Chapter 2, Section 4: Launching the New Nation

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1 Chapter 2, Section 4: Launching the New Nation With George Washington the first president, the United States begins creating a working government for its new nation. Opening Activity: In a paragraph discuss how you would handle disputes with friends. How would you handle disputes with strangers? How do you think the United States should handle disputes with other countries today? CA Social Science Content Standards:

2 Taking Notes Directions: In the chart below, list the leaders, beliefs, and goals of the country s first political parties. Federalists Democratic-Republicans Define the following terms: Judiciary Act of 1789 two-party system XYZ Affair Alexander Hamilton Democratic-Republican Alien & Sedition Acts cabinet protective tariff nullification

3 I. Washington Heads the New Government A. Judiciary Act of Judiciary Act of 1789 federal courts are superior to state courts.

4 B. Washington Shapes the Executive Branch -Congress creates three executive department to help president govern. -Thomas Jefferson heads Department of State, foreign affairs. -Henry Knox heads Department of War, military matters. -Alexander Hamilton heads Department of Treasury, finances. -Cabinet these department heads become president s chief advisors.

5 C. Hamilton and Jefferson: Two Conflicting Visions -Jefferson favors weak central government and farming economy. -Hamilton favors strong central government and commercial economy.

6 D. Hamilton s Economic Plan -Hamilton wants to pay off national debts from the Revolution. -He also wants a national bank to print money, handle taxes. -James Madison and others say government lacks power to create bank. -Hamilton favors loose, Madison strict interpretation of Constitution. James Madison

7 E. The First Political Parties -Two-party system two political groups within the government. -Federalists favor Hamilton, want strong central government. -Democratic-Republicans favor Jefferson, want strong state governments.

8 F. The Whiskey Rebellion -Protective tariff import tax to encourage American production. -An excise tax on whiskey angered whisky producers. -Pennsylvania producers attacked tax collectors; federal militia responds with 13,000 men known as Whiskey Rebellion first use of armed force to assert federal authority.

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10 II. Challenges at Home and Abroad A. Addressing Foreign Affairs -French monarchy overthrown (1789); France at war with Britain (1793). -Federalists support Britain, Democratic-Republicans support France. -Washington keeps country neutral warns against alliances. -Pinckney s Treaty aka Treaty of San Lorenzo (1795) treaty with Spain which allows American expansion west of the Appalachians.

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12 B. Challenges in the Northwest -British still maintained forts in territory. -Battle of Fallen Timbers (1794) U.S. military defeats Native Americans.

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15 Painting of the 1795 Treaty of Greenville

16 C. Jay s Treaty -British evacuate Northwest Territory posts but continue fur trade didn t want to fight U.S. and the French Jay s Treaty (1794). -Did not settle Caribbean trade dispute U.S. ships did not have free passage in Caribbean; treaty barely passes Senate.

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18 III. Adams Provokes Criticism A. Parties and Sectionalism -Federalist John Adams becomes president 1796 election. -Democratic-Republican Jefferson becomes vice-president.

19 B. Adams Tries to Avoid War -France seizes U.S. ships bound for Britain to retaliate for U.S. treaty with Britain. -XYZ Affair low-level French officials (Adam s called X, Y, Z) demand bribe from Americans to see the French foreign minister. -Undeclared naval war U.S. and France seize each other s ships; Federalists want war Adams rejects war, smoothes things over with France.

20 The five headed monster: Depicting the French Directory Cinque-tetes, or the Paris Monster, Money, Money, Money!! The three men: U.S. representatives: Elbridge Gerry, Charles Pinckney, and John Marshall Cease bawling, monster! We will not give you six-pence!

21 C. The Alien and Sedition Act -Federalists curb critics of government, pass Alien and Sedition Acts: *Restrict citizenship, free speech; aimed at Democratic- Republicans. *Raise residency requirements (from 5 to 14 years), allow jailing or deportation. *Allow jailing or fining people expressing anti-government views.

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23 D. Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions -Jefferson, Madison organize state opposition in Kentucky and Virginia. -Nullification when a state invalidates laws it deems unconstitutional. -Nullification dies out with lack of support but was key issue in 1800 presidential election nullification comes up again in 1832.

24 Review Questions 1. The nullification theory declared that a had the right to declare a federal law invalid. 2. States promoted the concept of nullification. 3. The Act of 1789 stated that the federal courts are superior to state courts. 4. The nearly lead the United States into war with France. 5. The Acts restricted citizenship and freedom of speech. 6. The Virginia and Kentucky resolutions stated the concept of. Words: rights Judiciary Alien and Sedition XYZ Affair nullification state

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