Standard 2 Moving West!

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1 Standard 2 Moving West! The student will demonstrate an understanding of how economic developments and the westward movement impacted regional differences and democracy in the early nineteenth century INDICATOR 2.1

2 Enduring Understanding: Political conflict is often the result of competing social values and economic interests. Different perspectives based on differing interests and backgrounds led to political conflict in the antebellum United States Indicator USHC-2.1 Summarize the impact of the westward movement on nationalism and democracy, including the expansion of the franchise, the displacement of Native Americans from the southeast and conflicts over states rights and federal power during the era of Jacksonian democracy as the result of major land acquisitions such as the Louisiana Purchase, the Oregon Treaty, and the Mexican Cession

3 REMEMBER Land Ordinance of 1784 a settlement reaches 20,000 free people can be admitted to the Union Land Ordinance of land divided into 6 square mile townships. Sales would be made at $1 per acre. Northwest Ordinance of Divide the Northwest Territory into 3-5 states free adult males (60,000 total people)= a state and can be admitted to the union. Slavery is outlawed in the northwest territory.

4 Land Acquisitions Thomas Jefferson = $15 million Was it constitutional?????

5 Louisiana Purchase Napoleon Bonaparte $15 million = greatest land deal in US History Gave USA control of the Mississippi River to use as a way to transport goods through the port of New Orleans Provided more gov t owned land for purchase (Land Ordinance) Jefferson had misgivings about the purchase since he held a strict interpretation of the Constitution. However, he went forward with the purchase using the elastic clause. This set the precedent for future land acquisitions.

6 Westward Expansion New territories joined on equal basis as 13 colonies Nationalism was affected as Americans moved west The ideal of being a pioneer was the icon for Americans MANIFEST DESTINY - US stretch from Atlantic to Pacific Ocean Democracy spread as the property requirement was dropped in order to vote but, NOT for African- Americans Political campaigns became a form of entertainment

7 Exploration of the Louisiana Purchase

8

9 Find a water connection across the continent Lewis and Clark set out to find a water connection across the continent. May 14, 1804 Met Shoshone tribe = Sacagawea

10

11 Lewis & Clark s expedition Gone for two years September, 1806 = They made it to St. Louis Accomplishments = Discovered true course of Missouri River Our continent is wider than first thought Mapped passage through Rockies Discovered new plants Studied large # of animals & their habitats Larger # of Native American tribes

12 Foreign Affairs- President Thomas Jefferson British & French were at war and were seizing US cargo ships; British were kidnapping US sailors (IMPRESSMENTS); To avoid war, Congress passed law halting all trade between US & Europe. Embargo Act of The US stopped all trade with Europe; embargo hurt US manufacturers much more than it hurt Europe. Congress repealed the law in 1809.

13 President James Madison U.S. prohibited trade with Britain and France in 1809, but authorized it in 1810 if both countries accepted U.S. policy of neutrality. Britain still continued to impress (kidnap) U.S. Soldiers. War Hawks (Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun) pressed Pres. Madison to take military action. June 1, U.S. declares war on Britain

14 War of 1812 It was a war between America and Great Britain It was caused in part by disagreements over shipping and trade on the high seas It involved fighting in America and in Canada It ended in an American victory Francis Scott Key- Star Spangled Banner during the 25-hour bombing of Ft. McHenry

15 WAR OF 1812

16 James Monroe

17 Transcontinental Treaty of President James Monroe Purchased Florida and some western lands from Spain for $5 million This moved the boundary between Mexico & US to 42 degrees latitude & west to the Pacific Ocean

18 Transcontinental Treaty of 1818

19 Missouri Compromise 1819 Missouri applied for admission to the Union as a slave state. It was admitted as a slave state and Maine was admitted as a free state. Slavery was forbidden north and west of Missouri forever.

20 Monroe Doctrine The Monroe Doctrine President James Monroe declared that the America s were off limits to further European colonization= South America will be US sphere of influence.

21 President Andrew Jackson

22 Westward Expansion As more Americans continued to move west, more Native Americans were displaced Indian Removal Act, 1830 = All Native Americans in Southeastern USA had to move west of Mississippi to the Oklahoma territory (Pres. Jackson) Trail of Tears -- Education of Little Tree

23

24

25 Trouble starts in SC! Nullification Crisis Northern industries convinced Congress to pass laws charging HIGH tariffs on goods produced overseas This was done to protect American industries BUY AMERICAN! South Carolina called the tariff law passed in 1828 the Tariff of Abomination SC threatened to secede from the Union John C. Calhoun, VP & from SC, was torn

26 Trouble starts in SC! Support the national gov t or support SC??? Calhoun had the idea of Nullification Nullification means that states have the right to declare a federal law null & void He argued that states have the right to do this because they make up the Union President Andrew Jackson disagreed! In 1832, Congress passed another tariff! SC held a state convention declaring the tariffs of 1828 & 1832 unconstitutional

27 John C. Calhoun

28 Trouble starts in SC! President Jackson considered this an act of treason and sent a warship into Charleston Harbor By 1842, Congress passed laws reducing the tariffs, but hard feelings had already been caused state s rights vs. nat l gov t SC repealed its nullification & both sides claimed a victory

29 Andrew Jackson

30 What does the future hold??? There is a strain on relations between states and national government power?????? As more states are added to the Union, will there be enough Free States to get an amendment to the Constitution to abolish slavery? When issue of slavery arose it was agreed for every slave state, there would be a free state What about the economy of the Slave States?

31 Texas Revolution 1830 s = Texas was part of Mexico U.S. citizens were migrating to Texas Many Texans already resented being ruled by Mexico Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, President of Mexico 1835 = revolt by Texans

32 Santa Anna

33 Alamo Davy Crockett James Bowie Flag of the Alamo

34 Commander of the regular Texas Army William Barrett Travis, SC Davy Crockett Bowie Knife James Bowie

35 Battle Of the Alamo

36 Davy Crockett at the Alamo

37 Texas Revolution April 21, 1836 Sam Houston, Commander of Texas Army Remember the Alamo! Santa Anna was captured Was given freedom in exchange for removing Mexico s army from Texas Houston was elected President of the Republic of Texas

38 President John Tyler

39 President John Tyler Should USA annex Texas? It would be a slave state giving Democrats control of the House of Representatives 1844, Senate refused 1844 Democrats nominated James K. Polk for President = pro-slavery & pro-annexing Texas

40 President James K. Polk Polk announced US would no longer jointly control the Oregon territory with Great Britain He took it! Settled with Britain Fifty-Four Forty or Fight! Now Texas!!!!!

41

42 Mexican Cession Texas is the only state to enter the United States by treaty Balance of power in Congress???? Boundary dispute between Texas & Mexico (More of this story in Indicator 2.2) USA said it was the Rio Grande River Mexico said it was the Nueces River May 13, 1846 war began USA won!

43

44 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo 1847 Boundary set at the Rio Grande Mexico would sell California & rest of their land in the southwestern US to the USA For $18 million What about the issue of slavery?????

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