Chapter 18. How well did Presidents Roosevelt, Taft, and Wilson promote progressive goals in national policies? Essential Question 18.

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1 Chapter 18 Essential Question How well did Presidents Roosevelt, Taft, and Wilson promote progressive goals in national policies? 18.1 President Theodore Roosevelt tames the trusts. Theodore Roosevelt was the first progressive in the White House. He was a strong president who believed in using his position to influence the nation. During his two terms in office, he expanded presidential power Three Progressive Presidents Theodore Roosevelt Promises a Square Deal After overcoming childhood illnesses. Teddy Roosevelt led a vigorous life, which included a great love of the outdoors. As president, he put millions of acres of wilderness under government protection. Here he is shown in Yosemite National Park, which he visited in His program of reform, known as the Square Deal, focused on regulating big business and protecting workers and consumers.

2 Taft Continues Reforms William Howard Taft was the second progressive president. Although Taft backed reform, he lacked Roosevelt's political skill and lost the support of many progressives. He later became chief justice of the United States, the job he wanted all along. Progressives wanted lower tariffs on imported goods. Lower tariffs would make foreign products less expensive for American consumers. They would also increase competition, so that American producers would have to lower prices. Big business favored high tariffs. In 1909, Taft agreed to sign the Payne-Aldrich Bill, which raised tariffs. The Election of 1912 In the 1912 election, Taft and Roosevelt divided the Republican vote. The result was victory for Woodrow Wilson, the Democrat. In this political cartoon, each candidate is represented by the animal that symbolizes his party.

3 Wilson Promises New Freedom As president, he set out to implement a national reform program that was called New Freedom. Wilson wanted to eliminate all trusts because he believed they were denying economic freedom to small businesses and ordinary citizens. He was unable to remove the trusts, but he did further limit their power. Among his most notable achievements were laws on banking and tariff reform and the creation of the Federal Trade Commission. Woodrow Wilson, the last progressive president, was a scholar and idealist. The president, he wrote in 1907, "is the only voice in national affairs. Let him once win the admiration and confidence of the country, and no other single force can withstand him, no combination of forces will easily overpower him." 18.3 Addressing the Effects of Industrialization Busting Trusts Standard Oil of California Continental Oil Company Standard Oil of Indiana Standard Oil of Nebraska Pierce Petroleum Standard Oil of Kentucky The Baby Standards Standard Oil of Louisiana Standard Oil of Ohio Standard Oil of New Jersey Atlantic Refining Standard Oil of New York Trustbusting broke large monopolies into many smaller, competing companies. This map shows how the Standard Oil Trust was divided into smaller companies, nicknamed the Baby Standards, in Each of the new companies took over Standard Oil operations in its assigned region of the country. Standard Oil was one of the biggest trusts to be broken up by a progressive president.

4 Protecting Consumers and Workers Two key laws were passed in 1906: the Meat Inspection Act and the Pure Food and Drug Act. In 1902, Roosevelt pressured coal mine owners and the striking United Mine Workers to submit to arbitration, a legal process in which a neutral outside party helps resolve a dispute. Under Taft, the Department of Labor established the Children's Bureau to "investigate and report upon all matters pertaining to the welfare of children." In 1916, Wilson signed the Keating-Owen Child Labor Act, which prohibited companies involved in interstate commerce from hiring workers under 14 years of age. Taft and Wilson also supported an eight hour workday. Under Taft, the eight-hour day became the rule for government employees. Wilson later helped secure the same benefit for railroad workers. Congress passed the Meat Inspection Act in 1906 to ensure that meat was safe for consumers. This law was prompted by reports that meat was often tainted by rat droppings and even poison. Federal inspectors made regular visits to meatpacking plants to enforce the law. Protecting the Environment The national park system expanded under progressive leadership. The first national park, Yellowstone, was established in The National Park Service was created in 1916, under Wilson, to manage and protect the park system. Some progressives supported preservation, the protection of wilderness lands from all forms of development. Other progressives supported conservation, the limited use of resources.

5 Conservationists believed that government should take a middle position between preservation and exploitation. They wanted to preserve some wilderness while also allowing some use of natural resources. In 1905, Roosevelt backed the creation of the U.S. Forest Service Reforming the National Government Reforming the Banking System Congress responded by passing the Federal Reserve Act in The Fed sets Monetary Policy by: Reserve requirements are the amount of money that member banks must keep on deposit. The more money a bank has to keep on deposit, the less money it has to lend to businesses and consumers. The Federal Reserve charges interest on the money it lends to member banks. The higher the interest rate charged by the Fed, the higher the interest rates member banks charge for loans. The Federal Reserve buys and sells government bonds to control the amount of money in circulation. A bond is a certificate promising to pay back borrowed money at a fixed time. When the Fed buys bonds, the money paid goes into circulation. When it sells bonds, the money borrowed comes out of circulation. The Federal Reserve Act, passed in 1913, established 12 regional banks around the country. These banks can loan money to private banks and thus help to stabilize the banking system. Reforming Taxes and Tariffs This is a copy of the first federal tax form, from The Sixteenth Amendment legalized the federal income tax. Progressives backed the tax as a way to eliminate tariffs. They also liked that it was a graduated tax, which placed higher taxes on those who could afford to pay.

6 Electing Senators Directly Progressives pushed Congress to propose the Seventeenth Amendment. Proposed in 1912 and ratified in 1913, the amendment required the direct election of senators by popular vote. This procedure gave average citizens more influence in the Senate. Legislating Morals: Prohibition Members of the Women's Christian Temperance Union march on Washington, D.C., in 1909 to present a petition supporting prohibition. Prohibition supporters believed that a ban on alcohol would improve society. Wilson eventually supported the measure, and it was ratified as the Eighteenth Amendment in Establishing Women's Suffrage Suffragists, Women who sought voting rights, faced many obstacles, including threats and harassment from angry men. However, women won the vote through ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment in 1920.

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