. He believed, therefore, that the colonies should pay taxes to help pay off the war debt. The American colonists had no representatives in the British legislature, Parliament. Because they were not represented, they believed that they could not be legally taxed!!!

19 LONG-TERM CAUSES OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION: 3. The Stamp Act In 1765, Britain passed The Stamp Act, a tax on paper goods that required colonists to buy government stamps for nearly all paper goods (newspapers, books, playing cards, etc.). THE STAMP ACT CAUSED THE FIRST MAJOR, WIDESPREAD PROTESTS AGAINST BRITISH RULE!!!

20 LONG-TERM CAUSES OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION: 3. The Stamp Act

21 LONG-TERM CAUSES OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION: 3. The Stamp Act By the early 1770s, the American Colonists began to demonstrate a greater willingness to rebel: - In 1770, a mob of angry colonists in Boston taunted and threatened to attack a small unit of British soldiers. The soldiers fired into the mob and killed five colonists. The event was called the Boston Massacre.

22 LONG-TERM CAUSES OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION: 3. The Stamp Act By the early 1770s, the American Colonists began to demonstrate a greater willingness to rebel: - In December 1773, several colonists protested a British tax on tea by dumping nearly 350 chests of tea (thousands of dollars worth) into Boston Harbor. This event was called the Boston Tea Party.

23 SHORT-TERM CAUSES OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION: 1. The Intolerable Acts King George III was outraged at the citizens of Boston for the Boston Tea Party. In order to punish the colony of Massachusetts, a series of laws called the Coercive Acts were passed. THE LAWS WERE SO HARSH THAT THE COLONISTS FELT THEY WERE INTOLERABLE.

24 SHORT-TERM CAUSES OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION: 1. The Intolerable Acts a) The Boston Port Act closed the port of Boston to trade b) The Impartial Administration of Justice Act stated that trials for British officials would be moved out of Massachusetts to another colony or to England c) The Massachusetts Government Act took away the colony s charter and prohibited town meetings d) The Quartering Act required colonists to provide housing for British soldiers without compensation

25 SHORT-TERM CAUSES OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION: Many of the colonies felt great sympathy for Massachusetts and felt it was time to act. Representatives from the colonies met in Philadelphia in 1774 to come up with a response to the Intolerable Acts. This meeting was the First Continental Congress. The only colony not to participate was Georgia 2. The First Continental Congress

26 SHORT-TERM CAUSES OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION: 2. The First Continental Congress Of all 13 colonies, Georgia was the most loyal to the King of England - Georgia, founded in 1732, was the youngest colony and was, therefore, the most dependent for protection from Indians. - Under royal control, Georgia prospered and became extremely wealthy. - Georgia s Royal Governor, Sir James Wright, was extremely popular with the colonists.

27 SHORT-TERM CAUSES OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION: 3. The Declaration of Independence On April 19, 1775, fighting broke out between British soldiers and the colonists at the Battles of Lexington and Concord.

28 SHORT-TERM CAUSES OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION: 3. The Declaration of Independence The Americans, fearing that the British planned on using force to oppress the colonies, agreed to meet again to consider declaring independence!!! The Second Continental Congress met in Philadelphia in 1775.

29 SHORT-TERM CAUSES OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION: 3. The Declaration of Independence Even Georgia was growing angry. Georgia s only newspaper, The Georgia Gazette, had become highly critical of King George III. A group opposing England, the Sons of Liberty, established a chapter at Tondee s Tavern in Savannah to protest British policies.

30 SHORT-TERM CAUSES OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION: 3. The Declaration of Independence On July 4, 1776, the Second Continental Congress adopted the Declaration Written mainly by Thomas Jefferson, the document was a list of abuses by King George III against the colonists. The Declaration declared that the colonies were free from British rule and were now 13 separate, independent countries!!! Representatives from all 13 colonies signed the Declaration. Georgia s signers were Button Gwinnett, Lyman Hall, and George Walton.

31 SHORT-TERM CAUSES OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION: 3. The Declaration of Independence Anti-British forces managed to take control of Savannah and force representatives of the British government to leave. Even the popular and respected Royal Governor, Sir James Wright, was arrested, but he managed to escape to a British ship off the coast of Georgia.

32 SHORT-TERM CAUSES OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION:

33 What do you remember about the causes of the American Revolution??? Place the Events in Chronological Order The Boston Massacre leaves five men dead. The French and Indian War takes place in North America. The Stamp Act is passed. Colonists dump tea into Boston Harbor. The Proclamation of 1763 keeps colonists from moving west of the Appalachians.

34 What do you remember about the causes of the American Revolution??? What basic fundamental right was denied by each of the Intolerable Acts? 1. Boston Port Act (A) right to free trade (B) right to speak freely (C) right to vote 2. Massachusetts Government Act (A) right to vote (B) right to meet together (C) right to free trade 3. Quartering Act (A) right to speak freely (B) right to privacy (C) right to vote 4. Impartial Administration of Justice Act (A) right to put (B) right to speak freely (C) right to a lawyer criminals on trial

35 What do you remember about the causes of the American Revolution??? 1. Author of the Declaration of Independence A. Redcoats 2. Georgia signer of the Declaration B. 2 nd Continental Congress 3. King of England C. Tondee s Tavern 4. First battle of the American Revolution D. Thomas Jefferson 5. Group that adopted the Declaration E. Button Gwinnett 6. Meeting of place of Georgia s Sons of Liberty F. Georgia Gazette 7. Georgia s colonial newspaper G. George III 8. Colorful name given to British soldiers H. Lexington & Concord

36 Acknowledgements Hodge, Cathy M. Time Travel Through Georgia. Athens, GA: WesMar Incorporated DBA/Voyager Publications, Jackson, Edwin L., Mary E. Stakes, Lawrence R. Hepburn, Mary A. Hepburn. The Georgia Studies Book: Our State and the Nation. Athens, GA: Carl Vinson Institute of Government, Marsh, Carol. The Georgia Experience: 8 th Grade Social Studies Teacher s Edition Student Workbook. Peachtree City, GA: Gallopade International, Schemmel, William. Georgia Curiosities (2 nd edition). Guilford, CT: Globe Pequot, 2003.

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