Part I America Becomes an Imperial Power

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1 Chapter 20 Theodore Roosevelt And Progressive Reform Part I America Becomes an Imperial Power The Monroe Doctrine 1823 President Monroe signs document which is meant to end imperialism in the Western Hemisphere. George Washington had warned against American becoming involved with any foreign entanglements. It will be cited to threaten European Powers from re-establishing colonies in the New World. The Monroe Doctrine Put to Work France tries to re-establish North American colony in Mexico U.S. angry over England s support of Confederacy but England doesn t get involved Newspapers inciting war with Spain in 1898 cite Monroe Doctrine Spain already had the colonies when doctrine was written. Dealing with Communism President Kennedy will cite the Monroe Doctrine as part of the rationale for opposing the installation of Russian missiles in Cuba. It will be cited as part of the reason that America is fighting the spread of Communism in Central and South America. Slowly Building an Empire (Chronology Part I) 1867: French troops leave Mexico 1867: Senate rejects purchase of Danish West Indies (Virgin Islands) 1867: U.S. buys Alaska from Russia 1870: Senate rejects annexation of Santo Domingo 1877: Reconstruction Ends. Chronology Part II 1877: Lewis Henry Morgan writes Ancient Society- a racist view of history 1882: Congress authorizes construction of modern navy 1882: Chinese Exclusion Act 1882: U.S. Navy opens trade with Korea 1885: Josiah Strong writes Our Country.

2 Chronology Part III 1887: Outsiders force a constitution on the Hawaiian monarchy 1887: U.S. Navy receives exclusive use of Pearl Harbor 1887: Dawes Severalty Act passed 1889: First Samoa Treaty forced on Samoans. Chapter 20...p. 2 Samoan Chief Not every country that the United States took over during the end of the 19th and start of the 20th centuries resisted. Chronology Part IV 1890: Alfred Thayer Mahan writes Influence of Sea Power upon History, : Significant increase in naval appropriations 1890: McKinley Tariff 1891: Lilioukanlani becomes Queen of Hawaii 1891: President threatens war with Chile. Chronology Part V 1893: Hawaiian Queen deposed by American army : Venezuelan boundary crisis 1896: Re-concentration policy in Cuba 1896: Philippines fight for independence 1896: McKinley elected President 1898: Spanish-American war. Chronology Part VI 1890: U.S. annexes Hawaii 1899: Senate debates imperialism 1899: Treaty of Paris ratified ending war with Spain Treaty of Berlin divides Samoa : Philippine war for independence ends with surrender of rebels. The American Imperialist Pattern First Missionaries arrive to introduce American versions of Protestant religions Followed by people promoting American business interests Often the children or relatives of the missionaries American business interests see their investments more important than the country U.S. military arrives to protect business interests. American schools rarely teach this aspect of American history. Samoan Women Though some people accepted domination by America willingly they did not anticipate the loss of culture which often followed contact.

3 The Progressive Era Chapter 20...p. 3 President McKinley Assassinated President visiting the Exposition in Buffalo Killed by an assassin Assassin claims to be anarchist Theodore Roosevelt becomes president at 43 Youngest person to ever be president Assassin comes from same word as hashish because assassins used drugs to gain courage to kill, and ultimately die in doing so. President Theodore Roosevelt Youngest person ever to become President-- dynamic, eloquent and opinionated. The need to respond to wrongs produces reform Organized labor s successes lead others to organize A shared optimism in American values Immigrants believed what they were told Western farmers always purists in beliefs When frontier closes there impetus to reform. Cities Become Unlivable Separated from support offered in home communities the poor are left to fend for themselves. Women become politically powerful Many reforms reflect woman s values Less will to accept the status quo Women s opposition to alcohol gains momentum Prostitution illegality enforced Exploited women Competed for attention of men Neglect of families. Race issues not part of Progressive reforms Most reforms were self-serving Lynching still prevalent Niagara Movement formed to address wrongs NAACP formed

4 W.E.B. DuBois advocates Black rights. Booker T. Washington wants accommodation. Chapter 20...p. 4 The Election of 1904 TR wins easily TR announces in 1904 he wouldn t serve another term Democrats disorganized TR very popular with everyone Post assassination consensus. TR was a War Hero President Roosevelt had served in a volunteer unit during the Spanish-American War. A New Wave of Immigrants Socialism arrives with immigrants Community and family support in southern and eastern Europe different than that of English cultures. Sense of community support combines with belief of responsibility to the community This becomes base to advocate Socialism. The Yellow Press Also called Muckrakers The Jungle-Exposes the unsanitary practices in the meat packing and slaughterhouses. Journalists expose corruption and greed Investigative reporting replaces mere solicitation of quotes Some overstep with sensationalized accounts. The Election of 1908 TR regrets he had said he wouldn t run He kept his word Hand picks a member of his cabinet to succeed him Former governor of the Philippines William Howard Taft Democrats split and name conservative as candidate. William Howard Taft Starts out hand picked by TR as his successor but then shows himself too conservative for TR s taste.

5 Chapter 20...p. 5 Reforming City Governments The children of immigrants unite with reformers Reforming State Governments Primaries replace closed sessions among politicians. Wisconsin becomes model for reform Roosevelt s political personality dominates politics. New Amendments to the Constitution Sixteenth Amendment--grants the federal government the right to levy income taxes-- establishes progressive income tax. A response to excessive wealth Seventeenth Amendment--Allows for the direct election of U.S. Senators. Only the Electoral College remains as a block to direct election of officials. Progressives called Bull Moose The Progressive Party became known as the Bull Moose party because of TR s reputation. The Election of 1912 Democrats turn to Woodrow Wilson He represents both wings of the Democratic Party. Born in Virginia, with a Virginia accent, he got support of Southerners Former president of Princeton University & Governor of New Jersey pleased progressives and urban Democrats. President Woodrow Wilson Born in Virginia this Governor of New Jersey would please both southern and urban Democrats.

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