Why did the US want to claim small islands in the Pacific Ocean such as Midway Island and Wake Island?

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1 US History & Government Imperialism Why did the US create an empire in the late 19 th Century? Social: Economic: Political: Religious: Military: China Why did the US want to claim small islands in the Pacific Ocean such as Midway Island and Wake Island? The Europeans favored Spheres of Influence in China. What did this mean? What did policy did the US have towards China? Why? What event allowed Europeans and Americans to occupy China in 1900? Japan Who was Matthew Perry? How did Japan respond to Perry? How did the US respond to increasing power of the Japanese Empire?

2 Why was President Theodore Roosevelt awarded the Nobel Peace Prize? What was the Gentlemen s Agreement? Hawaii Who was Sanford Dole? Why did Dole and other plot to overthrow the Hawaiian monarchy? What happened to Hawaii after the revolution? Spanish-American War What were the long-term causes of the Spanish-American War? Economic: Political: Social: What were the immediate causes of the Spanish-American War?

3 What did the Teller Amendment state? What happened at Manila in the Philippines during the war? What happened as a result of the US attack on Cuba? What were the terms of the Treaty of Paris of 1898? What happened to the US as a result of this treaty? Why did the Secretary State, John Hay call the Spanish-American conflict a splendid little war? Arguments for Imperialism Arguments against Imperialism

4 Governing the new empire What happened in the Philippines after the gained this land in the Treaty of Paris of 1898? Why did the US grant the Philippines independence in 1946? What is the status of Puerto Rico today? Why did Cubans object to the Platt Amendment? Who was Walter Reed? Roosevelt Corollary What event led President Teddy Roosevelt to issue his Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine? What did the Roosevelt Corollary state? Identify three countries that the US militarily occupied in the early 1900s:

5 What was the purpose of the voyage of the Great White Fleet (1907-9)? Presidents Taft and Wilson How was President Taft s foreign policy different from that of President Teddy Roosevelt? What did President Wilson mean by the term Moral Diplomacy? Why did the US intervene in Mexico during the Wilson Presidency? Panama Canal Why did the US support Panama when it declared its independence from Columbia? What did the Hay Treaty do? Why was the Canal difficult to construct? What happened to the Panama Canal in the year 2000?

6 US History & Government Imperialism KEY Why did the US create an empire in the late 19 th Century? Social: Economic: Political: Religious: Military: Answer: Social Darwinism Answer: New technology; Need for markets for raw materials Answer: Manifest Destiny Answer: Missionary Spirit Answer: Growth of naval power China Japan Why did the US want to claim small islands in the Pacific Ocean such as Midway Island and Wake Island? Answer: To have ports for American ships to refuel to get to Asia The Europeans favored Spheres of Influence in China. What did this mean? Answer: Spheres of Influence was a policy of dividing China into areas in which only one of the major imperial powers had the right to trade. What did policy did the US have towards China? Why? Answer: The US favored the Open Door Policy allowing many countries access to trade in China. We favored this policy because this allowed for more trade for the US. What event allowed Europeans and Americans to occupy China in 1900? Answer: The Boxer Rebellion Who was Matthew Perry? How did Japan respond to Perry? Answer: Matthew Perry commanded ships that travelled to Japan to open the country for trade. Imperial Japan observed the military power of Perry s squadron and decided to quickly industrialize and develop a modern military How did the US respond to increasing power of the Japanese Empire? Answer: The US tried to prevent Japan from expanding into the Pacific Why was President Theodore Roosevelt awarded the Nobel Peace Prize? Answer: Roosevelt negotiated a peace treaty (Treaty of Portsmouth) that ended the Russo-Japanese War. What was the Gentlemen s Agreement? Answer: An agreement with Japan to prevent further Japanese emigration to the US Hawaii Who was Sanford Dole? Answer: Sanford Dole was an American plantation owner in Hawaii Why did Dole and other plot to overthrow the Hawaiian monarchy? Answer: Dole and other planters were unhappy because a tariff in 1890 put a tax on sugar imports to the US. This lowered the profits of sugar planters in Hawaii, so Dole and others overthrow Queen Liliuokalani who ruled Hawaii. What happened to Hawaii after the revolution? Answer: After the revolution, Hawaii became a US territory.

7 Spanish-American War What were the long-term causes of the Spanish-American War? Economic: Answer: Economic collapse of Cuba due to Spanish taxes Political: Answer: Jose Marti s independence movement Cuba Libre. Also, the desire of the US for more territory Social: Answer: Humanitarian concerns for the Cuban people, some of whom had been forced into concentration camps by the Spanish general Valeriano Butcher Weyler. What were the immediate causes of the Spanish-American War? 1. Answer: Yellow Journalism (William Randolph Hearst & Joseph Pulitzer) 2. Answer: De Lome Letter (Spanish ambassador called President McKinley weak) 3. Answer: Sinking of the Maine in Havana Harbor (Spain was blamed for sinking the Maine, an American ship. What did the Teller Amendment state? Answer: The Teller Amendment stated that we would not annex (add) Cuba to the US. What happened at Manila in the Philippines during the war? Answer: The Spanish fleet was destroyed at a battle in Manila harbor in the Philippines. What happened as a result of the US attack on Cuba? Answer: Teddy Roosevelt and his rough riders became war heroes, the US gained territory at Guantanamo Bay and the US also took Puerto Rico What were the terms of the Treaty of Paris of 1898? 1. Answer: Cuba becomes free and independent 2. Answer: The US gains the Philippines, Puerto Rico and Guam What happened to the US as a result of this treaty? Answer: The US now became an empire Why did the Secretary State, John Hay call the Spanish-American conflict a splendid little war? Answer: He stated this because with little effort and expense, the US gained significant territory Arguments for Imperialism 1. Alfred T. Mahan The Influence of Sea Power on History To be a world power, the US needed a strong navy which would require bases 2. US had a duty to care for poor, weak peoples 3. US needed colonies to compete economically 4. US would look weak if we did not conquer territory Arguments against Imperialism 1. An empire would be expensive 2. US should concentrate on problems at home 3. Non white people could not be assimilated into American society 4. An empire would bring more wars 5. It violated democratic ideas to annex land against the wishes of people who lived there Governing the new empire What happened in the Philippines after we gained this land in the Treaty of Paris of 1898? Answer: An insurgency (uprising) began against us because the people of the Philippines wanted to be independent, not part of the American empire. Why did the US grant the Philippines independence in 1946? Answer: We granted the Philippines independence in 1946 because we had promised the people their independence and we had just liberated the country from the Japanese Empire who invaded during WWII.

8 What is the status of Puerto Rico today? Answer: Puerto Rico is a commonwealth today it is a US territory, but it is not a state. Why did Cubans object to the Platt Amendment? Answer: The Platt amendment limited the independence of Cuba and granted the US military bases and the right to intervene in the country Who was Walter Reed? Answer: Reed was an American military doctor who successfully eradicated yellow fever in Cuba Roosevelt Corollary What event led President Teddy Roosevelt to issue his Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine? Answer: The Dominican Republic could not pay its debts to European powers and they were threatening to invade the country What did the Roosevelt Corollary state? Answer: If nations in Latin America were guilty of chronic wrong doing (if they did not pay their debts or had unstable governments), the use could invade and occupy them. Identify three countries that the US militarily occupied in the early 1900s: Answer: Cuba, Haiti, Dominican Republic, Nicaragua and Mexico What was the purpose of the voyage of the Great White Fleet (1907-9)? Answer: To show the power of the new US Navy to the countries of Europe and Japan. Presidents Taft and Wilson How was President Taft s foreign policy different from that of President Teddy Roosevelt? Answer: Taft believed in using economic pressure to influence foreign policy (Dollar Diplomacy) rather than military power favored by Roosevelt What did President Wilson mean by the term Moral Diplomacy? Answer: US foreign policy would be based on moral judgments about countries. Why did the US intervene in Mexico during the Wilson Presidency? Answer: The US sent troops in to chase the rebel Pancho Villa, who had crossed into US territory and killed Americans. The troops never caught Villa. Panama Canal Why did the US support Panama when it declared its independence from Columbia? Answer: We supported Panama, because we Panama would reward us with the right to build the canal once they got their independence. What did the Hay Treaty do? Answer: The Hay Treaty gave us the right to construct the Panama Canal Why was the Canal difficult to construct? Answer: It was technically difficult to construct and many workers died of yellow fever and malaria What happened to the Panama Canal in the year 2000? Answer: In 1977, President Carter signed an agreement to return the canal to the people of Panama in 2000.

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